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Burlington Magazine 

for Connoisseurs 

Illustrated & Published Monthly 

January— June 19 19 












[References to sections which recur monthly are given at the end of this table.) 


An unpublished Flemish primitive. By Tancred Borenius 
The tessellated pavement of Umm Jerar. By O. M. Dalton 
The Eumorfopoulos collection — I. By Sir C. Hercules Read . 
For II see . 

III see ....■•• 

IV sec ........ 

Recent acquisitions for public collections — VII. By Roger Fry 

For VIII see .....•• 

X A SCC »*••**• 

A. scc ••••••• 

.A. 1 SCC .•••••• 

A. 1 1 SCC • •••«•• 

The Anime — notes. By F. M. Kelly 

Gothic painting in Scandinavian churches. By Aymer Vallance 

{February) 69 

{March) 100 

{June) 231 

• • • 

{February) $$ 

{February) 5 6 

{March) 121 

{April) 140 

{May) 165 





D. Howell Smith 


An icon illustrating a Greek hymn. By More Adey 

Recent acquisitions for public collections — VII. By Arthur Waley 

Recent acquisitions for public collections — VIII. By A. 

Recent acquisitions by the British Museum, 191 8 . 

Line as a means of expression in modern art {continued). By Roger Fry 

The Eumorfopoulos collection — II. By R. L. Hobson . 

Two pieces of Canadian ecclesiastical silver ..... 


Some enamels of the school of Godefroid de Claire — I. By H. P. Mitchell 

For II see {May) 165 

Illustrated books of Japan — IV. By Major J. J. O'Brien Sexton 

The Eumorfopoulos collection — III. By R. L. Hobson 

English furniture of the cabriole period. By H. Avray Tipping 

M. Larionow and the Russian Ballet. By Roger Fry 

Recent acquisitions for public collections — IX. By C. E. C. Tattersall 


Rembrandt's Monk Reading of 1 66 1. By Tancred Borenius . . . . 

Italian maiolica in provincial museums. By Bernard Rackham 
" Lombard Architecture ", by Arthur Kingsley Porter, a review — I. By Sir 
Martin Conway .... ....... 

For II see {May) 175 











1 12 


1 3 I 

APRIL (contd.) 

Recent acquisitions for public collections — X. By Aymer Vallance 
An early Christian mosaic at Deir Dakleh .... 
English furniture of the cabriole period. By H. Avray Tipping 
A Byzantine naval standard {circa 141 1). By Luigi Serra 






Recent acquisitions for public collections — XL By Charles Aitken . 

Some enamels of the school of Godefroid de Claire— II. By H. P. Mitchell 

John Baverstock Knight. By D. S. MacColl 

" Lombard Architecture ", by Arthur Kingsley Porter, a review — II. By Si 

Martin Conway .... ..... 

A long-case clock by Joseph Knibb. By Herbert Cescinsky . 

The Quatercentenary of Leonardo da Vinci. I — The Lady with the Ermine -. a 

composition by Leonardo da Vinci. By Dr. H. Ochenkowski . 
II — Leonardo as Anatomist. By Professor William Wright 


l 75 



Florentine painting before 1500. By Sir Claude Phillips 

Old English glasses with white spiral stems. By John Shuckburgh Risley, C.B 
A pre- Reformation English chalice and paten. By E. Alfred Jones . 
The George Eumorfopoulos collection — IV. By R. L. Hobson 
English furniture of the Cabriole period. By H. Avray Tipping 
A tapestry portrait of Princess DashkofF. By A. A. Polovtsoff and V. E 
Chambers ....... .... 

An Indian picture of Muhammad and his companions. By T. W. Arnold 



2 43 

Reviews (monthly, except March, May, June) ..... 
Monthly Chronicle : — 

The National Gallery (Roger Fry). Records in occupied countries (More 
Adey). The Felton Bequest Committee and the Trustees of the 
National Gallery of Victoria (More Adey). The Canadian War 
Memorials Exhibition (R. S.). Pictures by Walter Sickert at the 
Eldar Gallery (R. S.). Club of Friends of Asiatic art (X.) . {February) 

The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (D. S. M.). Dr. Gustavo Frizzoni 
(T. B.). Early American painters. Paintings and drawings by 
J. Marchand ; Carfax and Co. (R. S.) Messrs. William Griggs and 
Sons, Ltd. [Aprit) 

The royal collections at Buckingham Palace (G.). Exhibition of sculpture 
by Mestrovic at the Twenty-one Gallery (R. S.). Commendatore 
G. T. Rivoira (G. McN. Rushforth) . (/***) 

3 6 > 77> l S7 





MONTHLY SECTIONS (contd. page 

Letters and Notes : — 

Religion and Art (Ananda Coomaraswamy). Jan Lys (G. Frank Muller) 

(January') 4 1 

Recent additions to the Dublin Gallery (Brig.-Gen. R. J. Cooper). An 

oil painting by J. R. Cozens (C. J. Holmes) . {February) 81 

An unpublished Flemish primitive (Bernard Rackham). Mr. Fairfax 

Murray (D. S. MacColl) {March) 121 

War graves (Eric Gill). Salvage of works of art in Russia (A. Polovtsoff) 

5 (April) 158 

Mr. Fry on drawing— I (D. S. MacColl) . . . . . (May) 203 

Mr. Fry and drawing — II (D. S. MacColl). "Significant form"(Clive 

Bell) . V une ) 2 54 

Auctions (February, March, April, June) 82,122,162,257 

Publications received . . . {January, February, April, June) 42,82,162,258 




Annunciation, by unknown Flemish painter . 2 The Trinity, and other subjects, trom E. wall 

The tessellated pavement of Umm Jerar, from of RSda ; and The Crucifixion with attendant 

drawings and photographs by Capt. F. M. figures, from E. wall of Aal, Halhngdalen, 

Drake, R.E.— I — Architectural plan, two Norway 34 

photographs of detail 6 

II-Pencil sketches of detail . ... 7 FEBRUARY 

Mr. George Eumorfopoulos's collection— I— Ital.-Greek icon (Akatlmt Hymn) (Mr. Chas. 

Chinese bronze libation-vessel in form of a Johnstone Hope-Johnstone). . . . 44 

Scops owl— Three views . . . • 12 Scenes illustrating Hymn A— M . . . 47 

II— Do 13 Do- do. N-fl . 51 

French paintings from Dcgas's collection in the Tinted brush drawing from Tun - Huang, 

National Gallery— I— Roger el A ngclique, by c. 966 a.d. (Stein coll., Print Room, Brit. 

Ingres 17 Mus.) • • 54 

II— Portrait of Monsieur Norvins, half length, Eastern embroideries mostly on leather for the 

by Ingres 20 western market. — Wallets embroidered 

III— Portrait of Baron de Schwtler, full length, "Willm. Whitmore, Constantinople Ano. 

by Delacroix 2I 1676" ," Aleppo the 20th oj July anno Domini 

Examples of splinted armour— [a] Armour of 1688 ", " John Buckley ", arms of Pelham- 

Nicholas 111 of Sal m Neuburg, German, 1542 Holies, 1st D. of Newcastle; Yellow satin panel, 

(Vienna); [b] Half Armour of Duke of Alva, arms of Brydges empaling Willoughby . . 57 

1550-51, by D. Helmschmied (Vienna) ; [c] Contemporary drawings. — I — Nude woman, 

Armour of Giacomo de' Medici, Marquis of water col. and pastel, by Modigliani . . 63 

Melegnano (+1555), c. 1535 (Vienna) ; [d] II— Pencil, Nude woman, by Gaudier-Brzeska ; 

Armour of A.'Barbarigo (t 157O c. 1560 Portrait of Mile. G., by Modigliani . . 66 

(Vienna); [e] Suit, c. 1560 (Paris, G. 136); III— Ske'.ch, pencil, by Edw. Wolfe; Sketch, 

[f] Suit, c. 1560 (Paris, G. 137) ; [g] Anime, ink, by Nina Hamnett 67 

c. 1560, formerly attribute-1 to Berton de Han pottery from Mr. Geo. Kumoifopoulos's 

Crillon (Paris, G. 138) 28 collection.— Two lamps, Wine-jar, Thibetan 

Gothic paintings on boards in Scandinavian mastiff house-dog from a tomb . . .71 

churches — Canadian i8th-c. ecclesiastical silver.— Hanging 

The Dormition of Our Lady, dated 1494, from sanctuary lamp; Sacramental flagon by 

N. wall of Rada, Varmland, Sweden . . 31 Francois Ranvoyze ... . 75 


MARCH page 

I — Altar cross with enamels, 12th c. (V.-A. Mus.) . 84 

II — Enamels of the school of Godefroid de Claire, 

from the above (V.-A. Mus.) . . .88 

III — Enamels atlrib. to Godefroid de Claire, from 
the Stavelot triptych (Mr. J. Pierpoint 
Morgan, New York) 89 

IV — Enamels of the Hildersheim school, and 
engraved gilt-copper plaque of the Mosan school, 
all from the V.-A. Mus 93 

Utamaro's " Book of Shells," Plate 7, Seaiveeds 

and Shells 97 

Han pottery, from Mr. George Eumorfopoulos's 
collection. I — Above : Wellhead, Rectangu- 
lar stand, Hill-censer. Below : Hill-jar, 
Architectural model, Farm pen and shed 101 
II — Model af two-storeyed watch-tower. Figure 
holding bottle-shaped vase, physiognomy 
not Chinese, probably later than Han 
dynasty I0 4 

English mahogany tables of the cabriole period 
belonging to Mr. Percival Griffiths — X — 
Round flap dining table, c. 1730, and Side- 
table ivith breche violelte marble top, c. 1730 . 107 
XI — Railed tables : tripod with round top, c. 
1725, and oblong, with fretted rail, c. 1750 . no 

Designs by M. Larionow. I — Decors of " Baba 
Jaga", Costume of the cat in " Ktkimora", 
Coulisse for " La Soleil de Nuit" . . . 113 
II — Designs for "La Marche Funebre" and 
" Hisloires Naturelles " 116 

Carpet made by William Morris, " Redcar " 

design (V.-A. Mus.) 120 


A Monk Reading, by Rembrandt (1661) ; 32 in. x 

26 in. (M. Hjalmar Linder) . . . .124 

Italian maiolica — I — Bacile, Death of Actaeon 

(Holburne Mus., Ba!h) . . . .127 
II — Roundel, S. Francis with SS. Bonaveniura 
and Louis of Toulouse (City Art Gallery, 
Manchester) 130 

Lombard architecture — I — S. Maria in Valle 
(Tempietto), Cividale : Lunette of western 
door ; and marble sculpture from S. 

Salvatore, Brescia 135 

II — Baptistery of Calixtus, Cividale ; and Aosta 
Cathedral cloister ; sculptured panel . . 138 

Thirteenth-century embroidery, Opus Anglica- 

nam (British Mus.) 141 

An early Christian mosaic at Deir Dakleh . . 144 

English furniture of the cabriole period belonging 
to Mr. Percival Griffiths — XII — Mahogany 
tea or china table (c. 1745) and Mahogany 
drawing-table (c. 1750) .... 147 
XIII — Walnut card-table (c. 1720) and Walnut 
card-table (c. 1745) 150 

A Byzantine naval standard (c. 1411) (Monastery 

of S. Croce, Avellana) 153 


Satan Smiting Job. By William Blake (National 

Gallery, British Art) 164 


Some enamels of the School of Godefroid 
de Claire — V — Altar-cross decorated with 
enamels, Old Testament types of the Cruci- 
fixion, 1 2th century. By Godefroid de 
Claire (British Museum) .... 168 
VI — Above : detail from centre of the 
cross on plate. V — Below : detail of the 
Stavelot triptych, with enamelled medallion, 
The Baptism of Constantine. By Godefroid 
de Claire (Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, New 

York) 169 

John Baverstock Knight — Axbridge Vale, near 
Cheddar (2733) ; Teelbullagh from Knock- 
nacarry (2734) (National Gallery, British 

Art) 173 

Lombard Architecture — III— S. Ambrogio, Milan, 
pulpit in the nave ; S. Ambrogio, Milan, 
sculpture from west portal ; S. Pietro, 
Civate, stucco, south side of entrance . . 177 
IV — S. Ambrogio, Milan, the ciborium ; 
S. Pietro, Civate, back of the ciborium; 
S. Pietro, Civate, left side of the ciborium 180 
A long-case clock by Joseph Knibb . . .183 
The lady with the Ermine, a composition by 
Leonardo da Vinci— I — [a] The Lady with 
the Ermine, by Leonardo da Vinci (Czar- 
toryski Gallery, Cracow), [b] La Belle 
Ferronnicre engraved by Lacroix after (?) 
Boltraffio. [c] La Belle Ferronniere, by (?) 

Boltraffio (Louvre) 187 

II — [d] Head of the Virgin from The Adoration 
of the Magi, by Leonardo da Vinci (Uffizi). 
[e] Head of an Angel, by Leonardo da 
Vinci (Turin), [f] Portrait by Ambrogio 
de Predis (Ambrosiana). [g] The Emperor 
Maximilian I byAmbrogiode Predis (Vienna) 190 
Leonardo as Anatomist — I— Quaderni d'anatomia 1 95 

II 198 

III 201 


Florentine painting before 1500 — I — Virgin and 
Child with Saints, by Francesco Pesellino 

(Sir George Holford) 208 

II — Scene from the Legend of SS. Costnas and 
Damian, by Fra Angelico (National Gallery 

of Ireland) 211 

III — The Hunt, by Paolo Uccello (Ashmolean 

Museum, Oxford) ' 214 

IV — [a] The Coronation of the Virgin, ascribed 
here to Sogliani (Lady Wantage) ; [b] God 
the Father, by Masaccio ( Mr. Charles Ricketts 
and Mr. C. H. Shannon) . . . .217 
Old English glasses with white spiral stems — I 221 

II 224 

III 227 

Pre-Reformation English silver chalice and paten 

(Mr. H. Newton Veitch) . . . .230 
The George Eumorfopoulos collection — I — [a] 
Jar with chocolate-brown glaze, probably 
pre-T'ang ; [b] Three guardian figures— 
Yama, the God of Death, and two " earth - 
spirits " from T'ang graves . . . .233 

JUNE (contd.) PAGE 

II — [c] Female attendant and a horse, coloured 
glazes ; [d] A lady of rank, a girl on horse- 
back, and an attendant figure, unglazed, but 
touched up with pigments .... 236 

English furniture of the Cabriole period — XIV 
— Mahogany tripods and candlesticks, 
c. 1725 (Mr. Percival Griffiths) . . . 239 

XV — Mahogany tripod screens and candelabra 
stand (Mr. Percival Griffiths) . . . 242 

Tapestry portrait of Princess Dashkoff (Sir C. 

Hercules Read) 247 

Muhammad and his Companions, Indian miniature, 

probably early 17th century (Carfax, Ltd.) . 251 








SIR C. A. M. BARLOW, K.B.E., M.P. 











of "Onze Kunst") 
A. S. G. BUTLER, Lieut., r.a. 
K. A. C. CRESWELL, capt., r.f.c. 



MILTON GARVER, lieut. u.s.a. 













ROGER S. LOOM IS, U.S.A. army 

D. S. MacCOLL 








SIR C. H. READ, v.p.s.a. 









J. J. O'B. SEXTON, major 
S. S. SPRIGGE, m.d. 
R. C. WITT, c.b.e. 




TOTH from its artistic qualities and 
the problem of expertise suggested by 
it, unusual interest attaches to the 

fFlemish 15th-century picture of the 

'Annunciation, here for the first time 
reproduced by kind permission of the owner, a 
private collector in this country, by whom it was 
lately acquired in the London art market, no 
information being available as to the previous 
history of the panel. At first sight, the artist 
to whom, by preference to any other, one's 
thoughts turn before this picture, is perhaps 
Roger van der Weyden ; in the severely monu- 
mental disposition of the lines and masses, and the 
brightness and luminosity of the scheme of 
colour, a close affinity to the art of the great 
Brussels master is clearly seen ; but the character 
of the modelling, with its pronounced flatness, is 
unlike Van der Weyden, and the actual shades 
of the tints employed point also to an artistic 
individuality distinguishable from that master. 
Moreover, in the types of face and certain other 
details of form, there is much to remind one of 
Hugo van der Goes, whilst the drawing of the 

interior, with the steep perspective of the floor, 
and the window through which a stretch of 
wooded plain is seen, call to one's mind the 
architectural setting of the Maitre de Flemalle's 
two wings of a triptych in the Prado. Clearly we 
are here face to face with an artistic personality 
of the second half of the 15th century, to whose 
identity, for all his affinity to various other 
masters of the Flemish school, certain character- 
istics — notably the very personal bias apparent in 
the scheme of colour, dominated by the contrast 
between the pale blue of the Virgin's robe and 
the faint yellow of the Angel's— would seem to 
offer a very definite clue. Exactly who the 
painter is I must leave to the decision of those 
who have gone more deeply than I have into 
the questions of artistic identity in the Flemish 
primitive school. The main purpose of these lines 
is to draw the attention of students to this im- 
portant and hitherto unnoticed example, which — 
it should be added— is on the whole in excellent 
condition and absolutely pure and " unrestored ", 
though possibly it has lost some of its glazes 
through a somewhat drastic process of cleaning. 


HE article on the late 6th-century 
mosaic pavement of Shellal, S. of 
Gaza, by Capt. Martin S. Briggs, 
published in May of last year (Vol. 
xxxii, p. 185), has already intro- 
duced readers of The Burlington Magazine to 
a fine example of the tessellated floors produced in 
the Syrian area during the centuries preceding 
the Arab conquest. By the kindness of Capt. 
F. M. Drake it is now possible to reproduce on a 
somewhat larger scale the drawing of a second 
pavement published by him in the "Quarterly 
Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund" for 
July, with the addition of a few details from his 
sketch book. This pavement was discovered in 
1917, not long after the Shellal example, at a 
spot called Umm Jerar on the bank of the same 
watercourse, the wadi Ghuzzeh or wadi of Gaza, 
though some distance further west, and only four 
miles S.E. of the town. As at Shellal, it served 
to ornament the floor of a small church or 
chapel crowning a low hill, and was probably 
also near a frequented ford. The principal com- 
partments of the two mosaic floors approximate 
to each other in superficial extent ; their com- 
parative artistic value is rather difficult to deter- 
mine from water-colour drawings which differ 
considerably in style and feeling. Comparisons 

are what they are, and in the present case excep- 
tionally perplexing, since each artist appears to 
have seen the rival pavement and to have been 
instantly convinced of the superiority of his own. 
Capt. Briggs says of the work at Umm Jerar that 
it is smaller and less refined in detail than that 
with which it was his own fortune to deal ; 
Capt. Drake affirms that the pavement of Shellal 
is outclassed by that of Umm Jerar alike in 
beauty, workmanship, and size. In the absence 
of photographs upon a large and equal scale, and 
of fuller descriptions than any yet provided, we 
must form our own conclusions on the evidence 
before us, which seems at least to justify the 
assumption that the mosaics are not far removed 
from each other in their date 1 . 

1 The tesserae which form the Umm Jerar pavement are of 
imported marble, like those at Shellal, where the colours were 
brown, yellow, black, white and various shades o( red, with a 
green compared by Capt. Briggs to malachite ; the greens at 
Umm Jerar are considered by Capt. Drake to be of vitreous 
paste, an unusual material in a floor destined to be trodden by 
many feet, and as a rule employed only upon walls. The 
variety of the marbles permits fine gradations of tone and a 
rich scheme of colour unattainable at the same period in the 
West, where marble from the Mediterranean countries was no 
longer easily procured, and conditions, economical and social, 
were adverse to the prosperity of the mosaic art. There is no 
question here of the use of inferior substitutes ; the sea was 
open to Byzantine shipping, and the resources of the islands 
and of Greece supplied all that the craft required. 

Thk Bvelisgion Magazine, No. 190. Vol. XXXIV— January 1919. 

The mosaics are disposed in panels correspond- 
ing to the parts of the church which they adorned. 
The largest occupies the nave, and is flanked by 
two narrower compartments in the two aisles 
more simply decorated with diapers. The narrow 
tranverse panel before the eastern apse is, as its 
place demands, the most ornate of all, and has 
among its figures subjects symbolic of the 
Eucharist. Smaller panels are of less impor- 
tance. Fragments with geometrical designs are 
seen on the north side ; on the south, projecting 
eastward of the apse, is a complete small pave- 
ment, enclosed in a rich foliated border, and 
apparently once covering the floor of the 
diakonikon. In considering all this work we 
are impressed even more than is commonly the 
case with the affinity between mosaics and the 
carpets from which they probably descend ; this 
is especially marked in the nave-mosaic, where 
the enclosed field, with its plain diaper of formal 
leaves and well proportioned border, suggests at 
the first glance the work of the carpet-weaver's 
loom. The designs are appropriate to their 
purpose. We feel that we have in this decoration 
something more perfectly adapted to its end than 
the mythologic groups of the earlier Roman style, 
which transgress the limitations of the art as 
fatally as, for example, the later mosaics of San 
Marco at Venice, compared with ancient and 
more formal work. If we more narrowly regard 
the subjects represented, we note the intermingled 
naturalism and symbolism characteristic of 
Christian ornament at this period. A lively 
interest in birds and beasts had always flourished 
from the Valley of the Nile to that of the 
Euphrates ; but from Ptolemaic times this was 
stimulated and informed by the natural history 
of scientific Alexandria ; and when the new 
religion rejected all pagan mythologic figures 
but the few (Orpheus, Psyche and the like), 
which could be made to serve as Christian 
types, an ordered wealth of animal motives was 
ready at hand to supplant the banished gods. 
The zoologic character of East Christian orna- 
ment after the 4th century is largely explained 
by these causes, to which, for instance, we may 
ascribe the invasion of early illuminated manu- 
scripts by birds and quadrupeds perched upon 
the arches of Eusebian canons or crowded round 
the bases of the columns underneath. But since 
with the lapse of time the church became more 
and more the chief patron of all art, symbolic 
creatures generally find a place amid the natural- 
istic forms, though they no longer predominate, 
as in the first centuries after Christ. Thus here 
at Uinra Jerar we see in the panel before the apse, 
centrally placed as befits a spot near the altar, the 
symbolic peacocks flanking a basket of grapes, 
while in the outside squares to right and left a 
bat and a water-bird of stilted gait assert the 

secular spirit. A like opposition is observed in 
the subjects of the two lower outside squares. 
In that to the left is an ordinary bird. But on 
the right is seen a bird with radiate nimbus, 
apparently nested among sticks in a chalice, and 
perhaps representing the phcenix, symbol of the 
Resurrection ; if so, the chalice, by a kind of 
mystical substitution, would replace the altar 
upon which, according to the Physiologus, the 
sacred bird burned itself in the city of Heliopolis. 
The subject, treated in this manner, is, if 
not unknown, at least exceedingly rare. The 
phcenix, though well established in the literature 
of early Christian symbolism, is but moderately 
conspicuous in art even in its more familiar 
association with the palm tree, but seems more 
likely here than the dove, the only plausible 
alternative. For, in the first place, the slender 
neck is undovelike, and in the second, to 
suppose the dove nesting in the bowl of a 
chalice would be an over quaint conceit, more 
suited to the fancy of our metaphysical 
poets of the 17th century than to that of 
early Christians. The animal art of the mosaic 
pavements, whether symbolic or direct, com- 
pels our admiration by virtue of its truth and 
vigour ; it is full of life, a great quality when it is 
remembered that mosaics were copied from stock 
designs, and not directly inspired by nature. 
Before leaving this part of the subject we may 
note a detail suggesting an influence from Persia. 
The ribbons which flutter from the necks of the 
doves flanking the chalice filled with grapes in 
the upper border are just such streamers as the 
Sassanian artist attaches to the limbs of beasts, 
divinities and men. 

A few remarks may be added on the geometrical 
and conventional ornament of the panels. We 
see here guilloche and narrow scroll borders 
repeating classical designs, side by side with 
methods of framing single figures introduced in 
rather later times. Among the latter are the 
systems of intersecting circles round the pea- 
cocks and basket in the upper panel, and the 
circles and squares interconnected by running 
loops bordering the larger panel below. 1 Features 
of this kind appear as early as the 4th century 
in the mosaics of Sta. Costanza at Rome. They 
had become general in decorative sculpture and 
mosaic in the 6th century, and are found in the 
frescoes of Bawlt in Egypt and in the well-known 
MS. of Dioscorides at Vienna. Other mosaics of 
Palestine present examples of their use, as, for 
instance, the well-known floor with Orpheus at 
Jerusalem, but more particularly a pavement dis- 
covered on the Mount of Olives in 1893, where 
the whole field is covered by a network of such 
linked circles and squares, most of which hold 

1 [These details are more clearly seen in the reproductions of 
Capt. Drake's pencil diawings than of his architectural plan.] 

$ ,s 

The tessellated pavement, of (?) about the middle of the 6th c, unearthed in 1917 at Umm Jerar, S.E. of Gaza, from a 
coloured plan, with details from photographs, all by Capt. F. M. Drake, R.E. 

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Details of Ihe Umm Jerar pavement, from sketches by Capt. F. M. Drake, R.E. 

isolated birds ; this scheme of framing is cha- 
racteristic of the Christian East, and survived 
into the later Byzantine periods. Attention may 
further be drawn to the foliated border of the 
diakonikon, since it well illustrates the wide dis- 
semination of favourite designs in post-classical 
times. This identical border is found as far apart 
as Palestine (in the above-mentioned Orpheus 
mosaic) and the North African Byzantine province 
now included in the French colonial dominions, 
where it occurs on a tomb of martyrs at Enfida 3 ; 
further instances of such identity in territories 
widely separated from each other might readily 
be adduced. Other points of ornamental detail 
might call for comment were this the place for 
discussion of such detailed matters. Two only can 
be here noticed. The first concerns the fret-like 
designs in some of the circular compartments 
on which something is said below ; the second 
relates to the use of diaper ornament covering 
the whole field, as we see it in several panels of 
the Umm Jerar pavement. The practice of sur- 
rendering all the central space to a mere repeating 
pattern without salient features admittedly reached 
its climax in Mohammedan art. But the super- 
session of the principle that a design should have 
a centre to which all else must stand in a sub- 
sidiary relation was a very gradual process which 
began long before the 6th century of our era ; for 
an early example, though doubtless not the earliest 
of all, the mosaics of Sta. Costanza may again be 
quoted, where diapers are found in the annular 
vault round the church ; even the floor mosaics 
of the imperial Roman epoch show tendencies in 
this direction. It is therefore unsafe to assume 
that a mosaic in which diaper is freely used must 
necessarily be later in date than one in which this 
kind of ornament does not appear, and there 
is no reason to regard the Umm Jerar mosaic as 
posterior to that from Shellal upon this ground. 
The use or rejection of formal diaper may well 
have been a matter of individual taste in the 
workmen employed. 

The mosaic pavements of the Christian East, 
like the illuminated MSS., illustrate many of the 
motives and schemes of ornament which are of 
special interest as having been transmitted west- 
ward, notably to the Frankish empire, in the 
centuries immediately following the barbarian 
invasions. Umm Jerar is less conspicuous in this 
regard than Shellal. But the patches of fret- 
pattern constrained into the circles in the border 
of the largest panel recall earlier examples from 
the Syrian region of revolutionary treatment 
applied to the regular Greek fret ; such are details 
of ornament in the early Frankish Gospels of 
Godescalc and in Irish decorative art. The 
border of the Shellal mosaic, a band of fret 
spaced so as to alternate with retangles contain- 
2 E. H. Freshfield, Celiac Trichorae, Vol. n (1918), p. 14). 

ing birds and other motives, belongs to a type 
familiar in the decorative sculpture, wall painting 
and illumination of Syria and Egypt. But we 
find the same style of border copied by the early 
Frankish illuminators, whose constant depend- 
ence upon East Christian designs is proved by 
other and more considerable loans ; an example 
occurs in the 8th-century Gospels of S. Medard, 
a book which, like the Gospels of Godescalc, is 
specially important for evidences of oriental in- 
fluence. Finally it may be remarked that the 
treatment of the fret from Shellal as if it were of 
ribbon set on edge (the so-called "ribbon fret" 
so popular in the West during the earlier Middle 
Ages), already occurs in the 3rd century frescoes 
of a catacomb at Palmyra, while the crossing of 
the lines in such a manner as to suggest a swastika 
is of frequent occurrence in the early art of the 
Christian East, alike in Syria and Egypt. 

An inscription on the Shellal mosaic gives its 
date, reckoned by the era of Gaza, as A.D. 561-562. 
In the above notes it has been throughout implied 
that the present example is of much the same 
period, because the style and details of its orna- 
ment correspond with those found in other work 
of the time. The existence of fine workmanship 
at such a date in regions now deserted and remote 
need excite no surprise. While the empire in the 
West was distracted by civil war and barbaric 
invasion, the Byzantine provinces enjoyed im- 
munity down to the 7th century. There peace 
and patronage, the two conditions essential to a 
slow and costly art, were both continuously pre- 
sent ; the frontiers of Syria remained un violated 
until the Persian inroad at the beginning of the 
7th century, while throughout the Church acted 
as the best type of patron — the type which does 
not die. The tessellated pavements of Madeba 
beyond the Jordan, a place remarkably rich in floor 
mosaics, are for the most part of the 6th century, 
and it seems clear that the last hundred years or so 
before the coming of the Arabs were marked by 
prosperity in most parts of the country. It is 
thought by some that even after the victory of 
Islam good work continued to be produced for 
many years, since the first Moslem rulers showed 
little fanaticism, and even took pleasure in mosaic 
art themselves. We need not, however, come 
down so far in the case of the Umm Jerar pave- 
ment, which may perhaps be placed about the 
middle of the 6th century. 

It is pleasant to indulge the hope that with the 
new settlement of the country and the ultimate 
excavation of such Byzantine ruins in Northern 
Sinai as those visited by Messrs. Woolley and 
Lawrence, and by the Austrian traveller Musil, 
yet more pavements may come to light 3 . Although 
the area south of Beersheba has always been 

8 [We hope that drawings by Capt. Drake of a third mosaic, 
discovered during the advance, will reach us shortly. — Ed.] 

poor in water, it seems, in Justinian's time, to 
have supported places of some size on the line 
between Gaza and Akaba ; their existence is 
probably to be explained by the important trade 
in silk, much of which is believed to have entered 
Byzantine territory by this route. In any case, 
the remains include ruins of numerous churches ; 
and if small chapels by the fords of the Wadi of 
Gaza were furnished with floors of such high 
quality, we may expect at least equal work on the 

site of townships whose inhabitants profited by an 
important carrying trade. Meanwhile it is matter 
for much congratulation that our armv of the 
East should have contained not only many men 
interested in evidences of an ancient civilisation 
and desirous of their preservation, but also a 
Captain Briggs and a Captain Drake, endowed 
with the accomplishment and the enterprise which 
has enabled us so soon to share the privilege of 
these discoveries. 



HE unfolding of the story of the real 
art of China before the eyes of the 
western world has evolved numerous 
problems that will take many a long 
and studious year for their solution. 
In some ways the Chinese puzzle is not unlike 
that of the early ages of our own civilisation. 
There we are able to find a place in European 
chronology for an implement of the Bronze age, 
undated in Britain, but so closely related to 
others of the more advanced civilisations of 
the Mediterranean that the comparative method 
easily finds its place. By this and similar methods 
the whole chronology of pre-history in our islands 
has been built up. In China we are at once met 
by the real difficulty that in hardly any instance 
is the buyer furnished with the story of the 
finding of any relic of art, and thus has no 
indication beyond its inherent artistic qualities 
by which he can assess its age. This is a 
serious matter, more so in China perhaps than 
elsewhere, and until explorations are undertaken 
by competent persons and careful records are 
kept of the details of every find, and the asso- 
ciated groups are kept rigorously apart, we shall 
make but little progress in the accurate dating 
of early Chinese products. The difficulties are 
greater in China than in the West, inasmuch as, 
apparently from the most ancient times of which 
we know anything, the cult of the antique has 
been a ruling passion. In its modern guise it is 
very clear and fortunately as easily detected. 
The bronzes of the 15th century, for example, are 
much esteemed, and the number of such pieces 
bearing the Siouen-te date but made in the 
18th century must be legion. And so it has been 
for the past two thousand years, the Chinese 
virtuoso ever demanding close reproductions of 
the art of his forefathers. Of these, it is only 
reasonable to believe that a proportion were 
made with intent to deceive the native expert, 
and if they had success with him, the unlucky 
western buyer would stand but a poor chance. 
Thus, for no other reasons than these, carefully 


organised exploration is the only remedy, where- 
ever antiquities are found in the earth. In the 
case of bronzes this is more especially true, from 
the extreme competence of the Chinese in all 
metallurgical operations, enabling them to imi- 
tate all the appearances of extreme antiquity. 
That the confiding Western collector buys and 
cherishes many such reproductions there can be 
little doubt, but he would be a bold man who 
would undertake to separate the sheep from the 
goats except in rare or very obvious cases. Sober 
reflection leads one to question such attributions 
of antiquity, merely as an abstract proposition, 
while experienced travellers in China bring more 
direct criticism to bear. At the best an 
atmosphere of doubt and scepticism is created, 
and will never be dispelled but by the evidence 
of the spade. 

Saddening thoughts of this type, however, can 
be dismissed at times when one is confronted 
with a work of art whose qualities are inde- 
pendent of age or country. Such pieces are 
rarely found, but when they occur they insist 
upon recognition and all doubts vanish. 

That the little figure of an owl from Mr. 
Eumorfopoulos's collection, intended as a libation 
vessel, and shown in the Plates, belongs to this 
small class there can be no room for question. 
Without exception, every collector or amateur 
who has seen it has fallen an instant victim to 
its charms, so potent is the grip it lays upon 
every understanding mind. It bears the same 
relation to the more usual Chinese bronze that a 
head by Scopas or Praxiteles would bear to a 
bust of Hadrian. Such is the immediate effect, 
and analysis of its artistic structure serves only to 
emphasise it. Half convention and half natural- 
istic, the two parts are so subtly blended as to 
produce what is essentially a bird, with every 
bird-like quality 1 , standing with a kind of im- 
pudent force, which while it is expressed in every 
line of the creature, is perhaps more clearly 
brought out in the sturdy legs that support it so 

1 The Natural History Museum has determined that it is a 
Scops owl (Otns stictonotus). 



















satisfactorily. Satisfaction is, in fact, the word 
that may be applied, not only to the beholder but 
to the bird himself. Every view gives ample proof 
of the artist's success in showing us a creature 
entirely content with itself and its appearance, 
and in all respects full of vitality. This last 
quality is stronger in the bronze itself than in the 
plate, from the head being loose and capable of 
adjustment at any angle, as is seen from its various 
poses in the plates. It is but rarely that the lid 
and vessel are found together. 

Almost the whole surface is covered with orna- 
ment, in greater or less relief. The main lines of 
the wings are outlined by a snake whose tail forms 
one of the main feathers of the tail of the bird. 
The head is within a spiral on the bird's shoulder 
and is hardly snake-like, being furnished with two 
curved horns. The whole surface is covered with 
a fret design, each fret being coiled upon itself 
and without intersecting lines. There are remains 
of an oxide on these that may indicate that 
this rich surface pattern was originally inlaid 
with other metal. On the breast is the common 
design of a kind of lion mask spread out. As a 
piece of bronze casting it leaves little to desire, 
the average thickness of the body being about 
fs of an inch, and the core was evidently made 
with great care, such small projections as the ears 
being hollow. The whole surface has oxidised 
considerably, the design on the breast being there- 
by much destroyed. The legs still show signs of 
ornament, and may well have been plated with 
silver. The colour of the surface, while in the 
main green, shows great variety of tint ; where it 
has changed into malachite it becomes a bright 
glistening gieen, while small siliceous pebbles are 
embedded in the oxide nearly everywhere, notably 
at the backs of the ears and under the claws. This 
is a slight clue as to the kind of place in which the 
bronze has lain for so many centuries — clearly a 
sandy spot with water near by, perhaps the bed of 
a stream. 

It is singular that in none of the Chinese works 
on ancient collections is any figure of a bird of this 
kind, and in existing collections there is but one 
that is of the same type. This is in the collection 
of Baron Sumitomo of Osaka, figured in " Kokka" 
(No. 336, May 1918, 8§ in. high). It is there 
described as one of the gems of the owner's 
collection, and, on the analogy of a terra-cotta 


•ITHOUT knowing the practical 

bird in the Imperial University in Tokio, is attri- 
buted to the Han dynasty. Except as regards the 
feet and tail, the Sumitomo owl is of the same 
general design as Mr. Eumorfopoulos's, but singu- 
larly wanting in spirit and vitality. The feet and 
tail are both conventions and combine to support 
the bird. Thus the first aspect is tame and 
unnatural, having none of the animation and 
bird-like character of our specimen, where the 
naturalistic quality is so much enhanced by the 
skilful modelling of the bird's sturdy legs. 

Another bird must be mentioned, though it 
belongs to a remotely different class. This is the 
"eagle" belonging to Mrs. Eugene Meyer 2 . It 
has more the appearance of a parrot, but being at 
any rate a bird and attributed by the committee 
to the late Chou dynasty it must be mentioned 
here. An unbiased comparison of the three 
birds makes it very clear that neither Baron 
Sumitomo's nor Mrs. Eugene Meyer's can have 
any but the remotest connection either in date or 
in artistic quality with that of Mr. Eumorfopoulos. 
This last stands apart in unquestioned supremacy, 
and up to now without a rival. Its date is at 
present a problem. One learned Chinese 
authority sets it down as Shang, " though the 
style of such things must have continued at any 
rate into the early Chou centuries." We have 
seen that Baron Sumitomo's claims only to be 
Han, while Mrs. Meyer's, evidently by far the 
most recent of the three, is set down as late Chou. 
Wherever the truth may lie in these very con- 
flicting dates, one thing may be taken as sure 
and that is that in the owl of Mr. Eumorfopoulos 
we have an example of the finest period of 
Chinese bronze work. 

[P.S. — It may not be out of place to call 
attention to an article in the " Museum Journal " 
of the University of Pennsylvania for June 1918. 
It contains an interesting account of two early 
China bronze vases attributed to the Chou dynasty, 
and bearing ornament of an early type. The 
writer, Mr. C. W. Bishop, has some interesting 
speculations on the origin of Chinese bronze 
culture, deriving it from Siberia about 3000 B.C., 
a date that at first sight seems a good deal too 

2 Exhibition of Early Chinese Pottery and Sculpture. 
Metrop. Mus. of Art, New York, 1916, No. 340. 

difficulties which may have arisen 
in arranging the display of these 
recent additions to our National 
collection, one may be doing in- 

justice to the authorities, but I confess to a feeling 
of disappointment at the general appearance of 
Room 19, where they are now hung. For, in 
fact, it is a very long time since the National 
Gallery has been so much enriched as in the last 


few years, partly by the Layard Bequest and more 
recently by purchases from the Degas sale ; and 
yet crowded as the pictures are in a small room, 
with but little design in the hanging, they do not 
produce the effect which they might. The 
primitives alone would have admirably filled this 
small gallery, and given adequate space for their 
display. However, the present arrangement is 
only temporary. I allude to it chiefly to deprecate 
any sense of disappointment which may be felt 
at this extremely important addition to our 
artistic treasures. 

For, in fact, this room contains two or three 
pictures which are likely to be recognised in time 
as amongst the finest in the whole National 
collection. To begin with the primitives — the 
Masaccio, already published in The Burlington 
Magazine (Vol. XX, p. 70, November 191 1), is 
one of the supreme masterpieces not only of the 
Italian renaissance but of all time. It re- 
affirmed for the 15th century that standard of 
design which Giotto had posited once for all, for 
Florentine art, a standard which the Florentine 
alone of the Italian schools never quite lost sight 
of, though it was but rarely that even they 
attained to it so completely and with such a pure 
intensity of form as is here seen. 

Of the Venetians, until Giorgione realised the 
idea, only Gentile Bellini had fitful and uncertain 
glimpses of it. One can guess at something of 
that formal completeness in the planning of the 
contour of his portrait of the Sultan, though one 
has only the contour to go by, since every square 
millimetre of the surface seems to have been 
repainted beyond recognition. It was probably an 
utter wreck before some enterprising dealer took 
it in hand, so that no restoration would be 
possible. In his big composition of the Adoration 
of the Magi he is anything but Florentine. He 
follows the purely picturesque and descriptive 
methods of his father, Jacopo Bellini, spreading 
his figures in vaguely rhythmic but unco- 
ordinated grouping along the whole length of 
his too panoramic canvas. Nearly all Carpaccio's 
most pleasing notions are implicit here, even to the 
romantic motive of distant sunlit sea and vaporous 
mountain range. The picture is dark and heavy 
in colour, and was probably painted too thinly on 
a dark ground so that by now the lighter tones 
stand out discordantly. As a whole it is a dull 
but curious failure, but here and there its detailed 
forms reveal the great draughtsman that Gentile 
undoubtedly was. The Virgin is a splendid figure 
and hardly less beautifully characteristic is the 
man to the extreme left. 1 

The Bramantino Adoration is a charming picture 
and full of the oddly personal quality of this 
derivative painter ; for he was both an imitator 

1 Reproduced in The Burlington Magazine, Vol. xxix, p. 140 
(July 1916). 


and a personality. It was done at the moment 
when the delightfully naive painter of the Cologne 
picture first tried on Mantegna's cothurnus. It 
is essentially a theatrical treatment, but in a vein 
so stately and austere, as to be really impressive 
in spite of its fundamental thinness and want of 
imaginative grasp of form. 

For the rest, the primitives, with the exception 
of the Pesellino altarpiece, the little Parentino 
(reproduced in our last number), and the big 
Montagna (which, however, is inferior to the 
examples we already possess), are by quite minor 
and negligible artists. 

Coming to later masters, a big Palma Vecchio 
does little to help the foundering reputation of 
that tiresome painter. On the other hand, the 
minute head of a saint by El Greco is superb. It 
is perhaps the only work here by a really great 
colourist, and its dull harmony of greyish red 
flesh tints, blue grey and dull indigo is felt with a 
peculiar depth and intensity. It makes one regret 
more than ever that we were not fortunate enough 
to acquire the great El Greco that was sold for a 
comparatively modest sum at the Degas sale. 

The Masaccio and El Greco apart, the great 
interest in our new acquisitions centres in the 
19th century French school, hitherto so scandal- 
ously unrepresented in England. At last we have 
some works by Ingres to add to the one example 
which the Lane collection so recently supplied. 
The Portrait of Monsieur Norvins is not perhaps 
as interesting in design as some of the other portraits 
that belonged to Degas, but it has the great advan- 
tage of being in perfect condition, which is by no 
means always the case with Ingres's paintings 
[Plate]. For Ingres the colour is unusually 
harmonious and rich — an easily achieved harmony 
no doubt, of warm black and dull reds, but 
definitely a harmony. The idea of making the 
curtain almost the same colour as the wall is a 
subtlety that surprises one in Ingres. But it is 
the design of the mask and the subtle compulsion 
of the features within it that will make this 
picture so invaluable an object of study for 

But, perhaps, the greatest delight of the collec- 
tion is the little Roger and Angelica, [Plate]. 
It is strange to me that Ingres has ever been 
accepted as a great master, seeing how carefully 
he hides his amazing beauties beneath a repellent 
exterior. I can imagine many people being too 
much shocked at this tea-tray surface, so licked 
and polished is it, so tight and dry, ever to 
penetrate to the surprising felicity and originality 
of the design. The colour, no less than the sur- 
face quality, is calculated to repel at first sight, 
with its dirty, yellowish, grey green and faded 
terra-cottas, its general dowdiness and insipidity. 
But even here, if one can never get a sensual 
satisfaction there is a kind of intellectual delight 

Rogei el Angeliqiie, by Ingres, oil on canvas, [8f x 15^" (National Gallery) 

Portrait of Monsieur Norvins, by Ingres, 38A" x 31" (National Gallery) 

Portrait of Baron Schwiler, by 

(National Gallery) 

Eugfcne Delacroix, signed, oil on canvas, 90 £" x 59 

in the recognition of a definite purpose and 
deliberate plan. And always the calculation is 
to lead up to, or, let us say, not to distract from, 
the astonishing discovery of the design — this 
unexpected balance of two entirely dissimilar 
masses about a central void, the endless corre- 
spondences and countersigns that make up their 
diverse symmetry. It is one of the rarest, 
strangest devices for attaining a balanced unity 
that ever artist hit upon, and it has that inevit- 
ability, that compactness and resistance, that only 
great designs possess. 

Beside Ingres, how Delacroix [Plate] 
" dates " ! One never thinks about the Empire, 
before Ingres ; before Delacroix's portrait of Baron 
de Schwifer, one thinks at once of 1830, of 
Werther, of de Musset, of the whole delightful 
and ephemeral intoxication of Romanticism. And 
yet it is a splendid Delacroix, one of his best 
works. I understand a little, only a little I fear, 
before this, of what Delacroix has meant to so 
many French artists who would never have dared 
to compare themselves with him, but whom we 
now acclaim as greater successors. Certainly it is 
understood as colour ; every note in it has its 
sentimental intention, from the pearly tones of 
the diaphanous hand — a masterly piece of painting 
— to the twilight blues of the distance and the 
morbid violets of the exotic flowers, and perhaps 
most of all to the beautiful coolness of the blacks. 
Certainly the effect is realized, the intensity and 
sensibility of the face, the elegant melancholy of 
the figure and the " poetical " charm of the land- 
scape ; but it is through its associations that the 
appeal is made, as description and evocation, not 
as creative form. Still here we have at last Dela- 
croix indeed, and for that we must be thankful ; 
no one can understand the movements of 19th 
century art without constant reference to his 
influence. Indeed, with Delacroix on the one 
hand and Ingres on the other, we can almost 


Y purpose in the following notes is 
to draw attention to a variety of 
defensive body-armour of which 
the Earl of Pembroke's " Mont- 
^morency " suit ' is a good example ; 
I mean what is generally known as " splinted " 
armour, that is armour composed of a series of 
overlapping strips of metal ("splints" or "lames") 
riveted either to one another or to underlaid 

1 In a controversy that arose in 1917 touching the "Wilton 
suits", the disputants on either side, as if by common consent, 
focussed practically all attention upon this suit. The harness 
purporting to have been taken from the Due de Montpensier 
received but scanty notice. 

calculate the trajectory of French for fifty 

One other French picture is of extreme interest 
and beauty — the little early Corot, a masterpiece 
of design which to a superficial glance might pass 
for any charming rendering of the Roman Cam- 
pagna, but which is also something altogether 
rarer and more important. Corot was not always 
happy, even in those early years when he was a 
serious and inspired artist, as witness the little 
picture of the Lane Collection of the same date, 
which has no merits but those of descriptive 
observation. But here Corot is at his very best, 
and that was so good that it remains one of the 
mysteries of psychology that he should ever have 
become the fluffy sentimentalist who has been the 
delight of the innocent millionaire. 

The Manets scarcely demand much attention. 
One is a hurried sketch, inchoate and undis- 
tinguished in design, with a certain charm of 
colour ; the other is a fragment of a big com- 
position, which Degas spent years in trying to 
piece together. The composition represented the 
execution of the Emperor Maximilian. The 
dealers, finding it unsaleable, cut it up into a 
number of pictures which they were able to dis- 
pose of. Degas was outraged by this treatment 
of a great artist — a hatred of commerce was one 
of his ruling passions — and bit by bit he bought 
up the fragments and stuck them on to a canvas 
of the original dimensions. He used to show it 
in his studio with growls and imprecations at the 
profiteers of art. It may be difficult to show the 
whole work, which still has gaps, but in deference 
to Degas's feelings it might be well to attempt it. 
The gaps might, perhaps, be filled by a mere 
neutral grey of about the general tone of the 
picture so that the composition could be under- 
stood. This fragment, though it is well painted 
enough, has too little meaning, and even that 
somewhat misleading, in its present state. 

cross-straps of stout leather. As a protection for 
the joints of the limbs these are of course general ; 
they are far rarer as an element of construction in 
the breast- and backplates of existing armours. 
It would seem none the less plain that the prin- 
ciple extends over most countries and back into a 
remote antiquity. Indeed we may fairly regard it 
as a mere variant or development of ordinary 
scale-armour of which the antiquity and ubiquity 
are common knowledge. The laminated lorica of 
the Roman legionary, often portrayed, e.g. in the 
Trajan Column, belongs to the same family, and 
further instances occur in reliefs representing 
Sarmatian and Parthian cavalry, a point worth 

2 3 

recalling presently 2 . This is assumed to be the 
type of armour termed by late Greek writers <£oA.i- 
&oTos s ( = reptile-scale) as opposed to XhttiSutos, 
the normal fish-scale or "plumated " pattern. 

With the decay of the old Roman tradition and 
the rise of chivalry the use of the laminated cuirass 
(as likewise of back and breast, each formed of 
one solid plate) appears to have fallen into 
abeyance, although true scale-armour continued 
in a measure to hold its own. But from the 
nth to the 13th century inclusive mail — "chain- 
mail ", as it is termed in latter-day parlance — is 
almost the only wear for the warrior of any pre- 
tensions; it constitutes in fact the greater apparent 
portion of knightly defensive equipment till about 
the middle of the 14th century. M. Buttin, in his 
very able essay on " Le Guet de Geneve ", has 
shown that armour of scales or small, overlapping, 
riveted plates covered with leather or textile 
fabric can be traced as far back as the close of 
the 13th century. This is the type of armour 
generally known in the 15th and 16th centuries as 
"brigandine" (Fr. : brigandine, cuirassine — It.: 
corazzina — Sp.: coracina — Ger. : Kovazin). There 
is evidence, not only from texts and monuments, 
but fortunately also from actual remains 4 , that 
splints likewise were revived and similarly treated. 

It would in fact appear 
to have been the regu- 
lar practice in the 14th 
century to cover the 
body - plates — scales, 
splints and even solid 
plate - cuirass — with 
leather, cloth, velvet, 
silk, etc., often richly 
embroidered or dia- 
pered, so that where 
the rivet-heads are not 
in evidence on the 
surface the metallic 
defence is effectively 
camoufle. It is excep- 
tional, or at the least uncommon, from the 
middle of the 13th until the 15th century to find 
the metal that armed the trunk exposed to view. 
This is especially true of English and French 
armour 5 . Even the studs that betray the under- 
lying scales or splints are not conspicuous in these 

countries save in the armour of the thighs, and 
more rarely in the greaves 6 . The knightly effigy 
at Ash, c. 1350 (vide Stothard's " Effigies" and 
Prior & Gardiner's " Account of Mediaeval Figure 

Fig. 1. — Armour lames from 
ruins of Tannenburg (burnt 
1399'- A, Lames of breast- 
plate. B, Part of lame with 
fragment of textile covering. 
c, Rivet-head. D, Splint with 

2 Cf- below the remarks on the popularity of the animc in 
Hungary and Poland. 

s E.g., by the writer of the article Lorica in Smith's Dic- 
tionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, q.v. 

4 Cf. Hefner-Alteneck. Die Burg Tannenburg. The ruins of 
this old Hessian castle, destroyed by fire in 1399, were excavated 
in 1849. Among other interesting finds was a complete set of 
splints for the breast and back, retaining traces of the nailed-on 
covering of velvet [Fig. 1 ]. Hewitt alone of English writers 
seems alive to the significance of this discovery. 

5 The armorial surcoat or jupon, effectively veiling whatever 
]ies beneath, is in universal use. 

Fig. 2.— Splinted bode, from bronze equestrian statue 
of S. George, 1373, Hradschin, Praag 

Sculpture in England "), is the sole instance I 
recall of the plates or splints of the body exposed, 
in this case, by the opening of the jupon at 
the side 7 . Of the studded or brigandine variety 
doubtless the two finest illustrations in these 
islands are the brasses of Sir Miles Stapleton, 
1364, Ingham, Norfolk (now unfortunately lost), 
and Sir Ralph Knevynton, 1370, Aveley, Essex 
(vide Waller: "Monumental Brasses"). There 
are other, if less notable, examples, and I 
suggest that the studded garment that is worn 
immediately under the surcoat (or " cyclas " ?) in 
the well-known brasses of Sir John d'Aubernon II, 
1327, Sir John de Creke, c. 1325, and Sir John 
de Northwode, c. 1330, is neither a "gambeson", 
" haqueton " nor " pourpoint ", as has hitherto 
been assumed, but an earlier instance of this 

• The greaves are generally additionally reinforced by vertical 
bands of metal. Such "strips and studs" armour is repeatedly 
mentioned in the Inventory of William III of Hainault, 1357 
{Cf. monograph on this document by Prellede la Nieppe). 
As the material is often of leather (cuir-bouilli) it is quite likely 
the studs and bands of metal are sufficient reinforcement with- 
out underlying plates. A fine example is the effigy at Frankfort 
of Gunther von Schwarzburg, King of the Romans, f '349. 
Many writers miscall this studded armour " pourpointerie ", 
which is properly a quilted fabric. 

7 A notably fine illustration of a hauberk or coat of plates un- 
masked by overlaid stuff is the bronze equestrian statue of 
S. George, 1373, from the Hradschin, Prague [Fig. 2]. (Cast 
at South Kensington. There is a good reproduction in one of 
the plates to Planche's Cyclopedia.) 

2 4 

same brigandine- 
work. In German 
i4th-cent. monu- 
ments illustrations 
are pretty nume- 
rous, as may be 
verified by refer- 
ence passim to the 
works of the late 
Hefner- Alteneck. 
The effigies of 
Walter (?) Bop- 
finger, t 1359 at 
and Johann von 
Falkenstein, 11365 
at Arensberg[FlG. 
4], are notable ex- 
amples. It will be 
noted that I am 
virtually confining 
my notes to the 
armour of the 
trunk, and I would 
here suggest that the arrangement of the studs 
is not necessarily an index to the nature of 
the underlying plates, which may be scales, 
rectangular plates (like Meyrick's "regulated" 
armour) or splints. About the last third of the 
14th-century representations are not lacking of 
the pectoral or breastplate of solid plate undis- 
guised or patently suggested 8 . 

Very early in the 15th century the jupon is 
discarded, revealing the knightly armour com- 
posed almost exclusively of solid plate, the articu- 
lations being guarded by splints and the gaps 
filled with mail. The splinted cuirass, too, is 
sometimes seen about this period °. I mention it 
merely pour memoire as evidence of continuity, 
since it is not now my purpose to dwell upon 
15th-century splints. The "Gothic" cuirass 
composed of two or three overlapping pieces 
of plate may be reckoned as remotely relating to 

Fig. 3. — Laminated brigandine, from 
effigy of Walther Bopfinger (fiJ59J, 
Bopfinger, Nordlingen 

8 Two armed wooden effigies, c. 1370, from Bamberg Cathe- 
dral (see Hewitt, vol. 11), Effigy of Conrad von Bickenbach 
(Hefner) 136. Sepulchral slab of Wilhelme Wikart (Creeny : 
"Incised Slabs''). In many German effigies the breastplate is 
worn over the laced jupon. See also in Hefner's work the 
effigies of Heinrich von Erbach, t 1387, Michelstadt, and Bern- 
hard von Massmunster, f 1383, at Basle — where the breastplate 
is continued below the waist in a laminated skirt or fald. 

9 Cf. Viollet le Due : Dictionnaire raisonne du mobilier fran- 
fais, vol. v, pp. 128, 130 (Armures, figs. 42 and 43), and 
vol, vi, pp. 208, 209 (Pansiere, figs. 1, 2). Reverting for a 
moment to the 14th century, the following quotations may be 
recalled: Caur dc Lion. 4977. "He was armyd in splents of 
steel " — Guy of Warwick — "[Colbrand the giant wore] thick 
splints of steel | Thick y joined strong and well . . . Hosen 
he had also well y-wrought | Other than splintes was it 
nought ..." (cited by Planche) — 1362 " iiij paier of splentes " 
figure in an inventory of armour at Holy Island. — 1374. Ace. 
John de Slcford in For. Ace. 49th Edward III B — " In . . . xj 
paribus splentes ij paribus tibialium ". 

the coat of splints. As for the brigandine 
description of armour M. Buttin's article above- 
mentioned leaves little to add ; but I would like 
en passant to invite attention to a painting which 
appears hitherto to have escaped the notice of 
writers on armour : Titian's portrait of Giovanni 
Francesco Aquaviva, Duke of Atri, 1552 (Cassel). 
Here the gold-studded pattern of the sleeveless 
brigandine (worn with sleeves of mail) is carried 
out en suite in the panes of the trunk-hose and 
the velvet-covered burgonet 10 . 

The cuirass of splints — anime, halecret, corslet, 
what you will — seems hitherto to have eluded any 
sort of systematic consideration 11 . And first as to 
terminology ; not forgetting what de Cosson, 
Dillon and Buttin are careful to emphasize — how 
loose contemporary nomenclature is apt to be. 
In questions of arms 
and armour the testi- 
mony of contempor- 
aries who have claims 
to technical knowledge 
— armourers, soldiers, 
military theorists — 
should be given due 
weight. On the whole 
the term anime appears 
the best to apply to 
these laminated cuir- 
asses or corslets ; it is 
current not only in 
France and Italy, but 
is found — "anyme", 
" animee " " anima " — 
in English official in- 
ventories of the 1 6th century H . It has been sug- 
gested that the French "anime " is a corruption 
of the Italian lamine. I confess that to me the word 
lamine, which occurs in Rabelais and Cotgrave 1S , 
looks more like a miscorrection by some pseudo- 
Latinist ignorant of the Italian original. The term 
anima for some species of breastplate is as old as 
Matteo Villani 1 '. Lamine I have not found in 
this sense in old Italian writings, although Lamicva 
(and more rarely Lama) 15 does occur. In French we 
find the word ecrevisse 10 synonymously employed ; 

Fig. 4. — Laminated brig- 
andine, from effigy of 
Johann von Falkenstein 
(t!3 6 5). Arensberg 

10 Greatly as I admire the erudition and antiquarian acumen 
of Buttin, I hesitate to follow him the whole way in detail, e.g., 
in the very early date to which he would assign the brassarts 
and greaves of plate and the tassets (for so he translates " meas 
trumulieras" in the will of Odo of Rousillon, 1291). 

11 M. Giraud's remarks on the subject in the introduction to 
vol. VI {Arms and Armour) of La Collection Spitzer are sketchy 
but suggestive. 

ia See Lord Dillon's Arms and Armour at Westminster, The 
Tower and Greenwich in 1547, in Arclurotogia, Li. 

13 161 1 Cotgrave " Lamine — f — a thin plate of metall ; also a 
corslet made all of rib-like joints to move with, or be the more 
pliant unto, the body ". Soldiers are described by Rabelais as 
cleaning up their equipment, inter alia their "lamines". Ct. 
Minsheu : Spanish Dictionary (cd. 1623 — I have been unable to 
refer to the edition of 1599). "Launas vide Laminas, plates 
to make corselets with . . ." 


the strict distinction would seem to be that the 
latter refers primarily to the "lobster-tail" con- 
struction apart from the portion of armour so 
fashioned ; whilst anime denotes a breast-plate, 
corselet or even apparently a complete cap-a-pe 
harness" of which the body is formed wholly or 
in part of splints. The term corslet {pace Victor 
Gay, Dillon and Maindron) generally applies to 

14 Villani II, 81 "Loroarmadura, quasi di tutti, eran panzeroni, 
e davanti al petto un' anima d'acciaio". 

Alleg. 44 " E perochi sospetta di chelli, non ha altro rimedio, 
che il provedersi d' un' anima a pruova ". 

1612 Voc. Acad, della Crusca " . . . E anima si dice a quella 
armadura falte a scaglie, che arraa il petto". 

In the account of Henri Us solemn entry into Rouen, 154°. 
are mentioned "60 tant corceletz que animes avec morions" and 
the local militia were "couverts de corseletz ou anymes a 
l'etendue des bras and cuisses ". 

c. 1550 M.S. Stolomonie £° 19, v° (apttd ]a\. Gloss. Naut). 
" Faut aussi a une galere 25 corseletz ou plutot animes avecques 
leurs morrions", etc. 

1559 Amyot: Plutarch's Lives — Lucullus (describing Lucullus 
atTigranoccrta) " . . . et marcha le premier droit vers l'ennemi 
arme d'une anime d'acier faite a escailles, reluisante au soleil . . ." 
This is his rendering of Plutarch's ". . . 6<i,paKa fiiv txw 
tpo\i$UT&v airotrTCKpovTa.. . . ." 

1606 Nicot : Trcsor — Anime — Espece d'armure ayant les 
lames de travers longues and larges qui font obeir les harnois 
au mouvement and pliement du corps. 

Paradin : Histoire de Lyon " Les six premiers rangs, couverts 
d'animes and mourrions dorez ". 

1635 Monet: Invantaire, etc. "Anime, armure de lames, 
rangees de travers qui obeissent au mouvement du corps — 
Textilibus laminis conserta lorica ". 

1611 Cotgrave — "Anime — f — a fashion of easie (because 
large-plated and large-jointed) armour". 

1659 Florio (-Torriano) Vocab. It-In&. — " Anima. . . also 
a Cuirace or breast-plate because it armeth the heart ". 

1576 Le Frere de Laval : Vraye & entiere histoire . . . etc. 
— " Les archers montez d'un bon cheval, armez d'un corselet ou 
animez, brassards ou manches de mailles . . ." 

' 6 1612 Voc. Acad, delta Crusca — " Lamiera — Armadura, 
corazza, usbergo di lama di ferro ". 

16 1532 luv. mais. Chalon d Orange, No. 140—-'. . . 27 tant 
escrevisses que brigandines ". 

1606 Nicot : Op. cit. " Escrevisse aussi est une espece d'armure 
de fer, laquelle en facon de plastron arme la poitrine, s'accro- 
chant aux espaules. Ainsi appele par semblance de la cocque 
ou escaille dont l'escrevisse est armee". 

1600 Fauchet: Origines, etc. "Leshommes guerriers . . . se 
couvrirent . . . de pieces de fer clouees l'une sur l'autre ap- 
pellees escrevisses pource quelles imitoient les escailles de ces 
poissons quand les lames furent mobiles ". 

1663 A. Oudin : Diet. It. and Fr. " Escrevisses— piastre di 
corazza fatte a guisa di coda di gambero " 

1611 Cotgrave — Ecrevisses, the joynted plates, or part of a 

cuirats, resembling the back of a crevice ", i,e., of a crayfish. 

1508 Inv. archev. Rouen, p. 250. "ihalecret and escrevisses." 

c. 1450 King Rene of Anjou : " Devis d'un Tournoi "—beaux 

compaignons jeunes, habilles a la guerre . . . armez d'escre- 

visses ou harnois blancs . . ." 

1470 Arch. J.J. 195 piece 461 (apnd Godefroy)— " . . . le dit 
Tarraise estoit arme soubz son vestement d'une armeure nominee 
escrivesse " cf. note on " privy-coats " below. 

17 24 Jan., 1551 Contract with Ludovic Massiaisi in Arch. 
Thouars (apud Godefroy) " Une anymes avecques un plastron, 
greves and habillement de teste pour servir a cheval ". 

1547 (Archceologia LI, p. 219— Dillon: op. cit.) At Westminster 
" Itm. an Anyme for the felde without a rest and a Plackerde 
having Cusshes, greves and a Murrion all of Stele ennealed 
blewe w th a paier of Sabbators [i.e., sabbatons = solerets] of 
Maile". Cf. in same inventory (at " Grenewich " )" . . . on 
blacke harnesse for the felde made with Lambes [ = lames, 
splints] scallope fashion . . .". 


the complete half-armour of an infantryman (Ger. 
Knechtischer Harnisch) 18 , occasionally but less 
properly to that of a light-horseman (Ger. Trab- 
harnisch)™. The vexed term halecret is regularly 
employed in the same sense 19 . The " Oxford 
Dictionary " is at a loss for the etymology of this 
latter word, but suggests that the German " Hals" 
may be a component ; while the late Maurice 
Maindron in the " Nouveau Larousse Illustr6 " 
would make it a derivative of the German " Hals- 
kragen ". More plausible seems the alternative 
suggestion that it is a corruption of halberKrebs*', 
which according to German antiquaries 21 denotes 
a cuirass of which only the lower part is splinted ; 
ganzer K. signifying one wholly of lames. [N.B. 
— Count Franz von Meran in " Das Landeszeug- 
haus in Graz " points out that the name Krebs is 
commonly used of the breastplate even where of 
solid plate, e.g., in the Ambras Inventory of 1583, 
a document of capital importance for armour 
terminology 22 ]. A point worth noting is that the 
word " scale " — like the Latin squamma, French 
ecadle, Italian scaglia — seems to be used loosely 
for rectangular, tile-like plates (Meyrick's "tegu- 

18 1564 Martial de Douhet : lnv tre du Tuymolinier — " Ung 
courcellet entier, ormis les brassarts . .• . Un corsellet avec ses 
cuissots et brassarts — Ung corsellet avec sa bourguignotte ". 

1581 T. Sty ward : Pathway to Martial Discipline— says that 
the pikeman, especially the front-rank " must have a fayre 
Corslet, with all the peeces appertaining to the same, that is 
the curats, the poldrons with Vambraces, also the long taces 
and the burgonet with sword and dagger . . .". 

1588 Inventory of Chateau d'Annecy. — "Trente troys corsellets 
a la raistre tous noiers, avec leurs bourguignottes seulement 
. . . Deux corsellets blanc[s] graves, pour gents de pieds a 
bandes, avec leurs bourguignottes, brassart[s], tassettes, gan- 
tellets a ung desdits corsellets". 

1591 Garrard : Art of Warre, 9. — " The Halberdier, who is 
armed either with a Brigandine or a corslet ..." 

1598 Rob* Barret: Theorike, etc — (Glossary) "Corslet, a 
French word, is the armour for a foote souldier complete" (So 
Florio — Worldc of Wordes, 1598). 

14th July, 1624 J. Feisselle, armourer of Moiitier-en-Taren- 
taise, tenders Charles Emmanuel "II. Le corcellet pour le 
picquier, le devant, le dernier [sic. — i.e. derriere, dossiere], les 
tacettes, l'hautsecol [sic] et la bourguignotte a xv florins mon- 
noye de Savoye ". 

19 In 151 3 Sir R. Wingfield writes to Henry VIII from Vienna, 
mentioning " lance-knights " (Landsknechte) in red attire, armed 
with " halcretis " pikes and guns. 

Rebuff! : Rubricque des legions—" Ordonna ledict seigneur 
que tous ceulx qui auront doubles payes ayent hallecrets a 
grandes tassettes, avec hoguines & sallades crestees". 

Sully : Occon, roy., ch. xxxviii (ed. Michaud) "... avoir con- 
tinuellement le cul sur la selle, le cul sur la selle, le casque en la 
teste . . . ." 

1540 R. Estienne : Thesaurus Linguae Latinae — " Lorica. 
Ung halecret d'ung homme de pied, ou la cuirasse et le harnois 
d'ung homme de pied ; " etc. 

1635 Monet. Invantaire, etc — "Hallecret, corcelet armure 
de cors plus legere [sic] que la cuirasse, propre du piquier & 
hallebardier— levis lorica, Hastati peditis lorica". 

N.B. — Nicot also gives "halecret" and "corselet" as synony- 
mous, but restricts the term to the bare armour of back and 
breast ; Gay, Maindron and Dillon appear to endorse his view, 
but the above (and many other) passages formally contradict it. 

80 Planche " Cyclopedia " — J. B. Giraud : La Collection Spitzcr, 
vol. VI (Anns and Armour). Introduction. 

81 Von Sacken, Meran, Bbheim. 







lated " armour) and splints, as well as in the more 
usual sense, e.g. '. 2nd Part, Henry IV, i, i— "A 
scaly gauntlet now with plates of steel | Must arm 
this hand". The conjunction "or" is often 
difficult of nice rendering ; whether, to wit, it 
implies a material difference (Lat, ant) or one 
merely verbal (Lat. vel). 

To return to the anime. According to von 
Sacken, Meran Boheim and Buttin breastplates 
of this fashion were an Italian and Spanish 
speciality in Western Europe ; in the East 
distinctive of Hungarian and Polish warriors. 
They are further stated to be intended for infantry 
use, and more especially for naval engagements *\ 
As against this it may be remarked that several 
examples are known of German make"; on the 
other hand their vogue in Hungary 25 proves them 
to have been thoroughly adapted to light cavalry. 
The thinness of the plates of the" Montmorency" 
anime at Wilton has attracted attention. This is 
by no means uncommon in such armour. Ange- 
lucci in fact d propos of the laminated corslet 
C. 31 in Armeria Reale, Turin, thinks it can only 
have been intended for parade. To me this con- 
clusion does not seem inevitable. It was in the 
t6th century that soldiers begun to find the weight 
of "proof" armour intolerable 26 ; moreover the 

22 Though it does not concern our present subject, I take leave 
to note that Count Franz von Meran in his admirable but too little 
known commentary on the Graz collection records his absolute 
failure to find any contemporary confirmation of the identifi- 
cation — by Meyrick, Sacken and Boheim — of the burgonet 
with the "helmlin so im Kragen umbgeet". Confusion on the 
other hand, does exist between the burgonet and morion in 
English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. 

1611 Cotgrave — "Pourpoint d'escaillc — a plated corselet made 
scale fashion. Escaillcs . . . also the little skaly plats whereby 
an armour is made pliant to the body. 

Brigandinc — f — A Brigandine ; a fashion of (ancient) armour, 
consisting of many jointed, and skale-like, plates, very pliant 
unto, and easie for the body ; . . ." 

Fauchet describes these plates as " lames de fer", 

23 The quotation from the Stolomonie above is in favour 
of this assumption, At Turin is an anime said to be that of a 
Venetian captain of the galleys, and in Vienna one that belonged 
to the Venetian naval commander Agostino Barbarigo. They 
are commonly painted black, russetted or blued, and an Eliza- 
bethan inventory teaches us that the blackening was essential 
against rusting due to sea-water. 

21 See at close of this paper instances of German made animes; 
and Seussenhoferin 15 . . . sent Maximilian a "Hungarian suit". 

25 1583 Ambras Inventory : — " Herr Carl Gasaldo. Ain 
Vnngrichs harnisch mit volgen, am fiirfeilen verguldt". 

This suit does not figure in the 1596 inventory nor in 
Schrenck, unfortunately. Nor can I trace it in the present 
Vienna collection. 

1625 Graz, Inventory of the Landeszeughaus " Husarenriis- 
tung hungarische mit geschiebten Prusten ". A number of these 
Hungarian or " hussarisch " corslets are at Graz. 

double thickness of metal wherever the lames 
overlapped discounted their individual lightness. 
Doubtless there were many besides Montmorency 
to whom " ease " rather than " proof " was a 
desideratum. Note that the advantage of the 
anime lies rather in its pliancy than in its lightness. 

The obvious destructibility of splints is their 
chief drawback. Their strength is the strength of 
their weakest rivet, and they are peculiarly vul- 
nerable by weapons of the pickaxe class. The 
downward glancing point became wedged between 
the lames, when a strong wrench sufficed to prize 
a plate loose. It is clear from old inventories, etc., 
that armour of this description was widely used 
by 16th century troops, yet existing examples are 
relatively rare. The reason would seem not far 
to seek. Apart from (and because of) their 
perishable nature, they were apter than the ordi- 
nary to be " translated " to serve some other 
purpose. Hence it is probable that the only ones 
normally preserved owe their survival to intrinsic 
beauty of workmanship, rich ornamentation or 
traditional association (true or false). In fact 
nearly all the animes we possess are of more or 
less rich quality, such as hints at a leader ; and few 
if any specimens still exist of the wear of the 
common pikeman or light-armed trooper of the 
16th century. 

Although animes did not fall wholly out of use 
till armour itself became obsolete 27 , their " floruit " 
period may be put about the middle third of the 
16th century, to which date belong most of the 
best-known specimens in public or private col- 
lections. We may cite at random 23 : — 

Madrid : A. 151, so-called " papahigo tudesio" of Charles V, 
before 1541. A. 239, parade suit of Philip II forged at Augs- 
burg i550-'52 by D. Helmschmied and G. Sigman, (A f portrait 
of the King by A. S. Coello wearing this anime belonged to the 
late Sir W. Stirling-Maxwell). 

Vienna: Complete suit of Niclas III of Salm Neuburg t '54 2 
[Plate, a, cf. Fig. 5]. Half-armour of the Duke of Alva, by 
D. Helmschmied 1550-5 1 [Plate, b]. Body and taces of 
G. G. de Medici, Marquis of Melegnano [Plate, c], t '555 
(c. 1535). Part of armour of Karl von Zierotin, f »5°° (c- 
1540). Body and taces of Carlo Gonzaga, Count Gazzuolo, 
t 1557 (c. 1550) [Plate, o]. Half-armour of Agostino Barbarigo, 
t 1571 (c. 1560). Archduke Ferdinand's " Serebeg " suit, 1560. 

Paris: G. 136 [Plate, e], 137 ( r ). r 38 [Plate, f], 139 
[Plate, g]. No data as to pedigree, but Col. Robert dates 

26 ,C/. Buttin: Notes sur les Armures a I'Epreuve, 

27 It would seem that the Western type of anime died with 
thei6th century, but that the splinted corselet was very soon 
re-imported from Eastern Europe, with other forms of armour 
and weapons, eg., notably the Hungarian "lobster-tail" bur- 
gonet (Hussarische Haube, Zischagge). 

28 Where the armour has no precise date, the year of the 
owner's death is given, and the approximate date according to 
Boheim added in brackets. 

[a] Armour of Nicholas III of Salm Neuburg, German work of 

1542 (Vienna), cf. Fig, 5. 

[b] Half-armour of the Duke of Alva, 1550-5', by D. Helm- 

schmied ("Vienna). 

[c] Armour of Giacomo de' Medici, Marquis of Malegnano 

(t!555), of c. 1535 (Vienna). 


[d] Armour of A. Barbarigo (ti57 r ). of e. 1560 (Vienna). 

[e] Suit, c. 1560 (Paris, G. 13°)- 

[f] Suit, c. 1560 (Paris, G. 137). 

[g] Anime, of c. 1560, formerly attributed to Berton de Crillon 
(Paris, G. 138)- 



them about 1560. G. 138, from the Sedan collection used to 
be unwarrantably attributed to Crillon. It bears a marked 
likeness to the Wilton suit, but even more to Liefrinck's print 
(Frans Huys del 1 ) of Anne de Montmorency. 

Tower of London : About 
a dozen examples, which are 
nearly all assigned by the 
authorities to the middle of 
the 16th century. Of these 
II, 15 somewhat resembles 
Paris suit G. 136. Dillon 
compares it to works by 
Colman Helmschmied at 
Madrid ; ffoulkes to A. 243 
(/6/rf.) by Wolf of Landshut. 
Great flexibility is 
lent to 16th century 
splints by the system of 
" sliding rivets " (or as 
Meyrick called them 
"Almain rivets" 29 ) work- 
ing in vertical slots cut 
in the undermost plate 
of each pair. Often 
these are used in con- 
junction with the more 
usual kind of riveting. 
The "privy coats" or "secret armour" so 
often mentioned in old texts are described by 

Fig. 5. — Back-plate of anime 
of Nicholas III, Count of 
Salm-Neuburg, dated 1542, 

most writers simply as a kind of undervest 
of fine mail. Evidence however is not lacking 
that these hidden defenses were often of the 
nature of a brigandine or anime, whether an 
independent undergarment or a lining to a doublet 
fashioned on the usual civilian pattern 30 . Those 
whose business took them abroad at night or into 
dangerous surroundings were often well advised 
to take such precaution. In "Othello", when 
Cassio is treacherously attacked by Rodrigo, this 
would seem the explanation of his speech : — " That 
thrust had been mine enemy indeed, but that my 
coat is better than thou think'st . . .". 

P.S. — Since writing the above, my attention 
has been drawn to a fine illustration of a 14th 
century coat of splints, in the carvings of the sub- 
dean's stall in Lincoln Cathedral : the figure of a 
mounted knight in act of falling. For particulars 
of this carving I am indebted to the courtesy of 
Mr. S. Smith, of Lincoln, the photographer of 
these stalls. 

29 On the "Almain rivet", see Lord Dillon's Notes on Ar- 
mour, in Arclicvologia LX. In 1579 it is described as obsolete 
and to be replaced by a " corselett ". Can the " Almain rivet " 
have been of the anime class ? " Animees or Almaigne corselets " 
were among the armour stored at Westminster in 1569. 

30 1576 Henri of Navarre to M. de Morsan — ". . . nous 
portons dagues, Jacques de mailles, & bien souvent la cuiras- 
sinc sous la cape ". (N.B. — The anonymous writer on French 
military costume of 1446, edited by R. de Belleval, mentions 
"brigandines ou aultrement dit currassincs, couvertes & 
clouees par pieces (petites) ". 

1623 Minshen : Spanish Dictionary " Coracas — cuiraces, or 
a corslet in the manner of a privie coat plated within, to bende 
with the body, covered over with silke, velvet or such like ". Cf. 
s.v. Coraca, Corazina. 


iLTHOUGH repeated references have 
already been made in these pages 
both by Professor Lethaby and Mr. 
Tristram to Herr Lindblom's - volume 1 , 
^it has not yet been treated in its 
entirety. No apology, then, for the present notice 
is required. 

The author's thesis is briefly as follows : — 
Byzantine or Romanesque painting, which he 
associates with round-arched architecture, gave 
place to Gothic painting about 1250, when, to 
sum up the situation in three words, toute tension 
disparu. From that time onward until 1350 
approximately, two parallel streams of influence, 
those of England and France respectively, con- 
tinued to dominate. After the last-named date, 
however, a more distinctively native style, having 
taken root, proceeded to develop itself. The 
scope of Heir Lindblom's book comprises the 
period between the middle of the 13th and the 
middle of the 14th century ; and the aim of the 

1 Andreas Lindblom, La Peiniure Gotliiqiie en Suede et en 
Norv'ege etude sur les relations entre V Europe occidentale et les 
pays Scandi naves ; 4to. Stockholm (Wahlstrom and Widstrand) ; 
London (Bernard Quaritch), 1916. 

author, in an exhaustive study, is to determine 
the extent and importance of the several forces 
which controlled the art of painting in Sweden 
and Norway in the course of the century in 
question. During the first part of the time 
named, Norway, on account not only of its 
geographical situation but also of its political 
conditions, was more advanced than Sweden ; 
but broadly and for practical purposes the arts of 
the two countries respectively may well be re- 
garded together as of one. This is particularly true, 
seeing that the two countries had attained virtually 
to the same artistic level by the beginning of the 
14th century ; and any inequality that might 
previously have existed disappeared from the date 
of the union of the two kingdoms under one 
common sovereign in 1319, notwithstanding the 
political union came to an end in 1355. 

As to the foreign influences operating in the 
two countries, Sweden was evangelised from 
England and Germany ; Norway almost exclu- 
sively from England. "Numbers of Englishmen 
filled episcopal sees in Norway. Thus, among 
others, the first bishop of Stavanger was an 
Englishman, and his cathedral church was dedi- 









cated to S. Swithun". Another Englishman, 
Martin, became bishop of Bergen. In fact, from 
early days an almost constant stream of Christian 
enterprise flowed north-eastward into Europe 
from England, from the time of S. Boniface or 
Winfrid (754) to Bishop Henry of Upsala (1150), 
both of them eminent English saints. Mission- 
aries like these men, as in the case also of S. 
Augustine, the apostle of Anglo-Saxon England, 
did not come alone, but accompanied by a train 
of assistants, who, when their principals had 
passed away, would take up and extend their 
masters' work. They in their turn would keep 
up a close intercourse with the mother country. 
Thus the influences and traditions of the land of 
their origin would prove powerful factors, long 
after the date of the first establishment of their 
mission, for generations after the original founders 
had been gathered to their rest. And so the 
overseas influences continued energetically to act 
and react upon the northern peoples. King 
Haakon (1217 to 1263), the friend and contem- 
porary of Henry III of England, is said to have 
built his palace at Bergen on the model of that at 

In Sweden in the 12th century English traditions 
waned, or rather were eclipsed by the more 
powerful influence of the great Cistercian order, 
which was, of course, French in its inception. 
Although it is true that the Cistercian body, as 
constituted, was inimical to art in many of its 
manifestations, nevertheless the intercourse which 
»ts introduction established between Scandinavia 
and Burgundy could not remain confined to eccle- 
siastics. Sooner or later it was bound to extend 
to secular circles ; and, once Burgundians and 
Scandinavians had been brought into contact 
with one another, the arts of the latter would 
infallibly receive a powerful stimulus. A French 
mason, Stephen of Bonnueill, was commissioned 
in 1287 to build the Cathedral of Upsala. The 
Church of the Apostles at Bergen was erected to 
receive a fragment of the Crown of Thorns, 
given by Philip III of France in 1274 to King 
Magnus of Norway. Some time between 1307 
and 1309, the Bishop of Bergen wrote to his 
brother, then at Poitiers or Orleans, begging him 
to recommend a skilled artist to paint and execute 
glass windows. But to enumerate all the instances 
in which English or French aid was invoked for 
the artistic uplifting of Scandinavia would occupy 
far too much space. 

The chapters on the evolution of style, in which 
Herr Lindblom traces the rise and development of 
Gothic painting in Scandinavia, are followed by 
some useful studies on the iconography of the 
Life of Our Lord, and the Life and Miracles 
of Our Lady and of various saints who figure in 
the art of Norway and Sweden. 

The system of mural decoration in these two 

countries is peculiar. Herr Lindblom cites but a 
couple of instances in which the painting is exe- 
cuted, as it certainly would be in our own country, 
direct on to the surface of the ashlar or plastered 
walls themselves. With these two exceptions only, 
the interiors are lined with boards throughout, the 
painting being then applied to the boarding, as a 
rule in situ. Instances, however, occur of de- 
corated ceilings in which the fact cf the boards 
being no longer than the limits of a single panel 
or compartment points to the conclusion that the 
panels might have been painted as detached pic- 
tures before being fixed in their proper position. 
The fact of the boards being of oak, or, for an 
alternative, of fir, would afford presumptive evi- 
dence in the first case of their being imported, 
and in the second case of their being indigenous 
work. Another remarkable point is the total 
absence of gilding. When wanted, the effect of 
gold is obtained by glazing with a transparent 
yellowish-brown varnish over silver. 

There are to be found among the paintings 
described and illustrated by Herr Lindblom many 
striking parallels to works of known English 
provenance, while, on the other hand, there are 
also striking divergencies. Both features may or 
may not have been in some instances the result of 
mere accident. In others the resemblance is too 
close to be the result of anything other than actual 
copyism. It is known that there existed, and that 
there were widely used, certain stock pattern 
books, designed to insure a correct rendering of 
Christian iconographic details. There were also 
less formal books or albums of sketches like those 
of the famous Villard de Honnecourt, Cambrai, 
in the early part of the 13th century. Certain 
types of design would again be disseminated by 
means of such portable works as carved ivories, 
embroideries, panel paintings and, above all, illu- 
minated manuscripts. All these factors would tend 
to produce a standard treatment of essentials by 
mediaeval artists. When, however, as in the case 
of certain paintings at Aal, in Norway, for example, 
two opposite kinds of handling occur in one and 
the same composition, it is manifest that the whole 
work, howsoever derivative, cannot properly be 
said to owe its inspiration to one original or set 
of originals more than to another. Thus, to quote 
Herr Lindblom, "the treatment of the folds of the 
drapery is characterised by lines both hard and 
angular. The main folds are rendered by long, 
straight sweeps, and the outline of the bottom of 
the dresses forms a series of angles. One may 
note, moreover, shorter and more delicate folds 
serving to accentuate the contour of the human 
form, particularly of the legs. The figure of 
S. Peter, in the group which illustrates the kiss of 
Judas, supplies an instance of these two diverse 
modes of rendering drapery folds." Here, then, 
admittedly two separate and contrasted methods 


are in operation in a single painting. In instances 
such as this it is surely unwise to dogmatise too 
precisely as to the dominance of one school or 
another, since the balance is as near as may be 

The wooden church of Aal dated from the 
latter half of the 13th century. This building, 
unfortunately, must be spoken of in the past 
sense, for it was demolished in 1880. On the in- 
side of the eastern gable wall was a painted Calvary 
[Plate, p. 34], in some ways closely analogous 
to the Rood paintings on boarded tympana still 
surviving in Britain, e.g., at Winsham, Somer- 
set ; Wenhaston, Suffolk ; and the magnificent 
example at Foulis Easter Collegiate Church, near 
Dundee. The Christ at Aal is accompanied by 
the Mary and John in the normal manner, but 
the painting also comprises two figures of whose 
occurrence in Rood groups I can recall no British 
example, viz., the allegorical figures of the Jewish 
Synagogue at Our Lord's left and of the Christian 
Church at His right. The latter figure holds the 
chalice, as is usual in such representations. But 
in this instance she lifts it to catch the Precious 
Blood, which, flowing from the pierced right 
hand of the Crucified, is depicted as running 
downward along the forearm to the elbow, whence 
it would drip directly into the chalice underneath. 
This is a detail entirely unusual. The man in the 
background, with his finger pointing to his eye, 
apparently illustrates the same legend of the 
blinded man which is depicted in the crowded 
group, already mentioned, at Foulis Easter. The 
last named is a work of the first half of the 16th 
century, and is thus upwards of 250 years subse- 
quent to the Aal painting. 

The church of Rada in Sweden dates from 1323. 
Its eastern gable wall comprises two tiers of sub- 
jects painted on boards [PLATE, p. 34] . In the centre 
of the upper portion is depicted the Holy Trinity, 
after the manner which, though condemned by 
modern judgment as anthropomorphic, was yet a 
peculiar favourite at one period in pre-Reformation 
England. Thus, Edward, Prince of Wales, who is 

known to have cherished a special devotion toward 
the Trinity, has this very subject painted under 
the wooden tester which is fixed over his effigy in 
Canterbury Cathedral. Prince Edward, commonly 
but erroneously nicknamed the Black Prince, died 
in 1376. His painted tester, therefore, belongs to 
a date fifty years or more after that of the paint- 
ing of the same subject at Rada. The different 
shapes of the respective surfaces to be occupied 
demand different treatment. The Trinity at Can- 
terbury has an evangelistic symbol at each corner. 
At Rada the Holy Trinity is flanked by the Blessed 
Virgin and S. John Baptist in adoration, behind 
whom again, at each extremity of the picture, 
stands a pair of figures, one of them winged, and 
both holding lighted tapers in their hands. In 
the lower tier are represented (on the left) the 
Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, and (on the 
right) the Martyrdoms of S. Peter, S. Paul and 
S. Andrew. On the north wall, at a corresponding 
height with the last named subjects, is a subject 
which is identified as the Dormition of Our Lady 
[PLATE, p. 31]. The more usual way to treat this 
subject would be to show Our Lady lying on her 
death-bed, surrounded by the Apostles, one with 
a book, one with holy water and sprinkler, 
another placing a candle in her hand. At Rada, 
the Blessed Virgin seated on a throne, sinks back 
into the supporting arms of a group of youthful, 
beardless figures. This rendering is not a little 
unusual, but, like the rest of the paintings at Rada, 
seems to have been borrowed from an illuminated 
manuscript, possibly of French origin. The 
frontispiece, the only coloured illustration in the 
book, affords an excellent idea of the general 
scheme of polychromatic decoration in Rada 

There are, beside many line blocks in the 
text, fifty collotype plates reproducing, together 
with a quantity of examples of Norwegian and 
Swedish paintings, a certain number of illumi- 
nations and other examples from the graphic 
arts, valuable to the student for purposes of 


Blue Dash Chargers and Early English Tin Enamel 
and Circular Dishes ; by E. A. Downman ; xi + 176 pp. 
illust. ; (T. Werner Laurie), 15s. n. 
The appellation which gives the title to this 
monograph was first introduced by its author in 
an earlier work, and is likely to win current 
acceptance in future as a convenient description 
of a certain well-known class of enamelled earthen- 
ware dishes. Its use may nevertheless give rise 
to some misconception, as it might be held to 
designate a group of wares of a single well- 
defined provenance ; the limited scope of the 


book might also be taken to imply that such 
"chargers" (the choice of the term is not the 
only indication in the book of Mr. Downman's 
strong penchant for the phraseology of the 
Authorised Version) were the only output of the 
factory in which they were made. Now, it is 
true that Mr. Downman has done good service 
to students by illustrating and describing a large 
number of dishes of a certain type, of which the 
majority may safely be ascribed, as we now know 
for the first time — thanks to the excavations of 

Mr. William Pountney— to the potteries of Bris- 
lington and Temple Back, Bristol. Their origin 
had for long been a puzzle to connoisseurs, the 
balance of opinion wavering between Lambeth 
and Staffordshire. Mr. Downman does not, 
however, seem to be aware, in spite of his refer- 
ence to the pamphlet by Heer Hoynck van 
Papendrecht, that not one instance only but 
many are known of the use of the " blue dash " 
motive (oblique stripes round the edge of the 
dishes) on Dutch wares, dating from a period 
long before the Bristol and Brislington potteries 
began to make tin-enamelled earthenware. The 
subject has been discussed in the October and 
November numbers of The Burlington Magazine, 
and one of the dishes figured by Mr. Downman 
(from the Victoria and Albert Museum, on p. 126) 
was illustrated in the former as almost certainly 
of Dutch origin. It would also have been well 
to make clear that other articles besides the 
dishes, such as drug-pots, porringers and posset- 
pots, were made at the Brislington-Bristol works. 
In discussing the question of provenance Mr. 
Downman mentions the discovery in Southwark 
of certain fragments of ware similar to the subject 
of his monograph. The site on which they were 
found is Shand Street, not Potters' Fields (re- 
ferred to by Mr. Downman as Potters' Field), 
and the presence of numerous wasters may be 
taken as a certain indication that the potteries 
were on the spot or close at hand. The street 
now known as Potters' Fields is distant only a 
few hundred yards, so that the local tradition 
accounting for its name by a Biblical allusion 
appears somewhat unconvincing. There are other 
instances in the book of needlessly far-fetched 
surmises to explain phenomena which can more 
easily be accounted for. Thus the tulip motive, 
a commonplace of European applied art of the 
17th century by no means confined to pottery, 
must not be taken as pointing to the influx of 
Dutch influences with the accession of William 
of Orange ; the example illustrated on p. 54, 
bearing the date 1676, is enough to invalidate 
this suggestion. Still less convincing is the 
hypothesis that the dishes with leaves and berries, 
assumed to be those of the vine, were sent to the 
West Indies as an advertisement of wines exported 
by Bristol shippers ; or that certain others in- 
scribed with aphorisms in Dutch were made 
in England " for the Netherlands' market, or to 
be passed off as Dutch when the Dutch delft was 
in demand". Again, why suggest the possibility 
even that Mary Tudor is the subject of the 
specimen lettered " M R " in Dr. Sidebotham's 
collection, when the style of dress is obviously 
that of the time of her later namesake ? When all 
criticisms have been made, however, it may be 
said that, as a repertory of examples of a certain 
class of wares, the book will be welcomed by 

the many who take an interest in the varied 
activities of the old English potter. Its format 
and appearance are commendably agreeable. By 
a curious printer's error the author's name appears 
as Downham on the wrapper in which the book 
is issued for sale. B. R. 

The Dawn of the French Renaissance ; by Arthur 
Tilley, M.A. ; pp. xxvi+636, 23 plates. Cambridge (Uni- 
versity Press), 25s. n. 

Mr. Tilley's book is a very favourable specimen of 
those close studies by Englishmen of French, and 
by Frenchmen of English, literature and art, the 
increase in which is one of the happiest signs and 
accompaniments of the more intimate union of 
hearts between the two nations. It covers a very 
brief period of some 20 years, beginning with the 
expedition of Charles VIII to Italy in 1494, and 
ending with the reign of Louis XII. It would be 
easy to quarrel with a less amiable and modest 
scholar about his title, and about the meaning 
which he attaches to the word Renaissance. It 
would be possible to argue that what he means to 
describe is not the French Renaissance — which, 
as a designation of an age of revival in art might 
be more fittingly applied to the age of Philip 
Augustus — but the Italian Renaissance in France, 
and that he might well have taken a leaf out of the 
book of Mr. Lewis Einstein, whose " Italian Re- 
naissance in England" deals with the penetration 
by Italian ideas of our own rather stubborn English 
material. The quarrel would not be about words 
merely ; for indeed the impression left on the 
mind after reading Mr. Tilley's careful and erudite 
analysis is that the French material which the 
Italian idea sought to penetrate was d ^cidedly recal- 
citrant, and that the result was not so much a 
genuine form as a veneer. Of its charm and 
interest there can be no doubt ; but the art that 
resulted had not the feeling of race which is 
associated with French art of the 13th century on 
the one hand or of the age of Louis XIII and 
Louis XIV on the other. However, we all know 
what Mr. Tilley means, and that is the chief matter. 
He begins by a decidedly spirited summary of the 
Italian Renaissance — in Italy, that is to say — from 
Petrarch to the 16th century. Chapter II deals with 
the "Premonitions of the French Renaissance" 
— an odd title, as if the thing were a danger ahead 
— from Charles V to Louis XI. Chapters in and 
IV describe the French expeditions into Italy under 
Charles VIII and Louis XII, the things the 
Frenchmen saw or might have seen there, and the 
ideas they brought away. The fifth chapter, 
giving a picture of France under Charles VIII and 
Louis XII, closes Part 1. Part II deals with the 
renaissance in Letters, the study of Latin (with 
sketchesof Robert Gaguin, Josse Badius Ascensius, 
Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples), the study of Greek 
(Aleandro, Bude and Erasmus as protagonists), 
humanism in the provinces, and French poetry 


and prose (especially in connexion with Jean 
Lemaire de Beiges and Philippe de Commynes). 
The whole of this part is outside the scope of the 
Burlington Magazine, but, while the accounts of the 
early French editions of the classics, etc., will 
probably interest but a few, the sketches of the men 
mentioned are sympathetic and lively. A minor 
character of the period, Longolius, was the hero 
of an amusing episode in the history of scholar- 
ship, very delightfully described by M. Rodocan- 
achi in his book on Rome under Julius II and 
Leo X, and we wish that Mr. Tilley had not 
passed this over in silence, even though its scene 
was not France but Rome ; for it shows how 
seriously the Italians, in contrast to other nations, 
took such antiquarian questions. Part III deals 
with the renaissance in art — architecture, sculp- 
ture and painting. This is full of good reading 
and useful information, and we may be devoutly 
thankful that but little of what Mr. Tilley describes 
lies in the regions devastated in the last four years. 
As Mr. Tilley deals with the " premonitions ", we 
could wish that he had known of the theory of an 
American critic that the tomb of Ilariadel Carretto, 
which has always been regarded as the masterpiece 
of Jacopo della Quercia, is not his at all, but that 
it shows decided traces of French origin. It might 
have shocked him, as it did most of us, but it would 
have furnished the text for a fuller discussion than 
he has been able to give of the effect of northern 
on Italian art at the end of the 14th and beginning 
of the 15th century. A brief section deals with 
the medals, as to which I would remark that the 
attribution to Candida of a large number of pieces, 
though I believe it to be sound, is not quite so 
certain as the uninitiated would perhaps gather 
from Mr. Tilley's treatment ; that the struck 
medal of Aymar de Prie dated 1485 is almost cer- 
tainly a later " restitution " ; that there is a quite 
good specimen of the medal of Charles de Bourbon 
of 1486 in the British Museum, and that the forms 
of the numerals show it to be of French, not 
Italian origin ; and that the delightful medal 
issued by the city of Vienne in 1494 in honour of 
Anne of Brittany and the little Dauphin Charles 
Orland ought to have found a place amongst the 
others which are mentioned. The illustrations are 
well chosen and reproduced. I have read the 
book with great pleasure and profit ; but I feel 
bound to call attention to the slight errors, chiefly, 
but not all, due to the printer, which are so num- 
erous in words with which one is familiar, as to 
destroy confidence in the author's writing of names 
of which one knows less. One finds, e.g., aucto- 
ribus for auctoritas (p. 7) ; " Francesco Georgio 
di Martini " for " Francesco di Giorgio Martini " 
(p. 31) ; " opposition " for " opportunism " (p. 34); 
" Colleruccio" for " Collenuccio " (p. 45) ; "Can- 
cellaria" for "Cancelleria " (p. 102); " Panagirola " 
for " Panigarola " (p. 134); •' Beloguini " for " Bol- 


ognini " (p. 148) ; " Tain " for " Tarn " (p. 165) ; 
"nature" for "native" school of art (p. 171); 
"fecundiae " for "facundiae" (p. 289) ; " Forbes 
Watson" for "Foster Watson" (p. 298); " Guijoue " 
for "Quijoue" (p. 307); " entendent" for "enten- 
dait" (p. 321); "Mauberge" for " Maubeuge " 
(P- 334)- The latter part of the volume is fortunately, 
so far as I can judge, far more free from such 
blemishes. I only call attention to them because 
the book is in every other respect so admirable 
and so valuable. g. h. 

(1) La Legende de Thyl Ulenspiegel ; 55 bois graves 
originaux, par Paul-Auguste Masui-Castricque ; published 
by the artist ; 210 copies, £2 2s. ; 30 copies on Japan paper, 
the proofs signed, £5 5s. 

(2) The Legend of . . . Tyl UlenspiegelbyCh. de Coster ; 
20 woodcuts by Albert Delstanche ; (Chatto and Windus) 
7s. 6d. n. (presentation edition, 12s. 6d. n. ; edition de luxe, 
woodcuts pulled by hand and signed by the artist, 10 copies 
for sale, £6 6s. n.). 

Two Belgian artists, now residing in England, 
have illustrated with woodcuts of widely divergent 
styles the wonderful story of Tyl Ulenspiegel, by 
Charles de Coster, which Mr. Geoffrey Whitworth 
has rendered for the first time, with some abridge- 
ment, into English. The book itself is a moving 
and imaginative romance, touched with allegory 
and mysticism, of Flemish national life in the 
worst times of Spanish oppression and in the 
days of revolt. It is full of bloodshed and of 
idyllic tenderness, of love and cruelty, of gross 
superstition and simple piety. Its author has 
been compared to Cervantes and to Rabelais. 
His masterpiece certainly combines the. leisurely, 
rambling progress of " Don Quixote " with a 
Gargantuan delight in feasting ; it is packed as 
thick with Flemish local colour as " Don Quixote " 
with Spanish, and its pages reek of fricassees and 
bniinbier and all the most full-bodied savours of 
tavern and kitchen. Another book with which its 
old-time quaintness and its permeation with the 
belief in witchcraft give it something in common 
is the " Sidonia the Sorceress " of Meinhold. Its 
leading characters, Claes and Soetkin, Nele and 
Tyl himself, the hapless Katheline and the jovial 
glutton, Lamme Goedzak, are unforgettable, and 
a word of praise is due to that admirable minor 
character, Titus Bibulus Schnoufflus, Ulenspiegel's 
dog. Mr. Whitworth's version is most readable, 
and for the most part of high excellence, but a 
careful reader will be worried by many signs of 
negligence, which a more exact revision should 
have removed : names misspelt (e.g., p. 13), words 
left untranslated. Why print asile (passim) and 
roitelets, for which the dictionary equivalent is no 
such hard thing to find as for the names of 
Flemish eatables ? " Scalloped oysters " are said 
on p. 49 to be the sign of the pilgrim : surely 
they are something very different! But these 
are minor blemishes in a style which otherwise 
merits high praise. 

The larger, both in size and number, of the two 

series of woodcuts, those by M. Masui-Castricque, 
appeared some months before the publication 
of the book, and are not accompanied by any 
letterpress except a brief quotation, translated, to 
explain the subject of each woodcut. They are 
bold and vigorous work, that will seem, we fear, 
to the taste of most Englishmen devoid, if not 
actually scornful, of beauty. There is a distinct 
flavour of Brangwyn about them, as in much 
recent Belgian art. But strong and masterly 
original work in wood-engraving is rare enough 
for these cuts to be remembered as impressive, 
if not lovable creations. 

M. Delstanche's work is limited in size and 
style to much more modest proportions by the 
conditions of publication in a book of a definite, 
and very well-chosen, Jonnat. There are admir- 
able pages among them, as that of Lamme and 
Ulsnspiegel at the Minnewater, The Monk's Sermon, 
and Kathcline led to the Trial by Water, but others 
are somewhat weak or fail to represent the inci- 
dent definitely enough, while repeated representa- 
tions of the same character in the tale do not 
preserve that absolute consistency which is such a 
strong characteristic of the author himself. C. D. 
The Greek Theater and its Drama; by Roy C. Flickinger, 
Ph.D., Professor of Greek and Latin, Northwestern Uni- 
versity. Pp. xxviii + 358 ; 80 illust. (University of Chicago 

Professor Flickinger's book is a most pains- 
taking study of the conditions under which 
ancient plays were produced, and will un- 
doubtedly become a text-book in our universities, 
supposing that anyone continues to study Greek 
there. Though its style is not spirited, all the 
information that is wanted is carefully and clearly 
set forth ; and in doubtful questions the author's 
judgment is usually sober and sound. He tries, 
as he tells us, to do three things : " first, to 
elaborate the theory that the peculiarities and 
conventions of the Greek drama are largely 
explicable by its environment, in the broadest 
sense of that term. . . . Secondly, to emphasise 
the technical aspect of ancient drama. . . . 
Thirdly, to elucidate and freshen ancient practice 
by modern and mediaeval parallels". This 
ground, wide enough in all conscience, he covers 
comprehensively. An introduction (nearly a 
third of the whole book) deals with the origins 
of tragedy and comedy (in which some of the 
crazy modern theories are politely but faithfully 
handled) and with the development of the plan 
and buildings of the theatre. Here, consistently 
with his general good sense, the author disallows 
the existence of a raised stage in the earlier 
theatre. But he too conscientiously yields a 
point that he is not called upon to yield. The 
use of wajiaivuv and Karafiatveiv in certain plays 
of Aristophanes is not, as he thinks, a definite 
indication that the floor of the proscenium colon- 
nade was slightly raised above the orchestra. 

The prepositions do not necessarily imply rising 
or descending, but only motion away from or 
towards the spectators. The point cannot be 
discussed here, but it is clear that such preposi- 
tions may mean " into " and " out of " a place. 
For instance, Professor Myres showed (in the 
"Journal of Hellenic Studies", vol. xx), that in 
Homer, applied to the house, <lva means "out 
of" and Kara "into", inversely to the use in the 
theatre, but still without any actual implication of 
"rising" or "descending", although they may 
point to the origin of the house as a cave. Of 
the nine chapters of the main part of the book, 
eight discuss the influence exerted on the drama 
by its religious origin, by its choral origin, by the 
actors, by festival arrangements, by physical 
conditions (including the unities), by national 
customs and ideas, and by theatrical machinery 
and dramatic conventions, and the ninth de- 
scribes the theatrical records. Particularly in- 
teresting is the way in which the author shows 
how the ancient dramatists were conscious of 
being hampered by their conventions and the 
shifts they resorted "to in order to surmount their 
difficulties. At the same time, these struggles 
teach the lesson, which playwrights are too apt 
to forget, that greater freedom from convention 
does not make better drama. The book is well 
illustrated with plans and views of extant remains 
of theatres. In the map on p. 3 is the only error 
in scholarship we have noticed : " Gulf of 
Saronica"— as who should say " Pierfrancesco di 
Fiorentino ". E. s. L. 

The English Home from Charles I to George IV, its 
Architecture, Decoration and Garden Design ; by J. Alfred 
Gotch, f.s.a., f.R.i.b.a. ; x + 410 pp., over 3°° illust. (Bats- 
ford, Ltd.) 30s. n. 

The perusal of Mr. Gotch's new book on that 
ever fascinating subject "The English Home"— 
in this case from Charles I to George IV— makes 
one forcibly realise how utterly out of date, ac- 
cording to modern ideas, are the plans of these 
otherwise charming old houses. Inconvenience 
is often one of the penalties to be paid for an 
ancestral home. The author instances one or two 
almost unaltered houses, notably the very French 
late 17th century Boughton House, Northampton- 
shire, with its priceless contents of contemporary 
furniture, some of which was loaned to the 
Victoria and Albert Museum a few years ago by 
the Duke of Buccleuch, and the less attractive 
though more complete mansion at Dyrham, Glou- 
cestershire. The owners of such property are often 
in the dilemma of having either to commit mild 
vandalism by modernising the planning, or of 
forgoing convenience for the sake of an all too 
rare aesthetic conscience. Such famous examples 
as Castle Howard, Blenheim, YVentworth Wood- 
house, and Holkham Hall (all illustrated) are 
monumental architecture of the first order and are 
essentially mansions to admire as buildings rather 

: 39 

than homes to live in with any degree of comfort. 
The grand manner was so fashionable in the 18th 
century that noblemen in their anxiety to prove 
themselves scholarly and cultured even went to 
the length of starting with definitely preconceived 
classical elevations and of evolving plans — that is 
to say backwards — to fit them. Even the youngest 
student of architecture knows that the elevations 
should invariably be the natural outcome of the 
plan. "The oft-quoted saying of Lord Chester- 
field illustrates this," writes the author; "for 
when Lord Burlington had designed a beautiful 
but inconvenient house for General Wade, Lord 
Chesterfield advised the latter, if he could not live 
in it to his comfort, to take a house opposite and 
look at it". One wonders how our sturdy, and 
certainly homely, native Tudor style would have 
developed had no Inigo Jones sown the seeds of the 
exotic Italian manner. It is at about this period 
that Mr. Gotch takes up the thread of the develop- 
ment and traces it right up to the culminating 
refinements of the Brothers Adam. The reader is 
carried along irresistibly by Mr. Gotch's story, 
illustrated in all its phases by well-chosen examples 
by means of drawings of all descriptions, contem- 
porary and otherwise. He shows, for instance, what 
a vast change in the character of buildings was 
caused by the introduction of sash windows from 
Holland. That milestone of architectural history, 
the Banqueting House, Whitehall, 1619-22, must 
have been one of the earliest examples in this 
country of the use of sashes, if indeed it is safe to 
assume that the windows in this building were never 
filled in any other way. The original design 
(reproduced) of Inigo Jones is non-committal in this 
connection. In Chapter IV is given much inter- 
esting evidence to indicate that many designs — 
some of them none too good — hitherto attributed 
to Inigo Jones, are in fact the work of his pupil and 
nephew, John Webb. In the author's opinion 
Webb " probably did more to influence domestic 
architecture in England than any other man of his 
time, Inigo Jones not excepted". 

Needless to say, full justice is done to Wren 
and his work, as also to some fine efforts of other 
notable architects of the day. Towards the end of 
the book is a chapter giving characteristic examples 
of different types of houses of humbler dimensions, 
followed finally by numerous illustrations of 
features of all kinds, both external and internal. 
How heartily can one endorse and with what 
pleasure quote the author's opinion "that no 
reproduction of ancient glories, whether direct or 
modified, can be of abiding interest. Architecture 
to be interesting must meet certain definite wants, 
must reflect the needs of the hour and of the in- 
dividual, and as these must of necessity be ever 
changing, so must architectural expression. Each 
work of every architect presents a fresh problem 
which ought to be settled in its own way ". Even 

Mr. Gotch, distinguished architectural savant as 
he is, has excelled himself in this book, which, from 
beginning to end, is a delight to both mind and 
eye, and is a production worthy of the firm of 
Batsford. Basil Oliver. 

The Beginnings of Buddhist Art ; by A. Foucher, trans- 
lated by L. A. and F. W. Thomas, with a preface by the 
latter ; 316 pp. ; 50 Plates, one in colour. Paris (Geuthner), 
London (Humphrey Milford, for the Members of the India 

Students of Indian art and archaeology and of 
Buddhism, and we may hope also a wider public, 
will give a generous welcome to this long delayed 
publication of a collection of M. Foucher's ad- 
mirable essays, or rather lectures, in an English 
version. After the actual pioneers, no one has 
done more than M. Foucher himself to add to 
our knowledge of early Buddhist art, and certain 
of these lectures, notably that on the Eastern 
Gate at Sanchi, and also the one on the Greek 
origin of the Buddha type (though this is a little 
more controversial) are already classic. In "The 
Beginnings of Buddhist Art", the first essay, M. 
Foucher introduces us to the old " Native School 
of Central India", preserved to us because of the 
substitution of stone for wood as architectural 
material at certain important sites, particularly at 
Sanchi and Barhut ; and he dwells upon the strange 
anomaly presented by a Buddhist art which knows 
no figure of Buddha. The fact is that a very few 
abstract symbols sufficed to indicate to the earliest 
pilgrims the meaning of the sacred sites ; and the 
Sanchi sculptors, having more extended spaces to 
cover, re-edited the ancient themes while retaining 
the old hieroglyphic signaatla. The use of images 
in worship is a late phase of Indian culture, and 
the psychological necessity for it only arose, about 
the 2nd or 1st century B.C., with the develop- 
ment of devotional cults on the basis of the old 
philosophies. About this time, accordingly, we 
reach a crisis — a struggle, as it were, between the 
old tradition which relied entirely on abstract 
symbols, and the necessity for the representation 
of the figure of Buddha, in the first place "to 
serve as a centre or pivot for the scenes of his 
life ", and in the second for use as a cult object. 
It is at Gandhara, on the north-west frontier of 
India, that we see, in the 1st century a.d., the 
complete victory of the latter tendency, though 
the abstract symbols are never entirely rejected. 
But a strange cross current is introduced here 
into the stream of artistic development ; for the 
art of Gandhara is almost as much provincial 
Hellenistic in its formulas as it is Indian in its 
themes. These are the oldest Buddha figures 
certainly known to us. But it is practically 
certain that these are not the earliest Buddha 
figures ever made ; and this is conceded by M. 
Foucher when he calls the figures on the Ka- 
nishka reliquary "deja stereotype", and refers 
the Buddha type back to the 1st century B.C. He 


does not hesitate, however, in another chapter to 
speak of the "Greek origin of the image of 
Buddha". Plainly, the Gandhara figures are 
Hellenistic in character, and Greek formulae 
pass thence into all the later Indian types. 
The standing Buddha reminds us of the Lateran 
Sophocles. But even so, it is an exaggeration 
to speak of the Greek origin of the Buddha 
type (which is after all fundamentally and 
essentially the seated type) : for it is impos- 
sible even to imagine a western prototype for 
the padinasana pose and the dhyani mudra 
arrangement of the hands. It is not in this way 
that a western artist would have represented a 
philosopher, and here the western craftsman in 
Gandhara must have been the copyist of an 
Indian model. As to the source of that model : 
it was surely the most obvious thing for the Indian 
sculptor — or more likely the monk who stood by 
his side, when these were not one and the same 
individual — to select the form of the seated Yogi as 
representing the Enlightened One. We have only 
to remember the large part played by Yoga praxis 
in early Buddhism, and that on the night of the 
Illumination the Buddha must have been seated 
beneath the Bodhi tree in this very pose, and is 
recorded to have passed through the four cha- 
racteristic stations of Yoga trance. We know that 
Brahmanical images were in use in the 2nd cen- 
tury B.C., why not then also Buddhist ? The 
merely negative evidence is not of more import- 
ance in one case than the other, and the character 
of the Sanchi reliefs proves nothing as to cult 
images, for we find the abstract symbols still in 
use at Amaravati at the same time that separate 
figures were made. Essays on the Great Miracle 
of Sravasti and Buddhist art in Java are of the 
highest interest to archaeologists. Another on 
the Buddhist Madonna possesses a more general 
interest. We are all familiar with Chinese figures 
representing a mother and child, that seem as 
though they must derive from Christian originals. 
But it appears that authentic early representations 
of the Madonna are extremely rare in Christian 
art ; as rare as the representation of the Madonna 
motif is common in Asia at the same time. 
Familiarity with the Christian forms must not 
mislead us here ; were it not an anachronism, 

we might have been just as much inclined to 
interpret the Egyptian figure of Isis suckling 
Horus in the same way. "The type of the 
woman with a child ", M. Foucher remarks, " the 
happy incarnation of the wishes of mothers and 
the natural object of their worship, belongs, in 
fact, to all times, if not to all countries". As Dr. 
Thomas suggests in a felicitous preface, it is prob- 
ably in the Egyptian type that we may recognise 
the ultimate source alike of the Christian and the 
Buddhist Madonna. The Buddhist Madonna is 
really the fairy Hariti — a converted ogress — with 
her last born child. The Indian Society is to be 
warmly congratulated in offering to its members 
a volume of so high an interest and such per- 
manent value. The numerous illustrations are 
admirably reproduced in collotype, and there is 
a good index. a. k. Coomaraswamy. 

The Great War : Fourth Year ; Paintings by C. R. W. 
Nevinson, with an introductory esssay by J. E. Crawford 
Flitch ; 25 pp., 25 PI. (Grant Richards) 15s. n. 

This volume contains reproductions of most of 
the pictures by Mr. Nevinson which were included 
in "The Western Front", and of a dozen others. 
Except the frontispiece they are in black and white, 
and are more satisfactorily reproduced, on the 
whole, than by the three-colour process of the 
earlier publication. An appreciation of the pictures 
themselves has already appeared in The Burlington 
Magazine (April 1918). There is some minor 
matter for controversy, and some apparent incon- 
sistency, in Mr. Crawford Flitch's essay. Is the 
history of war in art so depressing as he would 
have us believe ; and can it be justly said that 
Uccello and Goya, in their pictures of war, were 
invariably " swept from their aesthetic anchorage 
by a flood of human passion " ? As regards Goya 
this opinion is qualified elsewhere by a reference 
to his " expressive form ". The artist who finds an 
expressive form for the gravity and intensity of 
war cannot altogether have lost sight of his proper 
function. Mr. Flitch's attitude to Futurism is in- 
definite. He cuts at the root of the movement on 
his first page, and later approves the application of 
a Futurist principle in Mr. Nevinson's Bomber. 
But, broadly, his estimate of Mr. Nevinson's art is 
well understood, both from the standpoint of the 
soldier and of the art critic. R. s. 



Gentlemen,— I am grateful to Mr. Gill for his 
review of my book on Indian essays. But I 
should like to make two remarks. First, that I 
do plainly acknowledge the value of the mediaeval 
European philosophy of life ; I speak, for example 
(p. 122), of the "great cycle of Christian civilisa- 
tion which attained its zenith, let us say in the 
12th or 13th century, when the creative will 

of man swept far beyond its personal boundaries, 
striving to establish an order in the world to 
correspond with the universal order of the world 
of imagination or eternity". If I have compared 
a past and passing India with modern indus- 
trialism, it is because the two are to be seen side 
by side ; and I pointed out that the latter is 
destroying and most likely will destroy the former. 
Secondly, Mr. Gill has no right to dismiss those 


passages in which I speak in a monistic sense as 
the "intangible sayings of a modern cultured 
person who will believe anything rather than 
make a personal surrender to a personal God "— 
unless he can point to evidence of insincerity in 
the manner of my saying. There are many- 
Indians especially— whose philosophy is their 
religion, as truly as Mr. Gill's own theism is his 
religion. The fundamental doctrine of the 
Upanishads, for example, is of the identity of 
the ultimate self with the Absolute Brahman, 
and this point of view could not fail to be 
emphasised in any volume aiming to interpret 
Indian life and thought, whatever the author's 
views might be. It is always open to the monist, 
of course, to believe in a personal God or gods 
in the same sense that he believes in his fellow 
man, in other words, pragmatically ; but as a 
mystic, he will be convinced by experience that 
the many are one. — Yours faithfully, 

Ananda Coomaraswamy. 

Boston, U.S.A., Nov. 10. 

Postscript. — I fully agree that " religion is not 
to be sought as a remedy for earthly ills ". 


Gentlemen,— In the last [October.— Ed] issue 
of The Burlington Magazine there appeared an 


article on Jan Lys by Dr. Tancred Borenius, 
suggested probably by the destruction of a paint- 
ing by this master in the recent fire at the 
Sackville Gallery. 

It may interest your readers to know that with 
the exception of slight details, a replica of the 
same subject, Satyr in the House of the Peasant, 
identical in size and composition, exists in the 
Widener Collection in Philadelphia. 

In Vol. IV, No. i, December 1915, of "Arts in 
America " will be found a brief article on this 
artist's life and work by Rudolf Oldenbourg, 
illustrated by the Widener painting and the 
Magdalena Lys in the Dresden Gallery. 

August L. Mayer, the writer on Spanish masters, 
wrote in the same publication October 1915, that 
this painting, which is attributed to Velasquez, 
"is undoubtedly a very good and characteristic 
example of the art of Bernardo Strozzi ". 

In the Widener Catalogue of 1916 its history is 
as follows : — 

Collection Jos6 de Pinto, 1780 (Spain). 

„ Lopes Cean de Laguna (Holland). 

Canvas, size 52J inches X 65J inches. 
Yours faithfully, 

G. Frank Muller. 
439 West 57th Street, New York. 

November 14th, 1918. 

Publications cannot be included here unless they have been delivered before the 16th of the previous month. Prices must 
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Serial Publications will for the present be arranged here according to the ordinary periods of their publication, and only the 
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numbers of their publications have jailed to arrive. 

Cambridge, University Press, Fetter Lane, E.C.2. 
Sampson (Geo.), Editor. Cambridge Readings in Literature, 
illust. ; Book i, xiii + 247 pp., 5s. n. ; Book 5, xix+288 pp., 
6s. n. 
Herbert Jenkins, Ltd., 12 Arundel Place, S.W. 

Percival (Maciver). The Glass Collet: tor, a guide to old 
English glass ; xvi + 331 pp., 125 illust., 6s. n. 
John Lane, Vigo St., W.i, and New York. 

Sparrow (Walter Shaw). Prints and Drawings by Frank 
Brangwyn, with some other phases of his art; 288 pp., 
50 pi. ; 2J g. n., also a special edition. 
Toy books — a large variety. 
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Original Woodcuts by Various Artists, 12 woodcuts, edition 

limited to 75 copies, 12s. 6d. 
[Woodcuts by Roger Fry, Simon Bussy, Duncan Grant, 
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A Child's Book of English Portraits, 46 pp., 13 col. pi. 

Periodicals — Weekly. — American Art News — Architect — 
Country Life. 

Fortnightly. — Bulletin of the Alliance Francaise, S3 — La 
Revista (Barcelona), IV, 73 — Veil i Nou, IV, 80, 81. 

Monthly.— The Anglo-Italian Review, 4 (15 Aug.) — Art World 
(New York), Mar — Colour — Connoisseur — Fine Art Trade 
Journal — Journal of the Imperial Arts League. 33— Kokka, 337 
and Contents of vol.xxvm (price raised to 2.S0 yen (5s. 6d.)per 
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Bi-monthly. — Art in America, vi, 5 — Boston, U.S.A., Museum 
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Quarterly. — Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Excursiones, 
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Pamphlets. — Classical and American Education, by E. P. 
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series, 1, I (72 Regent St., W.i), is. — Spink and Son, Ltd., 
6 King St., S.W.I, Exhibition of Ancient Sculpture, Vases and 
Bronzes, 36 pp., illust. 


Italianate-Greek icon with carved moulding, probably representing the Akathist Hymn, and said to 
have come from a church in the Island of Santorin (Thera). Extreme measurements, 22j x 15J , 
painting i6|x8|" (Mr. Charles Johnstone Hope-johnstone) 



It V 

11 (Thera). a 

to have bee . 

have invents 

' block ot 









that there an 
the lii 

of tin 


uic i 

on tl 


blue is of a s 

and not of th 


which i 






HE icon reproduced here was bought 
by the present owner, Mr. C. J. Hope- 
Johnstone, in the Island of Scio, dur- 
ing 1917, while he was on service for 
the Foreign Office. It was supposed 
to have come from a church in the island of 
Santorin (Thera),a provenance which there seems 
to have been no reason why the vendor should 
have invented. The picture is composed of one 
solid block of wood, 22j" x 15V, and i|" thick. The 
back is not planed smooth, but chipped fairly 
even with a chisel or other handled tool. The 
ornamental moulding is undercut to about £", 
and the openwork is attached to the back- 
ground by ties under the rosettes. The whole 
surface was gilded, and the original gold remains 
almost untouched over the picture. The mould- 
ing, however, has mostly been covered with 
a poor modern substitute, otherwise, as may be 
seen in the illustration opposite, it is almost 
intact. The date, and indeed the provenance — 
since the island of Santorin is merely not unlikely 
— is very difficult to determine in the present 
vague knowledge of Orthodox ecclesiastical art 
on this side of Europe. Mr. Roger Fry and 
Dr. Tancred Borenius do not see anything in the 
moulding incompatible with Italian work of the late 
17th century, and I think that they agree with me 
that there are strong signs of Italian influence in 
the lines and pose of the figures and the treatment 
of the drapery. The greater freedom and realism 
of an Italian artist is visible in almost every 
subject, especially perhaps in the single figure of 
the Virgin [A] representing the act of her con- 
ception overshadowed by the power of God. [See 
the larger illustration, p. 47.] The colour scheme 
is very pleasing, suggesting at a bird's-eye view the 
subdued richness of a mosaic or of a small- 
patterned oriental carpet. The colours used 
are almost exclusively blue, red, black and white 
on the gold background, all toned intentionally, 
and probably further mellowed by time. The 
blue is of a shade between indigo and prussian, 
and not of that dead green caused by the scrap- 
ing off of ultramarine. The red is vermilion, 
which still appears in the letters of the Greek 
alphabet which mark the scenes, as is explained 
further on. Most of these, now faint in the 
original, disappear in the reproductions on the 
natural scale [pp. 47, 50] ; some of them seem to 
have been renewed on the painting itself. 

The subject of the painting has, I think, been 
definitely fixed by Miss Carthew, who is well 
versed in the Orthodox liturgies. That the 
composite picture represents a series of scenes 
devoted to Christ, or the Virgin, or both together, 

1'nc BiRLiNGlox MiouiNE, No. 191. Vol. XXXIV — February 1919 

and not to the legend of afty saint, is quite evident. 
We immediately recognise The Visitation [E], 
Nativity [H], Journey of the Magi [0], Adoration 
of the Magi [I], Flight into Egypt [A], Presentation 
in the Temple [M], and Christ teaching the Doctors 
[N]. Three of the others can be guessed, though 
the subjects are not very common in the West, 
The Interview of Joseph ivith the Virgin (Matth. i, 19; 
[Z] ', and The return 0/ the Magi to their own 
Country [K]. But we are puzzled why The Annun- 
ciation should appear three times in the top row 
[A, B, r], since we cannot possibly interpret either 
of the scenes as the Annunciation at the Fountain 
derived from the Gospel of pseudo-Matthew. Nor 
does western iconography give us any clue at 
all to the meaning of most of the scenes from 
[N] to [A]. Miss Carthew's theory explains them. 
She has recognised that the series is inter- 
preted in precise order by the verses of the 
alphabetical hymn called '0 'AKa&oros'Y/xvos. The 
Akathist hymn is dated at about 600, but there is 
no clue to the writer. It is sung in the Orthodox 
Church on Fridays during the season of Lent. 
All, officiants, assistants, choir and people stand 
throughout the singing of the hymn, in remem- 
brance of the celebration of a victory (c. 626) gained 
by Heraclius's troops over Chosroes's, when the 
whole assembly stood throughout the night 
singing the praises of the Virgin a . Hence the 
derivation of the name is d-Ka0to-T?}/Lu — the hymn 
whereat none shall sit. As may be seen on 
pp. 46, 51, it consists of 24 short passages begin- 
ning with the Greek characters in alphabetical 
order 3 . As Miss Carthew has pointed out to me, 
the alternate verses beginning with the first 
[A, T, E] are followed by a series of twelve 
Xatpe, arranged antiphonally, all addressed to 
the Virgin under different similitudes, with a 
(Continued on p. 52.) 

1 Here Joseph seems to be touching the Virgin with a rod. 

2 Dr. Montague James, Provost of Eton, has kindly sent me 
the following note from Suicei's Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus : 
""Yjxi-ot oicoifli(TTos est hymnus sacer qui hebdomade quinta quadra- 
gesimae sabbato in matutinis in honorem B. Virginis canitur. 
Triodium : H) «""7J vn'p* (sc. sabbato 5 ao hebdomadae) nv ajcdei<rroi> 
i!ni/oi> eoprafontf Wis iirepayi'as fleoTOKOv. OrigO nomillis, lit recte 

CI. Meursius in Glosario suo observat, a victoria, quam Heraclii 
tempore adversus Chosroae legatum obtinuerunt ; ob quam 
impetratam, totam noclem stantes hymnum in honorem B. 
Virginis decantabant. Loca ex Triodio apud Meursium 
exstant : unde etiam petenda". 

3 Veneration for the letters of the alphabet was, of course, 
general further east, and much earlier than the founding of 
Constantinople. Instances might be multiplied of its survival 
and spread westward, both in secular verse and in Catholic 
liturgies and ceremonial. It is sufficient to note how a bishop 
still traces with the butt of his staff in ashes laid for the pur- 
pose saltire-wise on the floor of a church for consecration, the 
Greek and Latin alphabets uniting at their intersection in the 
common letter M. 




"AyyfAos 7rpo)ToaTaV//s ovpavodtv eTrip(p6rj, e'nreiv rrj 
®£otoku> to, Xaipe Kai crvv rrj aa-wp-arw cpwvfj, 
o~uop.aTOvp.tv6v cr€ Ouopwi', Ki'pif, ££ioraTO, koli (cttoto 
Kpavydtpv 7rpds o.vtt)v TOtavra- XaTp£ K. T. A. 

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ScktoV juou tjj i/'uxf/ tpaivtrai' dtrjropou yap cruAAr;- 
if/e<a<; ti)v Kurjaiv 7ra>s Aeyeis ; Kpatiuv AAAijAoui'a. 

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7rpds tov XtiTOvpyovvTO.' Ek Xayovwv ayvSiv Yiov ttois 
etrri Tt)(6rjvai Svvarov ; Ae'^ov poi. IIpos ^ ekeii/os 
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KXtt]/iyap,ov inrovoiov, " p.a6wv Si aov tt)v 
crvXXijijjiv i.< HvtvpaTOS aylov, tcpii- AAAijAoui'a. 

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ivcrapKov Xpicrrou Trapovvlav Kai bpap.6vTK (Ls irpds 
iroipiva, 0€wpov(Ti toltov lis ap.vov apiopov, iv rrj 
yaorpi Mapias jiotTKqOivTa, rjv ip-vovVTiS uttov 
XaipE K. T. X. 

Qeo&popov 'Aaripa cfEwpiycraCTES Mdyoi, tjj toutov 
TjKoXovdfjaav aiyXy Kai (us Aij^voi' KpaTOiTTts aiTOf, 
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tov a<p6ao~TOV, i\dpn]o-av, aiJTui j3ouivT(S' AXXijXovia. 

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Me'AAovtos 2up£wroi Tot jrapdvTos aiSvos p.(.8io-Taa6ai 
rov a7rareuivos, iiriSodrjs (is /8p£(£os aiT(i), dAA 
iyvtacrOrj'; tovtu) xai ©£cis Tf'Afios' 8io7T£p ^TrAdy?; 
(rov tj)v appijTov vcxpiav, Kpd£cov AAAriXovia. 

A An angel of the first quire was sent from heaven, to say 
to the Mother of God the " Hail Mary" ; and behold- 
ing Thee, O Lord, taking upon Thee corporeal sub- 
stance, he was astonished, and stood crying to her with 
incorporeal voice, saying : " Hail . . . 

B The holy one, beholding herself in chastity, spake 
boldly to Gabriel : "The riddle of thy words seemeth 
incomprehensible by my mind ; how speakest thou of 
generation by seedless conception, crying " Alleluia " ? 

r Seeking to know knowledge unknowable, the Virgin 
cried to the ministrant : " How is it possible for a son 
to be born from virgin bowels ? Tell thou me ''. To 
whom he spake in fear, yet crying thus : " Hail . . . 

A The Power of the Highest straightway overshadowed 
her that knew not man, unto conception, and revealed 
her womb of fair fruit as a fertile field for all that 
would reap salvation, singing " Alleluia ". 

E Bearing God in her womb, the Virgin hastened to 
Elizabeth, whose babe, straightway, recognising her 
salutation, rejoiced and with leaping as with singing 
cried to the Mother of God " Hail . . . 

Z Virtuous Joseph, distressed within by doubting 
thoughts, was troubled, beholding thee a maiden, and 
suspecting thee, O blameless Virgin, of a stolen wed- 
lock ; but having learned from thee of thy conception 
by the Holy Spirit, he said, "Alleluia". 

H The angels praised the coming of Christ in the flesh, 
and the shepherds heard ; and running as to a shep- 
herd, they behold Him as a spotless lamb, pastured in 
Mary's womb, and give praise to her, saying " Hail . . . 

The Magi contemplated the star that foreran God, and 
followed in its light, and holding to it as to a beacon, 
sought thereby a mighty king; and having approached 
the Inapproachable, they rejoic:d and cried to Him 

1 The sons of the Chaldeans saw in theVirgin's hands Him 
Who fashioned man with the hand, and knowing Him 
to be the Master, although He wore the image of a 
servant, hastened to honour Him with gifts, and cried 
to the blessed among women " Hail . . . 

K The Magi, having become harbingers of God, returned 
to Babylon, and, accomplishing Thine oracle, pro- 
claimed Thee, O Christ, to all men, and abandoned 
Herod for one devoid of sense that knew not how to 
sing "Alleluia". 

A Thou didst light in Egvpt the lamp of truth, and didst 
cast out the darkness of deceit; for the idols thereof 
fell, enduring not Thy might, O Saviour ; and they 
that were saved from them cried out to the Mother 
of God, " Hail . . . 

M To Simeon, ready to depart from the present age of 
guile, Thou wast delivered, an Infant, but wast revealed 
to him as Perfect God ; wherefore he was amazed at 
Thine Ineffable Wisdom, and cried, " Alleluia ". 








d a 



>*< '5b 









N— 12 

Nt'ap edet££ ^tljlv, e//</>aixuus 6 Ktuttik rots V7T 
airov yci o/xe'pois, «'£ acr7ropou fiXaoTijoas yacrTpos, 
Kai c/>vXd£as Tavrrjv, wcnrfp T/v, a.<f>6opov ua to Oav/xa 
/3X«Vopt«s, vxti'770-iu/xep avri/p, /8o<Ii T«s - Xatpe k. t. X. 

ierop tokop loorres, £cV(i)PuYxiep rov Ko'oyxoi', tor potip ets 
otpapop fiiradivrt^- otd tovto yap 6 £i/n?X6s ©cos eVi 
yjjs itpdirrj Tan-eiios avdpiairos, fiovXopa os tkuvvai 
jt/jos to ityos Tois avTuI /3o<JWas - 'AXXvjXoui'a. 

"OXos ?/P £P to?s koitw, Kai t<op dp<o ovS' oXtus ds-^v 6 
uTTcpiypa-n-TOS Adyos - o-iiyKaTa/Jacrts yap ©tiKi;, oi 
/x«Ta/Jacrts Se to7tik?) ytyopr Kai tokos c'k Ilap^tVov 

6eo\l]7TTOV, CKOUOUtTI^S toito- Xuipe K. T. X. 

n«'J0. <puots Ayye'Xaip KaTeJrXdyi; to p-iya tj)s oSJs 
e'pap#poj7r?/o"«os cpyov tov d.Trpoo~iTov yap ws ©eop, 
iucuipei jracrt 7rpoo"iTOP avdptimov, rjfuv piv 0"wSid- 
yovra, duovovTa Si irapa rrdvTuiv ovrcos - 'AXXjyXoui'a. 

Pi/Topas 7roXvc£$o'yyou;, (us r^pVas a<f>wvovs, bpuipev eVi 
troi, ©eoTOKE' d7ropoCo"i yap X«y«p to, Iluis Kai 
Oapfopos xtcWts, Kai tikiiv tcT^vo-as - ^/xeis 8e to 
Mvo-Tiqpiov 6av/xd£oi>Tt<s, 7rtcrT<os /Joayxep" Xuipe 

K. T. X. 

ZuVai Oikwv top Koa/iov 6 Wop oXidp KooyxrjTaip, 7rp6s 
toCtop avTerrdyyeXTos ^X#€- Kai iroip.r]v virdp^uiv <os 
©e6s, Si' i;xias itpdvi] KaO' 17x105 dp$pu>7ros - oxiotai yap 
to o/xoiov KaXc'o-as, u>s ©f6s axovct' 'AXXi/Xovta. 

I «x os tl Ta " / 'TO-pOa'iDV, ©€Otok€ TIap&evc, Kai TrdvTtav 
TuV €ts ere 7rpocrTpe^6!'T(uf 6 yap tov ovpavov Kai t^s 
yi)s KaTto-Kti'acrt' o-c Hoi^t^s, "Axpapre, otK»jo-as «V 
TjJ prjrpq. crov, Kai 7raPTas o~oi irpQQ-<piaviLv SiSd£as - 
Xaipe k. t. X. 

N The Creator showed to us, the creatures made by Him, 
a new creation ; He sprouting from an unseeded womb 
and preserving it unstained as it was ; in order that 
we should extol it, beholding the marvel, 
"Hail ... * 




When we behold the strange Birth, let us become 
strangers to the world, transferring our minds to 
heaven ; for to this end High God appeared upon the 
earth— humble man, willing to draw up on high them 
who cry to Him "Alleluia". 

The Incircumscribed Word was wholly with them that 
are below and in no wise absent from Them that are 
above ; for the condescension was divine, and was not 
change of place ; and the birth was from a virgin pos- 
sessed of God, and she heard these words, " Hail 

All the generation of angels was amazed at the great 
work of Thine Incarnation ; for they saw Him Who is 
inapproachable as God, Man approachable by all, 
dwelling among us and hearing from all " Alleluia ". 

We see the orators, the men of many words, dumb as 
fish before thee, O Virgin ; for they know not how to 
answer the question, " How remainest thou a virgin and 
yet didst avail to bear a son ? " But we, amazed at the 
mystery, cry out in faith, " Hail . . . 

Willing to save the universe, the Disposer of all came 
for its sake, His Self-sent Messenger, and being, as 
God, our Shepherd, for our sake He appeared in our 
likeness as Man, for, like calling to Like, He hears, 
being God, " Alleluia ". 

Thou, O Virgin, Mother of God, art a wall to virgins 
and to all them that flee to thee ; for the Maker of 
heaven and earth prepared thee, immaculate, and 
dwelt in thy womb and taught all to call on thee, 
" Hail . . . 

"Y/xi-os <x7ras iJrraVai, crvpcKrcipco'dai (tttivSwi', tco 

7tXtJ6€i Tail' ttoAXuV oiKTtptiuV gov lo~apl6p.owi yap 
1 'lulltCl * 

ScobiKas Vl xlv Tots °" ' 

tit} tpdp.fuo wSds au 7rpoo-<£e'pa)iieV crot, Bao-tXeC dyu, 
„.'.X;.. >_r. ."t... *.. s.'S .« - __«_ \ 

ov&tv TcXov/xtv aiuiV, 
jSowcrif 'AXXryXovi'a. 

Q>uiToo'6\ov Xap.7rdSa, tois hi crKoVa c^apeicrae, opii/xei> 
tt\v dytav HapOivov" to yap dvXov aJTTovcra <pws, 
68)rya jrpos yvwcriv Ouktjv draPTas, aiyrj t6v vovv 
tpunitpvo-a, Kpavyfj Si Tip-wjiivq Tavra" Xalpe k. t. X. 

Xapiv SovvaL PfX>Jo"as otpXrjpaTmv dp^aioiv, 6 Trivratv 
XpeuXvrrji dvOptoTruiv, ivtSrijx-qo-e $1 iavTOv 7rp6s tois 
O7ro87;/tovs r^s auToC ^dpiros' Kai or^t'o-as to X fl P°~ 
ypa<f>ot', aKOva irapb. ■xdvTmv outojs' 'AXXijXoui'o. 

S'dXXoi'T^s crou top' tokov, dviJLi.vovp-.iv ere tuitcs <is 
ip-^vypv vabv, ©£Oto'kc- cV tij o~q yap oiKi;o-as yacTpi 
6 o-vvi-^uiv ndvTa tjj \ttpl Kupios, ^yiWtv, iS6$a(rtv, 
ioiSaie /3oav aoi 7rdiTas' Xaipe k. t. X. 

ii TravvpLVTjTi M^Tcp, 17 TCKOVtra top TrdvTwv 'AyiW 
dyiwTaTov Aoyov, St^aLiar] rr/v vvv Trpoatpopav, avb 
7rucn;s pCcrat crvii<popas djravras' Kai t^s iwXXod'ctjjs 
Xvrpwcrai KoXdcrtais tovs cru/x^owPTas' 'AXX>;Xovi'o. 

Y Every hymn fails that strives to attain the multitude of 
Thy many mercies, for if we offer Thee, O Holy King, 
odes innumerable as the sand, yet is our labour in 
no wise worthy of the gifts that Thou hast given 
to us who cry to Thee, " Alleluia ". 

<i> We see the holy Virgin, a shining beacon, appearing 
to them that sit in darkness ; for she kindled the 
Immaterial Light, and leads all to divine knowledge, 
enlightening the mind with radiance, honoured by the 
cry, " Hail . . . 

X The Redeemer of all men's debts, purposing to give 
grace from the ancient penalties, did of His Own Self 
dwell among them who had ceased to dwell in His 
grace, and having rent the handwriting, He hears from 
all, "Alleluia ". 

X V Singing of thy Babe, we all raise hymns to thee, Mother 
of God, as a living temple, for the Lord Who holds all 
things in His Hand, dwelt in thy womb, and hallowed 
and glorified thee, and taught all to cry to thee, 
"Hail . . . 

fi All-praised Mother, who didst bear the Most Holy 
Word of all the Holy, receive our present offering, and 
deliver us all from all evil ; and redeem from future 
chastisement those who crv together, "Alleluia". 

5 1 

final, unvarying, 13th, Xalpe, Nvp.^, dw/x</>£VT«, which 
is repeated by the choir after the priest 4 . The 
even verses [B, A,Z], and so on, end with the 
single " Alleluia ". The Xatpe are omitted here for 
want of space, and because they throw little or no 
light on the precise significance of the individual 
scenes of the icon. The hymn may be described 
in the less unfamiliar western terms rather as a 
series of " farced proses " than a poem in the 
modern sense of the word " hymn", since it is 
without metre and depends for its effect on 
assonance and antithesis 5 . 

The series is reproduced a trifle larger than the 
original on pp. 47 and 50, and the hymn with 
an English version compiled for iconographical 
purposes is printed on the opposite pages 6 . On 
comparing the text with the illustrations it 
will be seen that they correspond precisely. 
Some of the letters of the Greek alphabet have 
disappeared from the icon itself, though more are 
legible on it than appear in the reproductions. A 
few, I think, were originally omitted from lack of 
a suitable place for them in the composition, for 
the X and fi are very plainly visible at the foot 
of the scenes immediately above those to which 
they belong [see foot of 2 and Y]. But the point 
is that no scene appears out of the order of the 
hymn. The three Annunciation scenes, all within 
doors, follow the three first verses of the hymn. 
The fourth represents the doctrine of the Virginal 
Conception, also according with the hymn. The 
more theological and devotional and the less 
historical the poet's subject becomes, the more 
difficult it naturally becomes to express in a 
"material art", and the more difficult for the 
critic to interpret, especially since the charac- 
teristics are still on a low plane of realism. 
Thanks to Miss Carthew, with whom I generally 
agree, a good deal may be distinguished in no 
way divergent from the hymn, and in many cases 
plainly referring to it, as follows : 

N Christ, the new offspring of virginity, at the 

*To quote Miss Carthew again : "Apostrophes of this kind 
to the Virgin occur in early Coptic manuscripts. In The Book 
of the Resurrection of Christ by Bartholomew the Apostle, which 
may have been put together in the 2nd century, and was almost 
certainly not written later than the 4th century, a series of 
' Hails ' very similar to these in the Akathist hymn is to be 
found, but in this case they are addressed by Christ to the 
Virgin after His Resurrection. Hence we may conclude that 
this form of hymn was in use at a very early date ". 

6 But in the Xaipe, the antithesis and assonance are still 
more marked than in the proses, and some final rhymes occur ; 

£ tf Xaipc, jSouA^s airoppyTOV fxuffny X a 'P e i o^Y^S Seop.eViop 7tiVtis, 
and Xalpe, to ruiv 'Ayye.Vuf 7roAv0pi»AA7)TOP Bav^a- X«ipe, to twp 
Saiu.ol'wi' jroAuflpiJl'TjTOV Tpavp-a. (ist and 4th Xaipe of F). 

6 This pedestrian version, made to explain the scenes before 
us, is entirely based on another in MS. made for the more 
serious purpose of devotional use, and now in course of pub- 
lication. Otherwise I could not have supplied one in the time 
available nor perhaps at all, owing to long neglect of Greek 
grammar. I have also to thank again Dr. Montague James for 
many corrections and suggestions ; and Mr. Lionel Cust for 

age of twelve years, laying the first foundations of 
the new creation in the minds of the doctors in 
the Temple. 

3 Neither Miss Carthew nor I can suggest 
any specific meaning in this scene. Either the 
painter failed to formalise the verse, or he refers 
to some special legend or icon which I do not 
know. H can be seen even in the reproduction 
near the left-hand corner of the top margin. 

O Christ-Man within the vesica of the Virgin, 
among men below in the presence of the Trinity 
above, without change of locality. 0, appears 
quite plainly in the same position as H. 

n Christ-Man adored by Angels. In the 
painting itself cherubim are visible below the 
throne and the figures beside it are winged. 

'P The orators dumbfounded hold their 
speeches rolled tight in their hands. If they 
were delivering them the rolls would appear in 
falling scrolls. The 'P is just above the head of 
the seated Virgin. 

2 Miss Carthew is inclined to see in this scene 
a Harrowing of Hell, as the staff in the hand of 
Christ bears the resurrection banner. If so the 
nimbused figures represent Patriarchs. I think 
the artist, possibly not very well instructed in the 
text, has confused the two forms of staff. The 
X in the middle of the lower edge belongs to the 
scene below. 

T The centre figure represents, not Christ, but 
the Virgin, and behind her is a front wall with 
two diagonal side walls in attempted perspective, 
not so clear in the reproduction as in the painting 

Y This evidently represents a venerated pic- 
ture of Christ supported by the ecclesiastical and 
lay dignitaries. Miss Carthew suggests with great 
probability that the picture is the celebrated icon 
referred to below. The w again belongs to the 
scene below. 

<*• The object on the right, which occupies half 
the space, appears plainly in the painting as a 
beacon, which is broken by the painter into an 
irregular silhouette in order to enable him to 
include those that sit in darkness. To the 
modern eye they seem to be sitting inside the 
beacon as in a cavern. The 4> appears midway 
between the Virgin's head and the beacon. 

X Christ the Redeemer stands tearing assunder 
the bill of costs ; Adam and Eve, apparently, sit 
below in the darkness of ancient transgression 
watching the redemption of their race. 

¥ In the foreground kneels the author of the 
hymn, drawn on a very small scale, offering his 
work, as the mouthpiece of all conditions of men, 
standing behind him, to Christ, and to the Virgin 
as the living temple of God, symbolised by the 
building in the centre of the scene. 

ft The celebration of a venerated icon (cf. Y), 
in this instance of the Virgin and Child. As 


Continuous brush drawing (here divided), black, sparingly touched with red and green on 
thick yellowish paper, i' x 2' oj." c. 966 A.D., from Tun-Huang (British Museum, Stein 

already noted, the Z> appears in scene [Y] imme- 
diately above. 

Y, O Miss Carthew's theory is further justified 
by the tradition that the Akathist hymn was sung 
on three occasions in Constantinople when the 
city was attacked, and the enemy was put to 
flight by its spiritual power. On the first of 
these occasions the " icon of Christ not made by 
hands " (>? dxev ,07rot V ros ro " X/ho-to? aV-wv) was carried 
in the procession by the Patriarch, and on the 
third occasion the icon of the Mother of God, 
the patron of the city, by the people themselves. 
Therefore the icons being venerated in scenes Y 
and 12 are, as we may reasonably assume, intended 
by^the painter to represent these. 

A point which needs further explanation is a 
word on the scroll held by the angel on the left 
hand of the Virgin and Child in the tympanum of 
the picture. One would suppose that it might 
stand for the eucharistic " Gloria in excelsis " or 
the Angelic Salutation, but it is illegible. All that 
can be said is that it appears to be written in 
Sclavonic, and not Greek, characters, evidence 
which would direct us to the northern rather than 
the southern parts of the Peninsula. The par- 
ticular design of the Virgin and Child, which 
seems to me to be derived from a plastic model, 
may also point to a Uniate miraculous image, like 
most others, Byzantine in style, rather than to an 
Orthodox icon 7 . The other objects in the tym- 
panum — the ladder, the temple or palace, the 
lamp, the lily, the rose, and the altar-of-incense or 

7 The hymn is as Catholic as it is Orthodox, though not used 
in western Catholic churches. 

table of shew-bread, for such they seem to be, 
are emblems of the Virgin common in both Greek 
and Latin writers 9 . I was inclined to see in 
scene a two ladders slanting towards each other 
below the antependium in front of the icon of the 
Virgin and Child, and to suggest connection with 
the earlier and widespread devotional method 
rendered famous by S. John Climacus, but Miss 
Carthew does not think that the method persisted 
among the orthodox so late as the icon, and that 
the objects, if intended for ladders at all, are 
merely represented as ordinary emblems of the 
Virgin, as " the ladder whereby God descended to 
earth and man ascends to heaven" 9 . But such 
iconographic guesses might be carried to a 
wearisome extent. Enough has been said to 
increase the literary interest of this very attractive 
devotional decoration, and perhaps to lead to 
more precise study of Orthodox art, the legitimate 
if impoverished heir of the Byzantine. 

Another icon, which from its description seems 
also to illustrate the Akathist hymn, was brought 
to this country from Russia some years ago, and 
has apparently been taken back there more 
recently. On this perhaps further information 
will be available. From a trustworthy account 
it was composed of a Virgin and Child on a larger 
scale in the centre, surrounded by twenty-four 
scenes similar to those illustrated here. 

8 Cf. an interpolation found in some prayer-books after [E]— 

to UaXaTiov, ToO ilovov /3atriAeW xatpe Bpove jrvpive Tov UavTOKpiTOpos ■ 
and — 'PoSov to afj.ipa.inov, xaipe f) /xoitj /3Aaarrjo~ao-a. I quote from a 

modern book published in Constantinople in 1886. 
9 C/. the third pair of x«'p*. r - x«p«. «*'V«f inovpine, 5V fc kot^ij 

o 0eoV xaxpt, ycipvpa /xtToyovffa tous «'« ttjs yijs irpbs ovpavbv. 



HE lively drawing here reproduced 
belongs to the portion of the Stein 
collection recently allotted to the 
Print Room. It is executed with a 
coarse brush in black ink, with a few 
touches of red {e.g. on the camel's saddle-cloth) 
and green (e.g. behind the horse's saddle-cloth) on 
a roll of thick yellowish paper measuring 2 ft. 9! in. 
by 1 ft. At the right-hand end of the roll, behind 
the camel's tail, is the torn edge of another sheet 
of drawing. 

The paper used by the artist had already been 
scribbled upon. The irregular lines of Chinese 
writing on this side of the paper are passages 
copied out, perhaps as a writing exercise, from the 
document which occupies the other side 

This document, dated 966 A. D., records Buddhist 


benefactions of the Controller of the " Restore- 
the-Right" Army [kuei-i-chun), Ts'ao Yuan-chung 
and his wife, the Lady Chai of Hsun-yang. The, 
couple spent a month's religious retreat in the 
Caves of the Thousand Buddhas at T'un '-huang. 
The Controller (who was also *' specially promoted 
Inspector, Grand Master, President of the Council 
and Great King of T'o-hsi ") spent this summer 
holiday in copying out the Sutra of Buddha's 
names. Subsequently he and his wife restored 
the decayed substructure of a colossal statue of 
Maitreya Buddha, the lady Chai " preparing food 
for the workmen with her own hands ". 

Since the scribbled lines of writing on top of 
which the drawing was made are stray sentences 
copied from this document, it follows that the 
drawing cannot be earlier than the document. 
Probably it is of about the same date. 

'The commentator on the Hnn Annals insists upon the 




'HE importation of silk and other na- 
tural products from China to Europe 
is traceable as far back as the early 
days of the Roman Empire. There 
is, however, no evidence that Chinese 
objects of art were known in the West at this 
remote period ; in any case, no such imports, if 
they ever existed, now remain. Specimens of silk 
weaving of the 13th and 14th centuries, made by 
Chinese craftsmen or under strong Chinese in- 
spiration, have lain in the treasuries of European 
cathedrals or in the burying-grounds of Egypt 
from mediaeval times, and have at length found 
their way into museums and private collections. 
Their presence so far west is explicable as the 
result of the various reactions set up by the 
extensive Mongol conquests in Asia and Eastern 
Europe in the course of the 13th century, which 
included the opening-up of new routes for trade. 
The break-up of the Mongol Empire, the irruptions 
of new barbarous hordes, and the renaissance of 
Chinese nationalism under the Ming Dynasty 
(1368-1644) practically brought to an end, in 
the second half of the 14th century, the close 
intercourse that had existed between Europe and 
the Far East for something like a hundred years. 
China resumed her ancient isolation. Not until 
after the rounding of the Cape of Good Hope by 
Vasco da Gama, and his appearance in the Indian 
Ocean in 1498, did the products of Chinese art 
and industry flow once again westwards, at any 
rate in any appreciable quantity. The Portuguese 
soon established a number of colonies and trading 
stations in various parts of Asia. They were 
followed by the Spaniards, and, at the end of 
the 16th century, by the Dutch, who, early in 
the 17th century, seized most of the Portuguese 
Asiatic possessions. The 17th century saw the 
rise of large companies, formed by the amalga- 
mation of smaller units, for trading with the Far 
East. The earliest to receive a charter was the 
first English East India Company, which was in- 
corporated in 1600. The Dutch and the Danish 
East India Companies were founded soon after. 
Then in the second half of the 17th century and 
in the early years of the 18th century appeared 
the French East India Company and several 
French companies of China. These various com- 
panies had factories or trading stations in China, 
Japan, India and the East India Islands. 

Through the Portuguese and Spanish traders, 
and through the East India Companies, large 
quantities of Chinese works of art were imported 


into Europe in the 16th and following centuries. 
Chinese lacquer and porcelain were to be found 
among the treasures of Queen Elizabeth. In a 
proclamation of Charles I, dated 1631, permitting 
the importation of certain artistic products from 
the Orient by the English East India Company, 
mention is made of silks, taffetas and embroidered 
carpets from China. The interest shown in Chinese 
works of art received a special stimulus from the 
visit of the Siamese embassy to the court of 
Louis XIV in 1686. The gifts sent to the French 
monarch by Phra Narai, the king of Siam, in- 
cluded many examples of the art of China. A 
further impulse resulted from the voyages of the 
French " Amphitrite" to the Far East in 1698- 1703. 
In the 18th century " le gout Chinois" became a 
fashionable craze. Not only the native products, 
but plausible imitations and adaptations were in 
wide demand. To this taste the Chinese crafts- 
man specially ministered. He worked not only 
for the general European market, but in response 
to the orders of private individuals, who were 
able to use the various companies trading with the 
Orient as their medium. Of the latter fact we 
have evidence in the case of the many examples 
of European works of art which are decorated 
with European heraldry — a feature that often 
serves to indicate their date. Specimens of 
Chinese porcelain bearing European coats-of- 
arms are in public and private collections in 
Europe and America ; several such are in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. It is less often 
that we find European heraldry ornamenting 
Chinese textiles. One such example the Victoria 
and Albert Museum was fortunate to acquire, 
through the generosity of Mrs. Reynolds, in 
1916. This is a yellow satin panel, with em- 
broidery in coloured silks [Plate], The 
pattern consists of a symmetrical arrangement 
of delicate curved floral stems and pots of 
flowers, in the middle of which are blazoned the 
arms of Brydges impaling those of Willoughby. 
The Brydges in question is James Brydges, the first 
Duke of Chandos (1673-1744), Pope's "gracious 
Chandos," the patron of Handel, who lived over 
three years in his service. James Brydges was 
paymaster-in-general of the English forces abroad 
in 1705-1713, during the War of the Spanish Suc- 
cession, and in that capacity amassed great wealth. 
In 1719 he was created Duke of Chandos. He 
married three times. His second wife was 
Cassandra Willoughby, of Parham, whom he 
married in 1713 ; she died in 1735. These facts 
give us 1719 and 1735 as the terminal dates for 
the embroidery, of which the Chinese origin is 
unquestionable. The dates of Chinese textiles 

Eastern embroideries mostly on leather for the western market 

can, as a rule, only be determined within fairly 
wide limits. This is due to the conservatism of 
the Chinese craftsman as well as the Chinese 
designer ; the same patterns continue to be pro- 
duced in practically the same way for a long 
period of time. There is, undoubtedly, a notice- 
able development — the later embroideries, for 
instance, show more of an attempt at shading, and 
more of tendency to the picturesque than do 
the earlier. The occasional appearance of a 
specific date on a textile, or, as in the present 
example, of a European coat-of-arms, furnishes 
a useful clue to the nature of the patterns or 
the style of workmanship in vogue at certain 

China is not the only Asiatic country from 
which examples of European heraldic decoration 
are forthcoming. In 1917 the Victoria and Albert 
Museum was presented by Mr. Lionel Cust, 
through the National Art-Collections Fund, with 
a black morocco wallet for letters [Plate], 
embroidered, in coloured silks and silver and 
silver-gilt thread, with a floral pattern and the 
arms of Pelham-Holles, first Duke of Newcastle 
(1693-1768). For service against the Pretender 
Pelham-Holles received the title of Marquis of 
Clare and Duke of Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1715. 
This gives us the terminus a quo for the em- 
broidery on the Museum wallet. The Duke was 
created Knight of the Garter on April 30th, 
1718. As the garter does not appear with 
the shield, the embroidery must date between 
1715 and 1718. The embroidery is certainly 
Turkish, and the wallet may have been made up 
somewhere in European or Asiatic Turkey, but 

this is open to dispute. The wallet has a red 
morocco lining, tooled in gold, and is fitted with 
a gilt metal lock. Both the lining and the lock 
must be the work of European craftsmen, possibly 
French ; there were a large number of the latter 
in England during the early part of the 18th 
century, engaged in various industrial pursuits. 
Dated examples of embroidered morocco cases 
or pocket-books, of the class to which Mr. Lionel 
Cust's gift belongs, are in existence, which further 
bear the name of their place of origin. One 
such, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, is 
worked with the inscription " Willm Whit- 
more, Constantinople, Ano. 1676 " [Plate]. 
Another, belonging to Sir William Lawrence, is 
embroidered with the words " Aleppo The 20th 
of July anno Domini 1688 " [Plate]. Two 
others, also the property of Sir William Lawrence, 
bear the name " Constantinople " and the date 
1777. Of these various dated examples the style 
of the embroidery on those belonging to the 17th 
century is entirely Oriental in character, while 
with the 18th century the influence of European 
designs begins to show itself. It is not unlikely 
that all of them were made through the medium 
of the British Turkey or Levant Company, of 
which the beginnings went back to the reign of 
Elizabeth, and which in 1605 was reconstituted 
under a charter of James I as " The Merchants of 
England trading to the Levant Seas". The 
Levant Company survived, at least nominally, 
down to 1825. At Aleppo, the name of which is 
embroidered on one of the pocket-books illus- 
trated on the Plate, the Company had an 
important factory and consulate. 


OLLOWING the precedent of the past 
two years some account is given below 
of objects acquired by the national 
collections during the year 1918 : — 
The Anglo-Saxon section of the 
Museum has profited by the chance discovery 
of a group of graves of this period at Bridge, 
in the neighbourhood of Canterbury. This county 
has produced considerable quantities of remains 
of the Jutish settlers of the 6th century, now 
mostly in the Faussett Collection in the Liverpool 
Museum. This recent find was made by Captain 
Lewis Moysey, R.A.M.C., a distinguished geolo- 
gist, who shortly after was one of the victims of 
German murderous methods, being on board 
the hospital ship "Glenart Castle," torpedoed in 
the Bristol Channel. The objects have been pre- 
sented by the finder's mother, Mrs. Moysey, and a 
second series from the same spot, found by Mr. 
Charles Wickenden, have been added by him. 
They include several glass vessels of the forms 

typical of the time, among them the remains of a 
cup with tear-like lobes, such as was found in the 
great barrow at Taplow. The brooches are of 
divers types — the square-headed form as well as 
the more continental variety, with a semi-circular 
head and radiating projections set with garnets. 
Of far greater rarity is a circular silver brooch, 
minutely and elaborately engraved with bands of 
animal ornament. With these were associated 
the usual grave furniture, arms in the case of the 
men, and beads of gla^s and amber in the women's 

A gift from Mr. Fairfax Murray is worthy of 
more than passing mention, viz., two caskets 
with carved decoration. One of these is of a 
familiar form and type, Italian, 15th century, the 
edges and top filled with intarsia. It is uncommon 
in having the panels on the sides carved in ivory, 
not the usual bone, with subjects from a mediasval 
romance, and in a style widely different from that 
usually found on these familiar caskets. The other 


is an admirable example of the Swiss bridal casket 
of the 16th century. The sunk panels are carved 
with quaint fanciful subjects recalling the borders 
of illuminated manuscripts of a couple of centuries 


The accessions of old Chinese pottery have not 
been numerous, but the collection has been sen- 
sibly enriched by the gift of three T'ang examples, 
presented by the National Art Collections Fund 
from the bequest of the late Mr. W. W. Simpson, 
of Winkley, Whalley. These comprise a figure 
of a horse, of the well-known " Suffolk punch " 
type, differing somewhat from any already in the 
museum ; a horseman, of the smaller size, who, 
from the position of his hands, now empty, has 
evidently been a musician, playing an instrument 
of the clarinet type, and an unusually elegant 
figure of a standing girl. The musician's horse 
has a hogged mane, and at first sight it might be 
thought that the animal was unprovided with a 
head stall, but remains of this adjunct can still be 
traced in paint on the head ; the saddle, also, has 
originally been coloured red and the square saddle- 
cloth black, while there are remains of the same 
colours on the garments of the rider and on the 
horse's mane and hoofs. The glaze, unusually 
vitreous and glistening, still coats parts of the 
figure. The statuette of the girl stands out, 
however, both in originality and grace, beyond 
either of the others. The profile of the figure in 
particular is remarkable in these respects. It 
recalls more than anything else the peculiar 
virginal simplicity that is so often seen in French 
and English figures of young women in the 13th 
century — a naive directness and absence of 
affectation, symptomatic of an unsophisticated 
devote in her teens. The head is somewhat large 
and heavy for the slender body, again suggestive 
of youth, and it is surmounted by a high rounded 
hood of an original design. This is coloured 
black, and around her shoulders is draped a pale 
green scarf, one end passing round her right arm 
and hanging down in front. An ornamented 
girdle confines her high waist, and a gown with 
vertical red stripes reaches down to, and covers, 
her feet, without any "fullness". The face is rather 
full and rounded, and has originally had a coating 
of white slip, on which the features, eyes and 
mouth have been accentuated in black and red. 
The modelling is excellent, the mouth especially 
having been executed with great skill and care. 
Taken as a whole, it is one of the most refined 
pieces of the period in any collection. 

The Rev. E. C. Dewick, in compliance with the 
desires of his father, the late Rev. E. S. Dewick, 
well known as an authority on manuscripts, has 
given to the museum a small series of works of 
art. They comprise three figures of English ala- 
baster, S. Paul, S. Barbara and a bishop, which 
have probably served to separate the panels of the 


Passion in a retable ; a charming late 14th cen- 
tury ivory group of the Virgin with attendants, 
and a number of Italian plaquettes, which have 
been selected as additions to W. Whitcombe 
Greene's beautiful collection. It is probable, by 
the way, that the room containing these will be 
opened to the public before these lines are in 

The only accession of importance to the De- 
partment of Greek and Roman Antiquities to be 
recorded is a marble torso of a nude Aphrodite, 
apparently of the Medicean type, which was 
bequeathed by Mr. and Mrs. John Ford. It is 
slightly under life size. The head is missing, the 
arms are wanting from the upper end of the 
biceps, and the legs from the middle of the thighs. 
Neck, arms and legs have the fractured surfaces 
prepared for restoration. The figure rests on the 
left leg. A point in relief under the right breast 
probably indicates the original position of the 
right wrist. 

The accessions to the Department of Coins and 
Medals have not been unsatisfactory in what might 
have been expected to be a lean year. The bequest 
by Mr. John Gorman Ford of his small cabinet of 
Greek coins has enriched the collection by a 
number of beautiful specimens, more especially 
from the mints of Greek Italy, such as Meta- 
pontum and Heraclea, and of Sicily, such as 
Syracuse. From another generous bequest, that 
of Mr. Dewick, the selection has, so far, only 
partially been made, owing to the absence of the 
collections from the Museum; but this selection 
includes some brilliant specimens of English gold 
coins of the best period (14th and 15th centuries). 
Lady Stern's bequest of a beautiful example in 
lead of Pisanello's medal of Malatesta Novello 
makes a most welcome addition to the already 
fine series of the master's works in the museum. 
Among modern medallists, Ludwig Gies, perhaps 
the only medallist who has at all succeeded in 
expressing something of the tragic scale of the 
war, is now represented by two castings, one 
symbolical of the German munition-factory, the 
other of America's contribution to the war. 

Brief reference was made in January 1918 to 
an important gift ireceived by the Department of 
Prints and Drawings in the previous month. This 
was a selection, presented by Lady Lucas, from 
the vast collection of prints formerly preserved at 
Wrest Park, Bedfordshire. The drawings, books 
and prints chosen to supplement the museum 
collection number 4,651, and are of the most 
varied kinds, but the strength of the collection 
lies chiefly in engravings, etchings and aquatints 
of the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries. The 
addition of more than a thousand specimens of 
the French School is especially welcome, but a 
large proportion of these belongs to the reign of 
Louis XIV, and comparatively few specimens of 

the most eminent 18th century engravers are 
included. The collection of foreign portraits is 
much enriched by this gift, and a valuable feature 
in it is a large group of English naval prints. The 
Lucas Collection is a gift of a totally different 
class from other notable accessions of recent 
years, such as the Malcolm, Mitchell and Salting 
collections ; it adds to the Museum collection 
thousands of fine prints in an immense variety 
of styles, instead of being confined to a few 
classes only of rare and early engravings or 
woodcuts. The prints are, with few exceptions, 
in remarkably fine condition. 

The history of acquisitions in 1918 is once more 
chiefly a record of gifts, which were many and 
generous. The most notable is the selection of 
nine drawings by old masters from the Poynter 
sale, presented by Mr. Otto Beit. These include 
two tinted designs for architectural ornament by 
Giovanni da Udine and Parmegiano, a group of 
studies by P. Caldara, two anonymous German 
drawings of the 15th and 16th centuries, a Study 
of a Roman Altar by Poussin, a Rhinoceros by 
Oudry, a landscape by Herman Naiwincx, and 
Christ on the Mount of Olives (wrongly catalogued 
as Jacob's Dream, Lot 285), attributed to Rem- 
brandt, and distinguished by so much inspiration 
and mastery of light and colour that it can scarcely 
be by any other hand. The only other drawings 
by old masters acquired during the year are a 
black chalk Harpy by Rubens, and an Italian 
landscape, in exceptionally fine preservation, by 
Zuccarelli. Three good French drawings of the 
19th century, presented by Mr. F. Wellesley, are 
a portrait of a woman by J. L. David, a Mother 
and Child by Decamps, and a Head of Wagner, 
in coloured chalks, by Paul Delaroche. Wagner 
was living in Paris from September 1839 to 
April 1842, and came in contact with Delaroche 
in 1 841, through Kietz, a Dresden friend, who was 
Delaroche's pupil. Neither David nor Delaroche 
was hitherto represented by drawings. Among 
English drawings we may mention a pastel 
study, by D. Gardner, of George White, paviour, 
a model who frequently sat to Reynolds ; a 
large collection of drawings (a;. 1 740-1786) by 
Richard Phelps, a little-known Somersetshire 
portrait painter, who was a fellow pupil of 
Reynolds, under Hudson ; thirteen (including 
seven unfinished sketches) of Blake's illustra- 
tions to Dante, from the Linnell sale ; a group 
of drawings, chiefly in water colour, by Louisa, 
Marchioness of Waterford ; three sheets of studies 
in black chalk and pastel, by Edward Stott, 
A.R.A. ; two chalk portraits of Indian soldiers 
by W. Rothenstein, and two blue chalk studies, 
of a German prisoner and an Indian soldier, by 
Eric Kennington. 

Among prints by old masters the most important 
acquisition is that of a number of fine chiaroscuro 

woodcuts, by Italian artists and by J. B. Jackson, 
from the sale of Dr. J. Franck Blight's collection. 
These were derived, along with three of the ex- 
cessively rare colour-printed mezzotints by J. C. 
Le Blon, only one of which {The Holy Face) found 
its way into the Museum, from a set of volumes 
of colour-prints collected by Joseph Smith, British 
Consul at Venice, which remained intact till just 
before this sale. The Consul was not merely a 
collector, but an active patron of artists like 
Jackson, who were still producing colour prints 
on the old lines in Smith's own day. The same 
sale yielded several rare Flemish and German 
woodcuts, including the first edition of DUrer's 
Death and the Soldier, accompanied by the verses, 
which was wanted to make up the Museum set of 
the three broadsides of 15 10, in which Durer 
figures as poet and artist at once. A very rare 
large woodcut of the Crucifixion (Weisbach, " Der 
Junge Durer", p. 76), which occurs at Berlin and 
Dresden, and comes very near to Durer's early 
work, was acquired on this occasion, together 
with the scarce S. John on Patmos (Pass. 11. 287, 1), 
attributed to H. Bosch. An undescribed S. Mary 
Magdalene by H. S. Beham, and an undescribed 
woodcut in the manner of Wechtlin, Christ and 
Our Lady interceding with the Almighty against 
Pestilence, come from other sources. Mr. H. Van 
den Bergh presented Beham's rare book on the 
proportions of the horse, 1528, with woodcuts, 
from the Huth and Fairfax Murray Libraries. 
A still rarer book of this class, a little vellum 
MS., the rule of the Benedictine Order, dated 
1460, with two undescribed "dotted" prints, 
S. John Baptist and S. Christopher, attached to the 
covers, was acquired from Messrs. Craddock and 

Among prints of the 19th century we must 
mention an etching by Whistler, Fish Shop, Chelsea 
(State I), given by Mr. Ernest Innes, a tinted proof 
of Le Pechenr de Saumon, by Legros, and a large 
number of French lithographs, including more 
than three hundred by Daumier, forty-six by 
Gavarni, and specimens of Delacroix, Grandville, 
Vernier, etc., given by Mr. C. L. Rutherston. 
Works by recent or living artists include forty-six 
etchings by Sir Charles Holroyd, given by Lady 
Holroyd, to which another was added by Sir F. 
Wedmore ; six original line engravings by J. E. 
Southall, numerous etchings and lithographs of 
the war by C. R. W. Nevinson and Paul Nash ; 
etchings by Miss C. M. Nichols, Miss Sylvia 
Gosse, R. Spence, F. S. Unwin and S. Vacher ; 
a group of etchings and lithographs by R. 
Schwabe, and two dry-points by Muirhead Bone 
in very rare states ; Old Arcade, Glnsgoiv (State V), 
and Arundel (trial proof, with windmill, before 
the plate was cut). Among modern woodcuts 
are specimens of F. W. Cubitz, Eric Gill, 
A. Delstanche, and Ludovic Rodo (a member of 


the talented family of Pissarro), two colour-prints, 
in the Japanese technique, by Mr. John Piatt, and 
specimens of the work on which the Japanese 
artist, Mr. Y. Urushibara, is now engaged, of 
interpreting on wood the drawings of Mr. F. 

The Oriental Sub- Department has received few 
accessions during the year ; but two gifts deserve 
mention. One of these is a fine impression, in 
beautiful condition, of Utamaro's three -sheet 
print, The Bridge (women and children on a 
bridge over the Sumida River). This rare print, of 

the artist's best period, is a distinguished addition 
to the collection. It was presented by Mr. Oscar 
Raphael. The other gift is a small set of rubbings 
from Chinese stone-engravings, presented by Mrs. 
Bushell, the widow of the well-known writer on 
Chinese art. One of these bears the name of Wu 
Tao-tzu, the greatest of all Chinese painters ; the 
subject is a snake coiled round a tortoise, and the 
bigness and elemental force of the design suggest 
that here, for once — among the many designs more 
or less dubiously associated with the master's name 
— is an authentic vestige of Wu Tao-tzii's hand. 


(N the first part of this article [see 
)B.M., Dec. 1918] I tried to show that 
there were at least two kinds of aesthetic 
(pleasure to be derived from linear 
I design — the pleasure of rhythmic se- 
quence in the line itself, which I called the calli- 

graphic element, and the pleasure derived from 
the suggestion to the mind of plastic form, which 
I called the structural element. One may say that 
the calligraphic line qua line remains upon the 
paper, whereas the structural line becomes trans- 
posed into a three-dimensional space. The calli- 
graphic line is the record of a gesture, and is, in 
fact, so pure and complete a record of that gesture 
that we can follow it with the same kind of pleasure 
as we follow the movements cf a dancer. It tends 
more than any other quality of design to express 
the temperamental and subjective aspect of the 
idea, whereas in structural line the artist shows 
himself as more or less completely absorbed in 
the objective realisation of form. 

Of course, in every drawing both of these 
elements of design are present, but they are 
present in varying degrees in the work even of the 
same artist. 

I also suggested that modern developments of 
art had given a new impetus to drawing both by 
setting up a freer, more elastic idea of calligraphy 
and a more logical conception of ihe nature of 
plastic unity. 

The drawings reproduced in this number are, 
I think, evidences of this revival of the art of 

In the first article there was a reproduction of a 
drawing by a comparatively young artist, Duncan 
Grant [Plate (Dec. 1918)], which showed clearly 
by its contrast with the adjoining drawing of 
Walter Sickert wherein the new conception of 
drawing is affecting the present generation. 
Duncan Grant's drawing has not, it is true, the 
research for purely abstract plastic coherence that 
marked Picasso's drawing [Plate (Dec. 1918)] ; it 
is definitely pictorial, and in its indications of planes 


tends towards painting, but the painting for which 
such a drawing might serve would clearly be much 
more purely plastic than the painting which 
Walter Sickert's drawing anticipates. It would 
renounce many aspects of vision that Walter 
Sickert accepts in order to concentrate more in- 
tensely upon certain essentials of plastic relief and 
relations of mass. No one would, I think, deny 
the great calligraphic beauty of Duncan Grant's 
drawing, the freedom, elasticity and ease of its 
rhythms. One might allow, perhaps, that struc- 
tural unity was not pursued with the same 
passion that inspires the French artists, but at 
least such appreciations of volume and mass as 
the artist has are stated with a new lucidity and 

In the main, however, one has to admit that the 
tendency of English drawing, as compared with 
French, is to lean towards the calligraphic aspect, 
and this is no doubt an inherited tradition of 
English art. Beauty of handling and quality 
have always been so much admired in England 
that even the cheap substitutes for them, brilliance 
and audacity of touch, have had at times a greater 
prestige than was their due, as, for instance, when 
people mistook Raeburn for a serious artist. One 
suspects, indeed, that the charm which some of 
Gainsborough's vague and incoherent designs still 
exercise is due almost entirely to the peculiarly 
English sensibility of his handwriting. 

Now, if we turn to the reproductions of the 
drawings of still younger artists, such as those by 
Nina Hamnet and Edward Wolfe, we see still 
more clearly the same tendency. The calligraphy 
is of the new kind, far subtler, more discreet and 
unemphatic than the old, but it is the calligraphy 
that first strikes us. One is indeed surprised to 
find quite young artists drawing with such a 
delightful freedom from all self-consciousness, so 
entirely without bravura and display. These were 
too often the visible result of the old tradition 
which tended to make the virtue of drawing lie 
in the perfect performance of a task within certain 

I. Water-colour and pastel colour drawing by Modigliam 


Nude woman by Gaudier- Brzeska 

Portrait of Mile. G. by Modigliani 

II. Pencil drawings 

Pencil, by Edward Wolfe 

Ink, by Nina Hamnett 

HI. Drawings 

specified rules. We see then the good result of 
freeing the artist from the inhibition of the idea 
that the notation of a certain set of facts is the 
sine qua uon of good drawing. Though there may 
be certain guiding principles, the problem of 
what to select from the total vision is presented 
afresh on each occasion, and every time the solu- 
tion of what deformations will give the requisite 
salience and volume to the forms has to be dis- 
covered. But at least these artists know that the 
chance of discovering it lies for them along the 
lines of a free sensibility, ever alert to detect 
those characteristics of form which make for its 
intensest unity and its most coherent mass. They 
know too how important it is that this sensibility 
should remain innocent, and how fatal to that is 
the self-conscious control that results from any 
idea of technical display. It is perhaps this new 
attitude which regards a drawing as the almost 
unconscious overflow of a vivid aesthetic experience 
rather than as a performance before an imagined 
public that accounts for the rapidity with which 
the artists of the rising generation have attained to 
a power of expression by means of line that was 
almost unknown in the recent past. But this 
being granted, one must admit the danger of a 
too great delight in calligraphy for its own sake, 
both among the artists and their patrons. It is 
clearly along the lines of ever closer and more 
essential structural design that the great discoveries 
of drawing are to be made. The drawing by the 
late Gaudier-Brzeska [Plate II], here reproduced, 
shows that had he lived he might have become a 
structural draughtsman. This certainly has a 
tense and functional line, and shows a' desire to 
attain to that bare economy of statement which 
marks the greatest art. At the same time it must 
be said that it is an exception among the numerous 
drawings left by that gifted sculptor, and that for 
the most part his drawings are not only calli- 
graphic, but that they tend to an exuberant and 
demonstrative effectiveness which reminds one 

only too much of the assertive and self-conscious 
calligraphy of the Japanese. But everything in 
Brzeska's career shows that he would have rapidly 
outgrown this as well as all other mannerisms into 
which he may have temporarily fallen. 

In Modigliani's drawings [Plates I and II J we 
see the tendencies of the new movement in Paris, 
and here once more there is no doubt that the 
structural is the predominant element. Modigliani 
has been mainly a sculptor, as one might guess from 
the mode, in which every form has been reduced, 
as it were, to a common denominator. His notion 
of plasticity appears here as uniform and unvaried. 
All relief has for him the same geometrical section, 
and his effect is got by the arrangement of a 
number of essentially similar units. But two 
qualities save Modigliani from the dryness and 
deadness which might result from so deliberately 
mathematical a conception of the nature of form. 
One is the delicate sensibility which he shows in 
the statements of this simplified form, so that in 
spite of its apparent uniformity it has none of the 
deadness of an abstract intellectual concept. The 
beautiful variety and play of his surfaces is one of 
the remarkable things about Modigliani's art, and 
shows that his sculptor's sense of formal unity is 
crossed with a painter's feelings for surfaces. The 
other saving grace that Modigliani has is the sense 
of movement and life which comes from the 
arrangement of his plastic units. In the portrait 
drawing [Plate II] one sees him accepting far 
more from the actual vision, allowing much more 
variety in the forms with which he composes, but 
striving none the less to get out of the actual 
forms as clear and simple a common element as 
possible. Such a drawing is clearly more spon- 
taneous and less profoundly elaborated than 
Picasso's portrait of Massine [Plate (Dec. 1918)], 
but it belongs to the same category. It too 
shows the results of the modern effort to get to 
fundamental principles, to purge art of all that is 
accessory and adventitious. 



)Y far the largest and most important 

.part of the Eumorfopoulos collections 

consists of Chinese pottery and porce- 

jlain. It forms in fact a complete 
./collection in itself at once thoroughly 
representative and very select. All periods of 
Chinese ceramic art are illustrated by choice 
examples ; and the earlier periods, which Mr. 
Eumorfopoulos has made particularly his own, 
by what is without question the finest collection 
in Europe, if not indeed in the whole world. 
The Peters collection in New York is probably 

the only American collection which seriously 
challenges it. 

It comprises indeed a wonderful series ranging 
from the Chou dynasty, a thousand years before 
our era, to modern times ; and if the less artistic, 
though archasologically interesting, phases of the 
art do not bulk so largely as the rest, they have 
by no means been neglected. The private col- 
lector may well leave this side of the subject to be 
elaborated in museums and confine himself, as 
Mr. liumorfopoulos has wisely done, to a few 
select specimens which serve to show the con- 
tinuity of the art. 


Conformably with this idea it is proposed in 
these articles to pass lightly over the primitive 
periods of Chinese ceramics, which can be studied 
in museum catalogues and the learned works of 
Dr. Laufer 1 . Thus to avoid a long discussion 
of origin we may assume for the moment that 
Chinese pottery entered on its artistic phase in 
the Han dynasty ; and that the potters of that 
period first achieved sufficient mastery over their 
material to produce forms not merely useful but 
ornamental, designed to please the eye and 
enriched with tasteful decoration and a limited 
range of coloured glazes. 

Examples of this remote period, which lasted 
from 206 B.C. to 220 A.D., are comparatively 
numerous, thanks to the burial customs of the 
time ; but for the same reason they are limited 
in range, being confined to such objects as were 
deposited in tombs and graves for semi-ritual 
purposes. The articles of daily use and house- 
hold ornament which were doubtless more varied 
and ornate, to judge by the less destructible relics 
in bronze and jade, have long since disappeared. 
But fortunately the Chinese usage was to supply 
their honoured dead with a veiy complete outfit ; 
and the sepulchral furniture of a person of sub- 
stance included models of most of the things 
which he had found useful in life, from his 
servant and his maid, his ox and his ass, to the 
implements of his work and the utensils of his 

The tendency was to make most of these things 
of earthenware, partly for the sake of economy, 
which was enjoined by sumptuary laws from time 
to time. But no doubt in the Han period at 
any rate earthenware was the fashionable material; 
for we read that the contents of an imperial tomb 
of the second half of the dynasty included " 3 
earthen pots of 3 pints, holding respectively pickled 
meat, preserved meat and sliced food : 2 earthen 
liquor jars of 3 pints, filled with must and spirits : 

1 candlestick of earthenware : 2 cooking stoves, 

2 kettles, 1 rice strainer and 12 cauldrons of 5 pints 
all of earthenware, 9 tables of earthenware, 16 large 
cups and 20 small cups, 10 rice dishes of earthen- 
ware, 2 wine pots Of earthenware holding 5 pints", 
besides many other articles of unspecified materials 
and straw images of men and horses. It is in- 
teresting to note that just such objects as these 
were found in tombs with Han coins and Han 
inscriptions by Rev. Th. Torrance near Chengtu, 
in Szechwan, tombs which he says presented the 
appearance of "veritable Noah's arks". Nearly all 
the articles named, with others besides, are repre- 
sented in the Eumorfopoulos collection. 

Thus on the lower shelves of his Han cases may 
be seen a table spread with small cups, ladles and 
cooking-vessels. They are homely objects, but 

1 Chinese Pottery of the Han Dynasty, 1909, and the publica- 
tions of the Field Museum, Chicago. 

even these have been carefully selected for their 
neat appearance and good workmanship. Indeed 
one enormous ladle with gracefully curved handle 
terminating in a well-modelled dragon stands out 
conspicuously as a work of art. The place of 
honour on the upper shelves is occupied by the 
larger and more ornamental specimens, which in- 
clude a series of stately wine jars, incense burners, 
architectural models, granary urns, models of well- 
heads, of farm buildings and figures human and 
animal. It would take long to exhaust the list of 
objects represented in the Han tomb wares ; but 
enough has been said to show that they are of 
immense human interest and worthy of compari- 
son with the famous Egyptian finds. Taken 
together with the wonderful stone carvings found 
in Shantung, which might be called the Bayeux 
Tapestry of the period, they give us a vivid picture 
of Han life and customs. 

Before passing to the description of individual 
specimens a few remarks on the characteristics of 
Han pottery will not be out of place. Without 
claiming that the whole subject has been ex- 
hausted, it may safely be asserted that there are 
certain well-defined types of pottery which may be 
assigned to this wide period. The proofs of these 
premises are cumulative as well as circumstantial. 
Leaving aside the dated specimens, the inscrip- 
tions of which are notoriously suspect, there are 
numerous pieces found in tombs together with 
Han coins as already mentioned. There are 
well-authenticated Han bricks and architectural 
ornaments with which to compare material and 
designs. The Shantung stone carvings and Han 
bronzes supply further evidence ; and Chinese re- 
cords and illustrated antiquarian books contribute 
their quota to the volume of proof, which has been 
set out in full by Dr. Laufer and others. The 
types established by this weight of evidence have 
certain definite characteristics. The ware itself 
varies from a slatey grey and rather soft pottery, 
which is usually unglazed, to a hard red ware which 
is usually glazed. The typical Han glaze is a soft, 
lead "varnish", usually of deep leaf green or 
brown colour, but varying in tone according to 
its thickness. Moreover, being translucent, it 
permits the dark tint of the underlying ware to 
influence the surface colour, and sometimes, like 
that of our own mediaeval pottery, it is streaky and 
mottled. When the body of the ware happens to 
be light toned and the glaze thin, a brownish 
yellow will sometimes result ; and whatever its 
colour, the glaze is generally smooth in texture 
and liable to craze, i.e., to assume a finely crackled 
appearance, a purely accidental effect, and in no 
way analogous to the intentional crackle of the 
later Chinese porcelain. 

Another adventitious feature of the Han glaze is 
the thick incrustation caused by long burial and 
consequent decay which has dissolved the surface 

iof" high 

i of high 

io|" high 




Han pottery' from Mr. George Eumorfopoulos's collection — two lamps, a wine-jar, and a house-dog of the 
Thibetan mastiff breed from a tomb 

into iridescent flakes. This iridescence is often so 
intense that the original colour is lost to view, 
and in its place by a happy transmutation there 
appears a rich golden or silver lustre, which 
greatly enhances the aesthetic value of the ware. 
The same natural process of decay produces the 
rainbow hues and sunset glow on the Roman and 
Syrian glass and on the mediaeval pottery of Persia 
and Asia Minor. 

Additional colour was sometimes obtained by 
the use of red, white and black slip (or liquid clay) 
under the lead glaze ; but these embellishments 
were sparingly used to emphasise necessary points 
in the design. The green glaze of the Han pottery 
is one of the oldest in the world, and is the 
common property of all nations. Whether it 
existed in China before the Han dynasty is an 
open question ; but it certainly survived long 
afterwards, though in a form modified by the 
altered nature of the underlying material. We 
shall, for instance, renew our acquaintance with it 
on the T'ang pottery. 

Another feature of the Han manufacture par- 
ticularly noticeable in the glazed wares is the 
"spur-marks". The pots were supported in the 
kiln upon stilts or rests, commonly known among 
modern potters as cock-spurs, which in the case 
of the Han pottery were of oblong rectangular 
elevation ; and the corresponding marks left by 
the breaking away of these supports are often seen 
both on the top and bottom of the vessel. This 
has led some writers to the curious conclusion 
that the pottery had been fired twice ; but a more 
probable explanation is that several pieces were 
stacked one above the other in the kiln, and the 
middle pieces would naturally show the marks of 
two sets of supports. 1 1 is clear too that some of 
the Han pottery was fired upside down, as may be 
seen from the flow of the glaze which has run in 
large drops over the edge of the vessel's rim. 
There are, besides, one or two passages in Chinese 
literature which seem to imply the use of a black 
glaze on Han pottery ; and we know of a few 
black glazed vases with fluted sides which are 
reputed to be of the period. But the expression, 
chi wu, used by the Chinese writers and interpreted 
"lac black", which would seem to imply a glaze 
or lacquer, can also mean merely " very black ". 
In this sense it would apply to a rare Han vase 2 in 
the Eumorfopoulos collection, which has a dull 
black surface with incised bands of ornament. The 
black in this case, however, is not a glaze, but 
rather a dressing of black clay, and in a sense 
analogous to the black facing of the Etruscan 
vases. The later methods of decorating pottery 
with painted designs which could be fixed by 
firing were as yet undiscovered, though the germ 
of the idea seems to have been already in exist- 

2 Figured in mv book on Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, 
Plate 2. 

ence, to judge by a rare vase in the British 
Museum, of which the unglazed surface is 
adorned with bands of formal ornament traced 
in black, white and red pigments. 

We can now turn our attention to the examples 
illustrated here, which comprise two ornamental 
"candlesticks", or rather lamps, for floating 
wicks, and a wine jar of well-known type. 
Allusion has already been made to the con- 
tents of a Han Emperor's tomb, among which 
were mentioned a " candlestick " of earthenware 
and two wine-pots, the candlestick in this case 
may have been of the " pricket " form, Chinese 
examples of which are known of a slightly later 
date ; or it may be that the word used was applied 
to the form of lamp illustrated with a shallow 
circular cup or tray for holding oil or fat in which 
a wick was floated. In the lamp on the right the 
tray is supported by a kneeling animal of uncertain 
species. One would expect this to be a bear, which 
as the symbol of strength was commonly employed 
by the Han potters as an ornamental support. It 
was, in fact, the caryatid of the period, upholding 
anything from an incense vase to the model of a 
house. The lamp is of red ware, covered with 
iridescent green glaze, and has three " spur- 
marks " on the upper edge. The left hand example, 
a still more remarkable lamp, is made of similar 
material ; but here the container is a deep cup, 
supported on the head of a seated woman, who 
holds in front of her a figure of a child. Models 
of the human figure were found in the Szechwan 
graves which belonged to the Han period, but in 
every case they were unglazed ; and glazed human 
figures of this period are extremely rare. But 
more remarkable still is the use of the figure for 
ornamental purposes and not merely as a pottery 
substitute for a human being, placed in the tomb 
to attend on the honoured dead. 

The vessel in the centre is a good example 
of the Han wine-jar. It is of red ware with 
the usual green glaze, which in this case is free 
from iridescence, allowing the relief ornament 
to appear clear and sharp. The shape is familiar 
from the Han bronzes as illustrated in Chinese 
books and as known from existing examples. 
The ring handles attached to tiger masks 
indicate a bronze model, though the form 
of the vase is such as would grow naturally 
under the potter's thumb, and was probably in the 
first instance a potter's creation. It is decorated 
in the favourite Han method by a narrow frieze of 
low reliefs, which were stamped out on a thin 
strip of clay and "luted" to the shoulders of the 
vase. Such relief friezes are usually composed of 
hunting scenes, with various animals sometimes 
represented as preying on each other, sometimes 
as pursued by demon figures on foot or mounted 
on " hydras ", or other creatures. Among the 
animals may be recognised a large trotting tiger, 


usually full-faced ; lions, monkeys, deer, hares, 
boars, sheep, goats and dogs, besides various 
birds and some supernatural hydra-like creatures 
which are seen running or flying. With these is 
a demon figure armed with a spear, and occa- 
sionally a horseman with bow and arrow firing 
backwards. The animals often move in a "flying 
gallop", with all four legs at full stretch and 
almost in a straight line. This peculiarly vigorous 
attitude, and that of the archer shooting backwards 
in Scythian fashion, seem both to have been 
derived from Scytho-Siberian art. The hunting 
friezes are usually spaced out by two or four 
conventional waves and by the two conventional 
ring handles which appear at the sides of the vase. 

It has been suggested that the animals in these 
vase decorations are derived from the twelve 
animal signs of the Zodiac ; but the two lists do 
not tally. An illustrated Chinese work quoted by 
Dr. Laufer, shows us a bronze of reputed Chou 
period on which a medley of hunting animals 
and demon figures is engraved. Here, at least, 
we have one possible source of the potter's 

Examples of these wine jars are not uncommon, 
and many of them are quite unadorned, except for 
a few bands of incised rings and the pair of tiger- 
mask handles. The forms of the vases show some 
variation, mainly in the length of the foot or 
neck ; and many of the undecorated pieces, with 
their stately, well-balanced shapes, and the rich 
lustre of their iridescent glaze, are noble creations 
and of high decorative work. 

The animal figures found in Han tombs are 

mainly of the domestic kind. Both glazed and 
unglazed, they are generally of a more conven- 
tional appearance than the spirited and natural- 
istic representatives of the T'ang period, whose 
lightness and movement contrast with the solidity 
of their Han predecessors. Among the latter, dogs, 
sheep, pigs and poultry are most prominent, and 
are all represented in the Eumorfopoulos collec- 
tion. A roughly modelled horse and cart in the 
British Museum must be regarded as an unusual 
and, perhaps, rather doubtful example of Han 
figure-making. Many of the Han animals are 
quite small, but there are notable exceptions 
among the dogs, as is shown by the one illustrated 
here, which is 13! in. high and 15J long. 

The house-dog was evidently as much an insti- 
tution of the Han people as it is with our own 
country folk, and his clay counterfeit was required 
to keep watch and ward over his master's spirit in 
the tomb. 

This fine example of the Han watch-dog is 
apparently of the Thibetan mastiff breed. He 
stands four-square in challenging attitude, a for- 
midable guardian needing the restraint of the 
stout chain which is attached to his neck and 

The skilfully modelled figure was cast in two 
longitudinal sections, and is hollow, with the 
usual square aperture beneath it, which is a 
feature of the figurines of both Han and T'ang 
periods. It is of the usual red clay, and has a 
fine olive green glaze, and its size alone makes it 
an important example of the Han potter's art. 
(To be continued.) 


R. E. ALFRED JONES, the well- 
known authority on plate, sends us 
photographs of two pieces of 18th 
I century Canadian silver which he 
.purchased in Canada some years 
ago. We reproduce them here. The first is a 
large sanctuary lamp, attributed by Mr. Jones to 
a French-Canadian silversmith of the 18th century, 
and the second a ewer of French design, made by 
Francois Ranvoyze, of Quebec. 

Mr. Jones sends us in addition the following 
notes on Canadian silversmiths of the period : — 
" As early as the year 1705 a silversmith 
had established himself in the City of Quebec, 
by name Michel Levasseur. To him were 
apprenticed two boys from that city, Pierre 
Gauvreau and Jacques Pag6, dit Carey. The 
second of these boys at the end of his 
apprenticeship became a clockmaker as well 
as a practical silversmith. Later in the 18th 
century the names of other silversmiths appear 
in the records of the City of Quebec. In the 

course of a personal study of French-Canadian 
ecclesiastical silver in the Province of Quebec 
I failed to find one example of the work of 
any of the above three silversmiths. But I 
examined in the numerous churches of Que- 
bec specimens of the craftsmanship of the 
most prominent local silversmith of the period 
1760-1790, namely, Francois Ranvoyze, who 
enjoyed greater prosperity as the competition 
of silversmiths in France dwindled after the 
severance of French Canada from France on 
the Peace of 1763. Francois Ranvoyze's 
most formidable competitor after 1790 was 
Laurent Amyot, a native of Quebec, whose 
parents were anxious to apprentice him to 
Ranvoyze ; but Ranvoyze would not accept 
him, doubtless from a fear of competi- 
tion. The youthful Amyot was, however, 
determined to become a goldsmith, and 
was sent by his parents to learn the craft 
in Paris. He remained in Paris for two years, 
from 178410 1786, working hard in the atelier 

























































of one of the master goldsmiths. Returning 
home, he speedily became Ranvoyze's great 
rival, and eventually became the leading 
silversmith of Quebec. Laurent Amyot's 
success was in a large measure due to the 
virtual severance of ecclesiastical connection 

between French-Canada and old France from 
the days of the Revolution and the consequent 
dissolution of the religious houses in France, 
much of the ecclesiastical silver for the 
churches in Quebec having previously come 
from Paris". 


South Slav Monuments. I — Serbian Orthodox Church, 

by Kesta J. Jovanovic and Niko Zupanic ; with Introduct. 

by Sir Thomas Graham Jackson, Bart. ; general Ed. 

Michael J. Pupin. 64 pp., 56 PI. (John Murray), 2gs. ; 

cloth, 3gs. 

Those who are interested in Byzantine art will 
be glad to have such a record as is here placed at 
their disposal, and great praise is due to all con- 
cerned for having produced such an attractive 
work, especially when it is remembered that the 
material has had to be collected under the most 
adverse war conditions. And yet, as he turns 
over the pages the student is likely to experience 
a feeling of disappointment as there is borne 
upon Mm the conviction that Serbia during the 
time of her greatest national prosperity was 
unable to evolve a truly national school of 
ecclesiastical architecture. This was probably 
due to the fact that the church was exotic, and 
in the hands of foreigners or court favourites, 
and consequently unable to arouse national en- 
thusiasm and inspiration. Hence it came about 
that no great or glorious churches were built, and 
any tendency that might be shown towards the 
formation of a national school was stifled by the 
opposition of the ecclesiastics of Byzantium and 
Mt. Athos, who regarded as heretical any devia- 
tion from the normal to which they were 
accustomed. Sir Graham Jackson's sympathetic 
introduction gives a very complete survey of the 
Serbian churches from their models in Constan- 
tinople and elsewhere to the beautiful architecture 
designed by Rade Borovic. These illustrated in 
this volume show that Byzantine influences were 
all powerful and that western art only crept in 
here and there. The churches shown are about 
the size of the smaller erected in England before 
the Norman conquest. They do not lack beauty, 
though they are almost toys in comparison with 
the parish churches built in the hey-day of 
western mediaevalism. Violation and neglect 
have been great. Unfortunately the authors in 
the descriptions tell little of the restorations 
which have been effected, and by the views it is 
impossible to discriminate. Many of the marble 
masons may have been itinerant and of Adriatic 
extraction, and this may afford an explanation of 
the fact that much of the carving shows western 
influence. Nevertheless, importation seems to 
have been generally in vogue as it was in Venice 
and the Adriatic generally. Take, for example, 
the beautiful tympanum illustrated in Plate 31, 

which looks as though it came from a late 
Byzantine yard, especially as no indication is 
given of its position or surroundings. The 
southern Italian Gothic influence is observed in 
Plate 47. It is excellent in itself but has little 
originality and does not fit in with the general 
architectural design. On looking at Plate 44, one 
feels that Serbia is justly proud of her great 
architect, Rade Borovic (1395), who seems to 
have evolved a style combining eastern and 
western features, yet harmonious and reticent. 
The churches by him shown on Plates 33 to 44 
are well worthy of observation and study for 
their purity and picturesqueness. Here the 
carved adornments fall naturally into the com- 
plete design and accentuate the features of the 
exterior. Unfortunately he came at the very end 
of Serbian independence, otherwise a freer school 
of design might have been founded. One other 
specimen of carving is well worthy of note. This 
is of a late Italian Romanesque character. Its 
delicate beauty appears to be foreign to such a 
rugged country as Serbia, and in fact Sir Graham 
Jackson notes that a like window in a similar 
position is to be seen in the Duomo at Cattaro. 
Perhaps, however, the doorway reproduced in 
Plate 7 may be considered to exhibit certain 
national characteristics. This has recessed jambs 
with semicircular arches above. The inmost rises 
from the abacus of the capitals, the midmost is 
slightly stilted, and the outermost considerably so ; 
thus three crescent shaped arches are formed, 
with their blunt horns resting upon the abacus. 
The effect as shown in the photograph cannot be 
said to be successful. This method of construc- 
tion may give greater strength to the crowns of 
the arches, but the spreading appearance of the 
haunches suggests an over weighted effeet. As 
in Byzantium so in Serbia, many of the churches 
were, or were intended to be, plastered or stuccoed 
on the exterior. In the case of the building 
represented in Plate 46 it would be better either 
to cover the whole walling (which God forbid !) 
or remove the plaster from the upper half. The 
lower half is beautifully treated with bands of 
stone between three layers of brick in beddings 
shown of the same thickness. Plastering of the 
exterior has the tendency to reduce the interest to 
the beholder, for it is always desirable to express 
the nature of the materials and show their con- 
struction. It is unfortunate that the plans are so 


meagre, give little detail, are not all orientated in 
the same direction, and have no scale attached, 
for as they appear to be reproduced to fit the 
page there is nothing to show their relative sizes. 
The chronological tables show much research, 
and the map will be of great service to the 
student although the latter may not be wholly 
approved by the outlying nationalities. The 
greatest defect of the volume is the omission 
of interior views, one only is given in Plate 9, and 
that is a poor reproduction. In this case the 
walls are frescoed with figure subjects in the 
orthodox manner and appear to be greatly 
restored, but with merit. The wood screen is 
elaborately carved, and has the appearance of 
being of the 17th or 18th century, but no infor- 
mation is given except that there was a school of 
craftsmanship at Debar, in a district lying to the 
north of Lake Ochrida. It is probable therefore 
that if this carving were examined it would show 
many national characteristics. As the volume is 
the first of a series it is hoped that the authors will 
collect not only the promised interior views and 
the Catholic churches but give illustrations and 
measured drawings and descriptions of carvings, 
screens, altars, icons, wall decorations, church 
furniture, vestments, embroideries, lace, and other 
objects of artistic interest such as plate, crosses, 
reliquaries, chalices, etc., of all dates. These may 
be commonplace to Serbians, but to those in the 
West who are accustomed to a less ornate render- 
ing of the formalities of religion they would be 
of interest. Among the views are those of a few 
farm and monastic buildings which are not with- 
out artistic merit. This is a feature which might 
well be developed in some future work, and now 
that there seems a reasonable prospect of a lasting 
settlement in the Balkans, it is hoped that the 
opportunity may be taken of carrying some such 
design into effect. Arthur E. Henderson. 


The National Gallery.— Since the armistice 
the Director of the National Gallery has been 
busy making arrangements for displaying once 
more the nation's long-hidden treasures, and he 
has wisely taken the opportunity to endeavour 
to improve the conditions under which they are 
seen. Nothing but serious structural changes 
would ever make the Galleries in Trafalgar 
Square anything like perfect in the matter of 
lighting. They are several feet too high, and the 
light comes from the centre of the roof instead of 
coming in on either side just above the walls. 
But Mr. Holmes has made a heroic attempt in 
the main entrance gallery to modify these defects 
as far as possible. He has made a kind of salon 
carre of this room, gathering together in it some 
of the finest of the Primitive Italians of all the 


Art Sales from early in the i8th century to early in 
the 20th century . . . ; by algernon graves, f.s.a. ; 
Vol. 1 ; 6gs. n. 

Both present and future collectors of pictures 
will remember the name of Mr. Algernon Graves 
for his industry in compiling a series of volumes 
indispensable for all students of the history of 
painting. In his new series Mr. Graves reveals 
bygone secrets of the auction room, giving details 
which must otherwise have passed into oblivion. 
Other compilers have published books on the 
history of art sales, but these deal rather with the 
collectors than the objects collected ; Mr. Graves 
deals with the artists alone. It may be expected, 
moreover, that to those who study this and the 
forthcoming volumes the prices will be matters of 
greater interest than the mere list of pictures by 
any one artist. Gainsborough occupies no fewer 
than forty pages, his landscapes being perhaps 
even more numerous than his portraits, this being 
due probably to the fact that it was not until 
Messrs. Agnew, Wertheimer, and ethers began 
about forty years ago to give large prices that the 
wealth of English portraiture had hardly begun 
to be displaced. Still it is instructive to read how 
the work of Gainsborough shows a continuous, if 
spasmodic, rise in value, and again in the case of 
Thomas Sidney Cooper, who occupies some 
sixteen pages himself, but he had the satisfaction 
during his long life of seeing his paintings main- 
tain an almost monotonous value, seldom falling 
below three figures, but never exceeding them. 
Omissions must occur in a work of this sort. 
Although the list does comprise certain collec- 
tions sold in the 18th century, only a few are 
indexed. The Orleans sale, for instance, is 
not included. A study of any volumes of 
1 8th-century catalogues, such as those at North wick 
Park, and an index to them, would have added 
even greater value to Mr. Graves's excellent and 
laborious work. LIONEL CuST. 

various schools, and with such a selection he 
has found it possible to have a background of 
dead white. It is probable that only the Primi- 
tives, whose pictures were painted for the bare 
walls of churches, will stand such a treatment 
— the artists of the 16th century, the Venetians 
in particular, worked for princely patrons and 
their pictures were keyed up to the richness 
and intensity of their surroundings. There is, 
of course, one obvious defect of white walls 
in the National Gallery, and this is, that as 
the pictures have, unfortunately, to be kept under 
glass, there is a clanger of the reflection of the 
white wall interfering with one's vision. Indeed, 
before I went into the new gallery I was sceptical 
about the possibility of such a treatment just for 
this cause ; but, although in the case of some of 

the larger pictures this inconvenience is felt, the 
smaller ones can always be viewed at such an 
angle as to avoid it ; while, on the other hand, the 
gain is immense in the matter of the quantity and 
general diffusion of the light. Certainly I have 
never been able to see these pictures so well 
hitherto. And, besides this, the gallery itself looks 
infinitely better than it ever did before. The 
defect of most of the interiors of London halls 
and galleries is the peculiar foxy tint which they 
take, owing to an accursed predilection for cream 
and buff colours, which, with a few years' deposit 
of London grime, become absolutely repulsive and 
intolerably depressing. The dead white of the newly 
opened gallery is peculiarly cool and harmonious 
and more or less completely obliterates the dis- 
agreeable embossed pattern with which the walls 
were disfigured some years ago. Moreover, Mr. 
Holmes has endeavoured to reduce the ungainly 
height of the walls by painting a deep frieze of a 
broken blue, which is extremely pleasant in 
tone. The old foxy colour still lingers in the roof 
and, for the present only, one hopes, points the 
moral of the new colour scheme. The selection 
and hanging of the pictures is no less carefully 
thought out than the decoration, and probably 
many people will realise for the first time what a 
magnificent collection of Italian Primitives the 
nation possesses. I hope Mr. Holmes will go 
on in the same spirit as he has begun, and that 
he will be as fortunate in discovering the best 
possible setting for the later masters as he has 
been for the Primitives. One other task I hope 
he will undertake, and that is to replace the squalid 
imitation renaissance frames of so many of these 
pictures either by old ones, wherever possible, or 
at least by something less unlike Florentine 
sculpture and gilding than these mid-ioth- 
century frames display. It would be well also to 
do away with certain grotesque experiments in 
painting and gilding which were undertaken some 
years ago. The frame of Pisanello's S. Hubert is 
an example of what I mean, and should be one of 
the first to disappear. Roger Fry. 

Records in Occupied Countries.— Readers 
of The Burlington Magazine who remember the 
able articles on "The Origin of the Persian 
Double Dome", by Mr. K. A. C. Creswell, during 
19 13 (Vol. XXIV), will be glad to hear that his 
industrious architectural studies have not been 
entirely suspended by active service with the Air 
Force in the East. Capt. Creswell sends me as 
specimens of his work more than a dozen excel- 
lent half-plate photographs of Arabic architecture, 
many of them illustrating detail in positions very 
difficult to photograph. He has now taken nearly 
1,600 photographs. He has seen every Muham- 
madan monument in Egypt down to A.D. 1600, 
with the exception of four, concerning which he 

is therefore discreetly silent. Of the rest he has 
complete photographic records. He has also about 
70 architectural photographs of Jerusalem, some 
80 of Damascus, and ten of Hama. Specimens of 
his Egyptian photographs, with drawings of the 
Shellal pavement by Capt. M. S. Briggs [see also 
" Publications Received ", p. 82], and of the 
Umm Jerar pavement by Capt. F. M. Drake, 
both already illustrated here, may be seen in the 
Library of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects, Conduit St., and it is hoped that more of 
these valuable records will be visible there and 
also in the British Museum. More Adey. 

The Felton Bequest Committee and the 
Trustees of the National Gallery of 
Victoria. — We are glad to learn that Mr. Frank 
Rinder has accepted the office of adviser to these 
two bodies. The unblushing manner in which 
works unsaleable in this country by members of 
accredited societies were palmed off on the over- 
seas galleries by the artists' colleagues asked to 
represent the distant trustees and committees, 
was a notorious old scandal nearly twenty years 
ago, and has not yet been abolished. Nor are 
distant trustees or committees likely to get their 
money's worth until they give their representatives 
at the market a great deal more authority than 
was given to the predecessors of the late Mr. Robert 
Ross. Sir Sidney Colvin and Mr. Gibson found 
themselves in a humiliating and ridiculous posi- 
tion, and very wisely resigned their thankless task. 
Mr. Robert Ross, having been especially begged 
to act, forced a modification of the conditions. 
We hope that Mr. Rinder will stick to these and 
will carry them still further, or the Committee and 
Trustees in Melbourne will soon be left in the 
lurch again. Those two separate bodies, not 
always agreed, can get plenty of applications for 
the office from agents of the pre-Colvin type, 
and with them plenty more rubbish rejected by 
the home market. If they want the nucleus of 
a collection, such as Sir Hugh Lane, Mr. Robert 
Ross and Professor Tonks formed for South 
Africa, they must find, trust and, if they can, 
retain similar advisers, and if they should discover 
that they have misplaced their confidence, prose- 
cute them. More Adey. 

The Canadian War Memorials Exhibition. 
— The exhibition at Burlington House is almost 
the first extensive realisation (though as yet, I 
believe, incomplete) of the various schemes for 
the employment of artists in the production of 
war memorials, and for that reason alone would 
be of considerable interest. The purpose of 
establishing a pictorial record has naturally occa- 
sioned the collection of a great amount of work 
which, being chiefly of documentary value, falls to 
some extent outside the scope of this magazine, 


and there are, inevitably, some concessions to 
popular taste. But a few years ago one would 
not have anticipated the catholicity of judgment 
which has selected artists from every school, and 
has included many whose work cannot make an 
immediate popular appeal. Of these one may 
forecast that they will react with salutary effect, 
as Delacroix leavens the accumulation of battle- 
pieces at Versailles — the only collection known to 
me which is at all comparable to the present one, 
though manifestly inferior in documentary im- 
portance. Considering the difficulty of grouping so 
many heterogeneous works, it is a relief to find that 
the pictures at Burlington House are hung carefully 
and well. The wall-space is filled, but not over- 
crowded. Rival schools clash as little as possible, 
and most are seen to good advantage. A few works 
stand out above the rest — Major Augustus John's 
great cartoon, Mr. Wyndham Lewis's Gunpit, the 
Gas Attack of Mr. Roberts, and some others. In 
characteristic temper the pictures of Mr. Lewis 
and Major John are strongly opposed. The latter 
displays a power which is peculiar to him, a 
draughtsmanship that seems to improvise freely 
on a surface of some four hundred square feet, 
with vivacity, with delight in the picturesque, and 
an abundant humanity not free from human 
weaknesses. The space is lavishly covered with 
groups of figures held together by a strong narra- 
tive interest, groups fine in themselves, but poured 
forth with so prodigal a gesture that we have a 
feeling of congestion — something of the confusion 
which might actually accompany a series of inci- 
dents of this nature. However appropriate from 
an illustrative point of view, this does not lead to 
a really monumental type of design. This criticism 
must be modified by allowances for the change 
which the addition of colour and the fuller con- 
sideration of problems of tone will bring about in 
the whole scheme. If one can imagine the En- 
terrement a Omans reduced to the terms of this 
charcoal project it is evident that much of 
Courbet's impressive unity would be lost. In a 
proportionate degree one may judge how far the 
cartoon still remains a project, rather than a final 
achievement. Even the Meeting of Wellington and 
Bliicher, that monstrously laboured tapestry of 
buttons and panoplies which hangs in the 
Diploma Gallery, gained by translation into paint. 
In The Gunpit Mr. Lewis, who is here working in 
a manner more naturalistic than is, perhaps, 
thoroughly congenial to him, makes us aware of 
intellectual effort dispassionately concentrated on 
homogeneous, expressive design. The result is, 
within its limits, completely successful, and is a 
work of real distinction. Mr. Roberts has pre- 
served the dramatic power which characterised 
some of his youthful drawings. Here again is 
great concentration on design of a different order; 
violent, audaciously contorted movement with a 


complement of violent colour being the key-note. 
The artist has risen to the height of his oppor- 
tunity, and has adequately fulfilled the expectations 
of those who have been interested in his work 
during the past few years. Without doubt he will 
develop much further. If one is not carried away 
by the vitality of this performance, there is still an 
element of incompleteness to be found in it. 
Certain passages which are properly appreciated 
only at close range, and which are lost at the 
distance necessary to take in the whole, suggest 
that the artist was working in too small a studio, 
or for some reason was unable to obtain a com- 
plete grasp of his large canvas. Mr. Gilman's 
Halifax Harbour has a satisfying serenity which 
lifts it above any of the other landscapes exhibited. 
Like all Mr. Gilman's work, it has solid, painter-like 
qualities, and is extremely ably realised even in its 
unfinished state (I understand that the sky is to be 
modified). By contrast with its full colour and 
its feeling for the varied densities of earth, sea 
and sky, Major D. Y. Cameron's accomplished 
landscape on the same wall, representing a de 
Koninck-like expanse of country, seems a little 
lifeless. Between them hangs Mr. Nevinson's 
War in the Air. Granted the nature of its pur- 
pose, this is a remarkable naturalistic tour-de-force, 
and shows the same faculty for lucid observation 
which distinguished most of Mr. Nevinson's war 
pictures. Some which have been previously ex- 
hibited, including a few of his very personal 
lithographs, figure again in this exhibition. Mr. 
Ginner's Factory, admirable in certain passages of 
colour and in its broad simple lighting, suffers 
from a certain emptiness in the drawing of the 
figures. Numerous other large paintings possess 
a high degree of executive ability. Among them 
may be mentioned the strident Boxers of Miss 
Laura Knight, who has a curious eye for facial 
character and expression ; the decorations of Pro- 
fessor Gerald Moira, the interiors by Miss Clare 
Atwood and Miss Anna Airy, and Mr. Charles 
Sims' Sacrifice, in which, however, the literary 
motif is difficult to follow out in detail — unlike 
Mr. Byam Shaw's, which is remarkably obvious. 
Valuable work, less vast in scale, is supplied by 
Professor William Rothenstein, Mr. Paul Nash 
and Mr. Kennington. Mr. A. J. Munnings 
furnishes enough material for a one-man show, 
and proves himself a very clever painter with a 
keen understanding of his chosen subjects ; and 
Lieut. Gyrth Russell records the footsteps of an 
army in a number of serious landscapes. R. S. 

Pictures by Walter Sickert at the Eldar 
Gallery.— In the fourth exhibition held at the 
Great Marlborough Street gallery both rooms are 
given up to the paintings and drawings of Mr. 
Walter Sickert. However familiar one may be 
with his work — and the general public is by no 

means too familiar with it — it is always worth 
going to see, since, though he does not strain 
after artistic novelty and surprise, he is never 
dull. He is acknowledged by other painters as a 
master, a distinction charily given to living 
artists, but justified, to give a single reason, by a 
measure and unity in Mr. Sickert's pictures which 
only a master consistently achieves. His colour 
is combined in harmonies which have no trace 
of formula. His draughtsmanship, expressive in 
a way peculiar to himself, is adapted with the 
utmost flexibility to the pictorial needs of the 
occasion, and is free from the mannerism it has 
taken on in the hands of a few of his imitators. 
Mr. Clive Bell has analysed Mr. Sickert's position 
in modern art in the introduction to the catalogue, 
and it is difficult to add to what he has said so 
well. But one may claim for Mr. Sickert that he 
has done as much as any man to free English 
art from its Victorian insularity. One cannot 
confuse him with French painters, yet his work 
can hang with theirs without giving us that 
feeling of the provincial which clings to much 
English and German art, and his influence has 



Gentlemen, — The interesting article in the 
November number of The Burlington Magazine en- 
titled "Recent Additions to the Dublin Gallery", 
has attracted my attention. The article conveys 
the impression that the generous gift from Sir 
Hugh Lane of the Gainsborough copy of Lord 
Radnor's D. Teniers is the only one in existence, 
and respecting which all criticisms have been 
formulated. I think it necessary to correct this 
impression, as I have the identical copy by Gains- 
borough of Lord Radnor's picture, and of which 
I'should be pleased to send you a photograph if so 
desired. My copy's history, so far as I have facts, 
is: Bought by Mr. Edward Mills from Mr. J. R. 
Rutley in i860 ; inherited by his grandson, 
Brig.-General R. J. Cooper, in 1902 ; exhibited 
by request of Mr. Charles Aitkin at the spring 
exhibition of the Whitechapel Gallery in 1908, 
where there was a section to show similar great 
painters' copies of old masters' pictures. Some 
of the criticisms mentioned in the above quoted 
article were published in the Whitechapel catalogue 
with reference to my copy. 

I am, your obedient servant, 

Burlington Fine Arts Club. R. J. COOPER. 

An Oil Painting by J. R. Cozens ? — That 
acute critic, Lieut.-Colonel Grant, in the course 
of his elaborate work on the Early English 
Landscape Painters, had occasion to examine the 
picture of Aqua: Albulce, attributed to Richard 

reacted sensibly on the younger generation. 
Among the oil paintings in the gallery Suspense, 
Yvonne and Putana Veneziana are especially 
noteworthy. R. S. 

Club of Friends of Asiatic Art. — A club 
under this title has been founded at The Hague 
in order to unite those who are interested in the 
study of East Asiatic, Indian, and Further-Indian 
art, and also to promote museums in the Nether- 
lands and the Dutch Colonies in connection with 
these regions. It is therefore primarily a Dutch 
club, as is also shown by the constitution of the 
Committee, which consists of none but Dutch 
authorities, many of them very eminent in the 
subject; but its objective is one which will interest 
many students outside Holland, and no doubt the 
Secretary, De Heer Herman F. E. Visser, 54 
Bankastraat, The Hague, will answer any in- 
quiries concerning the rules of the club and 
facilities for admission. The Club proposes to 
hold a first Exhibition of East Asiatic Art at 
Amsterdam from 15 September to 15 October, 
1919. X. 

Wilson, which was reproduced as frontispiece to 
The Burlington Magazine for December 1905. 
[Vol. VIII, p. 154.] He has since suggested to 
me that it may be a work in oil by J. R, Cozens. 
I have at any rate to confess that 1 agree with him 
in recognising that it is not by Wilson. When I 
wrote the article I mentioned that there were 
differences both in colour and treatment from 
Wilson's other works. A renewed examination 
not only emphasizes those differences, but shows 
me that there is not one touch in the picture 
that can definitely be claimed as identical with 
Wilson's. If the single known oil painting signed 
by Cozens be authentic, and I believe its authen- 
ticity to be beyond reasonable question [The 
Burlington Magazine, Vol. XIV, pp. 304-307], the 
treatment of the foliage and figures, based on 
some such artist as Vernet, is so different from 
that of the Aqua: Albulce as to make identity of 
authorship improbable— at first sight. But the 
colour and quality of the sky in the two 
pictures are the same, and there is an exact 
parallel in the drawing of the legs of the dog 
in the foreground of Sir Hickman Bacon's 
picture with that of the horse to the extreme 
right of the Aquxe Albulce, which points to an 
identical origin. Also, when the name of 
Cozens is mentioned, it is impossible not 
to remember how many of the compositions 
of the elder Cozens take the general form of the 
Aqua: Albulce design. The transparent technique 
and tentative outline (invisible in the reproduc- 
tion) of the two figures to the right of the picture 


indicate an artist to whom figure painting in oil 
was to some extent unfamiliar, while Wilson of 
course began life as a portrait painter, and was 
always able to put in his little figures with the full 
and certain touch of a man trained to the business. 
Yet, if Col. Grant's suggestion be correct, and it 
has driven me to this retractation, it is clear that 
we must not expect from such oil paintings of 
Cozens as the future may reveal the same con- 
sistency of treatment and temper which marks his 
wonderful drawings. We must rather expect to 

find his experiments in the oil medium are sur- 
prisingly different from each other, exercises in 
the manner of other painters by whom he has 
been impressed rather than expressions of his 
own singular and lonely genius. Perhaps I may 
take the opportunity of correcting a second mis- 
take in that unlucky article on Wilson. The 
picture on p. 178, in Wilson's manner, was clearly 
seen on a more recent examination to be one of 
the able and baffling pastiches of Barker of Bath. 

C. J. Holmes. 


Lair-Dubreuil (i| at the Galerie Durand-Ruel, rue Laffitte 16, 
will sell, 24 Feb., the collection of the well-known man of letters, 
the late Octave Mirbeau, which contains Pictures, Water-colours, 
Pastels and Drawings by Cezanne, Bonnard, Cross, Daumier, 
Denis, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Monet, Berthe Morisot, Pissarro, 
Renoir, Rodin, Roussel, Seurat, Signac, Utrillo, Vallotton, Valtat, 
andVuillard; also sculptures by Camille Claudet, Aristide Mail- 
lot, and Rodin. This is probably the most interesting collection 
of the works of the later contemporary artists that has yet beeii 
sold by public auction. The catalogue contains a large number 
of good illustrations. 

Lair-Dubreuil (n) at the Galerie Georges Petit will sell, 
3 March, the stock of Boussod, Valadon et Cie, consisting mostly 
of Modern Pictures, Pastels and Watercolours of the French 
School, with some late Old Masters. Among the first are 3 Corots, 

2 Daubignys, 3 Diaz, 3 Harpignies, 4 Isabeys, 2 Rousseaus, 
2 Troyons, 5 Ziems. The most important of the late Old Masters 
seems from the illustrations to be the Supposed Portrait of the 
Comte de La Chatre, ascribed to Largilliere. The illustrations have 
already much improved since the declaration of the armistice. 

Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge will sell 3, 4, 5 March, part 
of the Library of the Marquess of Ailesbury, consisting of illumi- 
nated and other MSS. and Rare Printed Books with some antique 
Bindings. The catalogue illustrates among other lots — No. 54, 
a 14th c. French illuminated Vulgate ; and No. 69, a binding in 
the " Mearne " style, in very good condition, containing a Roman 
missal, Antwerp 1676. If not a very exciting selection, there 
are very few lots which are not standard works of sufficient im- 
portance to have kept up a very good average price for many 
years. Price of catalogue is. 


Publications cannot be included here unless they have been delivered be/ore the 16th of the previous month. Prices must 
bestated. Publications not coming within the scope of this Magazine will not be acknowledged here unless the prices are stated. 

Serial Publications will for the present be arranged here according to the ordinary periods of their publication, and only the 
latest number of foreign serials actually received will be entered, in order that foreign editors and publishers may learn which 
numbers of their publications have jailed to arrive. 


Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, Queen's Road, Bristol. 

Cotterell (Howard H.). Bristol and West Country Pew- 
terers, with illustrations of their marks ; 37 pp., 4 illust. + 
facsiiniles of "marks" ; broch. 
T. Fisher Unwin Ltd , Adelphi Terrace, W.C.2. 

Briggs (Martin S.). Through Egypt in War-time ; 272pp., 
68 illust., 2 maps ; 1 guinea n. 

[A book by Mr. M. S. Briggs, F.R.I.B.A., largely on the 
architectural features of the remoter towns and temples 
throughout Egypt, while temporary Captain and Sanitary 
Officer R.A.M.C, Egyptian Expeditionary Force.] 

Hayden (Arthur). Chats on Royal Copenhagen Porcelain, 
360 pp., Front and 56 illust., 10s. 6d. n. 
Lagertrom brod, Stockholm. 

Lindblom (Andreas), redig . . . Konsthistoriska Sttllskapets 
Publication, 1918 ; 101 pp., 17 illust., Kr. 15s. 

B. Lippincott Co., New York and London. 

Hunter (Geo. Leland). Decorative Textiles, an illustrated 
book on coverings for furniture, walls and floors, including 
damasks, brocades and velvets, tapestries, laces, embroideries, 
chintzes, cretonnes, drapery and furniture trimmings, wall- 
papers, carpets and rugs, tooled and illuminated leathers; 
xxi + 457pp., 580 illust. (27 col.), 65 15s. n. 
Macmillan, S. Martins St., W.C.2. 

Mahaffy (J.P.) and Westropp (D.S.M.). The Plate of Trinity 
College, Dublin, a history and a catalogue: 7+94 pp., I2 
illust., 10s. 6d. n. 
Norstedt och son, Stockholm. 

Roosval (Johnny). Studier i Danmark, FSrelitsningar i Stock- 
holms hbgskola vdrterminen 1917, huvudsakligen Sver 1100- 
talets skulptur och arkitektur ; 7 + 105 pp., 92 fig. 

Periodicals — Weekly. —American Art News— Architect- 
Country Life. 

Fortnightly. — Bulletin of the Alliance Francaise, 83 — La 
Revista (Barcelona), iv, 73 — Veil i Nou, v, 82. 


Monthly. — The Anglo-Italian Review, 4 (15 Aug.) — Art World 
(New York), Mar. — Colour — Connoisseur— Fine Art Trade 
Journal — Journal of the Imperial Arts League, 33— Kokka, 342. 
343 (new cover) — La Renaissance de l'Art francais et des In- 
dustries de luxe, 11, 1 Les Arts, 164 — Managing Printer, 

26-30 — New East, I, I — New York, Metropolitan Museum 
xiv, 1 — Onze Kunst, xvm, 1. 

Bi-monthly. — Art in America, vi, 5 — Boston, U.S.A., Museum 
of Fine Arts, Bulletin, 98 — L'Arte, XXI, 2 + 3. 

Other Monthly Periods. — Cleveland, Ohio, Museum of Art, 
Bulletin (10 ayear),\, 84-9 — Minneapolis.Institute of Fine Arts, 
Bulletin (9 a year), vm, 1. 

Quarterly. — Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Excursiones, 
xxvi, 3, and Indices Generales, 1893 a 1917 — Faenza, 
vi, 3 — Felix Ravenna, 27 — Gazette des Beaux Arts 697, and 
Chronique des Arts, Nov.-Dec. — Manchester, John Rylands 
Library, Bulletin, vol. iv, 3 + 4 — Oud-Holland, xxxvi, 4, 
and Table of Contents from year 26 to 35 — Pennsylvania 
Museum, Bulletin, 63 — Quarterly Review, 458 — Root and 
Branch, 11, 4 — Town Planning Review, VIII, 3 4-4 — Worcester, 
Mass., Art Museum Bulletin, ix, 2, and Index to vol. vm. 

Pamphlets. — Allied War Salon, introduction by A. E. Gallatin, 
catalogue of exhibition, Dec. 9-24. illust. — Old Church Silver 
in Canada, by E. Alfred Jones, M.A. Cantab. [Transactions of 
Royal Society of Canada ; series in, vol. xn), Ottawa — The 
Wilton Suits£a controversy, with notes on other archaeological 
questions by various writers, 48 pp., 7 PI. ; Sotheby, Wilkinson 
and Hodge, for private circulation. 

Trade Lists, etc. — Eisenloeffel, Rokin 43, Amsterdam, Cata- 
logue d'Eauxfortcs et des Lithographies, 3>nc Pt. illust. — Nor- 
stedts Nyheter (Stockholm), 1918, No. 11-12 — The Pottery and 
Glass Record, a monthly Trade and A rt Journal for the Pottery, 
Glass and Allied Trades, new series, 1, 1 (72 Regent St., 
W.I), is.— Spink and Son, Ltd., 6 King St., S.W.I, Exhibition 
of Ancient Sculpture, Vases and Bronzes, 36 pp., illust. 

Plate I. Altar cross with enamels of the 12th century (Victoria and Albert Museum) 




N article 


which appeared in 
.magazine recently 1 dealt with an 
{example of modelling in bronze 
'attributed to Godefroid de Claire, the 
Li 2th century Walloon goldsmith of 
Huy on the Metise. Some examples of champleve 
enamelling of the Mosan school, of which he is 
supposed to have been the leader, will now be 

First it may be convenient to take stock of what 
is really known about Godefroid 2 . It is little 
enough, though sufficient to establish his artistic 
importance 3 . The main points which emerge are 
that Godefroid de Claire known as " the noble", was 
a goldsmith and citizen of Huy, "second t:> none 
of his time in goldsmith's work", who " made 
numerous shrines of saints and royal plate (regum 
vasa utensilia) in various regions". He was a lay 
craftsman, and appears as a man of substance and 
position, for a long period attached to the court of 
the Emperors Lothair II (1125-1137) and Conrad 
ill (n 38-1 152). After an absence of 27 years, 
during which he had travelled widely in the 
exercise of his craft, he returned to Huy in 1173 
or 1 174. On his return he made certain specified 
pieces of work for the churches of Huy and 
Neufmostier, and was received as a canon into 
the Augustinian monastery of Neufmostier, where 
he ended his days. Since he is spoken of 
as an old man when he took the habit in 
1 174, it may be assumed that he was born not 
long before or after the year 1100, and was there- 
fore already a man of middle age when the earliest 
of the works now attributed to him was executed. 
If the correspondence mentioned later is correctly 
related to him he had a wife and family, and as 
early as 1148 was on familiar terms with Wibald, 
the celebrated abbot of Stavelot, and of sufficient 
education to hold his own with him in Latin 
correspondence. Such are the outlines of his life 
as presented by the documents. 

1 Vol. XXXIII, p. 59. 

3 I do not find that any explanation has been offered of the 
appellation " de Claire ". It seems probable that it was derived 
from Clair-lieu, on the outskirts of Huy. Godefroid's nickname 
of" le noble " suggests that it may even have implied the status 
of a noble. 

3 The authorities for the life of Godefroid are given by 
J. Helbig in Bulletin de I'lnstitut Archcologique Liegeois, xm 
(1877), p. 221 ; reprinted in Gilde de S. Thomas et de S. Luc, 
Bulletin, in, p. 192, with an addition at p. 211. They are re- 
stated in the same author's La Sculpture . . . an pays de Liege, 
etc., 2nd ed., 1890, p. 47. The facts are summarised by Sir 
C. H. Read in Archccologia, lxii. 1910, pp. 29, 30, andbyv. Faike 
und Frauberger, Deutsche Schmclzarbciten des Mittclalters, etc., 
1904, pp. 63, 79. (The latter work is hereafter referred to by 
the initials F. S.^Falke, Schmelzarbeiten.) 

Tbs BURMB9T0K Maoa2IH», No. 1W. Vol, XXXIV— March 191U. 

So far as records relate to existing works the 
evidence is much more meagre. Briefly stated it 
amounts to this. Two reliquaries of the coffer type 
in the collegiate church at Huy* containing the 
remains of S. Mangold and S. Domitian, are 
definitely recorded to have been made by 
Godefroid. Unfortunately, they are both deplor- 
ably patched and mutilated, and mere wrecks of 
what they were originally. Further, one of them 
at least seems to have been executed by the artist 
in his old age, shortly before retiring to end his 
days in the convent of Neufmostier 5 . Lastly, they 
have only the smallest amount of enamel decoration 
on them. It is important to realise that these two 
reliquaries, patched and altered almost beyond 
recognition, are the only fully authenticated works 
of Godefroid known. No example of his work 
bears his name in an inscription as is found for 
Frederick of Cologne and Nicholas of Verdun. 
Beyond this, a piece of indirect evidence is adduced 
in a letter written in the year 1148 by Wibald, 
abbot of Corvey and Stavelot, to an "aurifex G ", 
who with high probability is supposed to be 
Godefroid 6 . On the strength of this letter, which 
urges the completion of some unspecified works 
commissioned by the abbot, it is not unreasonably 
argued that certain works still known to us, recorded 
to have been made by Wibald's order, may 
probably have been executed by Godefroid. These 
are the reliquary of the head of S. Alexander at 
Brussels, dating from 1145, the earliest work so 
far attributed to him 7 , and the altarpiece of Stavelot, 
of which two enamelled medallions are at 
Sigmaringen 8 . 

It is on the evidence indicated that MM. v. Faike 
and Frauberger arrived at a recognition of the 
characteristics of Godefroid's productions, and in 
their important book already referred to, with 

* Described by Helbig (as above). For other references see 
his footnote, La Sculpture, etc., p. 50. Best shown in_ Van 
Yscndyck, Documents classes de l' art dans les Pays-Bas. Chasses, 
pi. 3. One figured in F.S., fig. 18. 

6 One is said to have been made a long time before. See 
J. Demarteau in Bull, de Plnst. Archiol. Liegeois, xvn, 157. 

6 The latter and G's reply thereto, very human documents of 
mutual recrimination, are printed by Helbig with a translation 
in Gilde de S. Thomas et de S. Luc, Bulletin, in, p. 211. They 
are also included in Jaffe, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, 
1, p. 194. 

7 F.S.. pi. 69. A larger view with details in colour is given 
in Societe dc TArt Ancien en Belgique, Orfevrerie, etc., pi. xvi. 
xvii. See also J. Destree, Les Musc'cs royaux . . . a Bruxettes, 
livr. 4. 

8 F.S., col. pi. xxiv. The complete design of the altarpiece, 
now destroyed, is known from a drawing of the 17th century 
discovered in 18^2 by Mr. Van de Casteele. For references 
and reproduction see Helbig, La Sculpture, etc., p. 56, (Also 
reproduced in F.S., pi- 70.) 


much skill and ingenuity constituted a large group 
of works in enamelled copper as emanating either 
from the hand of Godefroid or from his school. 
But inasmuch as the two reliquaries at Huy are 
the only fully authenticated works of the master, 
and as these include very little enamelling in their 
decoration, the branch of work which it was the 
authors' chief aim to identify, their argument has 
to rely largely on technical details of accessory 
metalwork, stone-setting and so forth, and is 
chiefly of an indirect kind so far as enamelling is 
concerned. It is thus very possible that they were 
too much occupied with technical and too little 
with aesthetic characteristics — the former may 
well be the common property of a whole school, 
the latter are temperamental and individual. But, 
with this reservation, their conclusions seem to be 
in the main justified, and a very important body 
of enamelled work of the 12th century was thus 
brought into orderly view as the production of 
the Mosan school of craftsmen of which Godefroid 
in his day was no doubt the leader. 

The characteristics of Godefroid's work thus 
arrived at may be briefly summarised 9 . It exhibits 
a marked partiality for figure-subjects whether in 
enamelling or in metalwork pure and simple. 
Scenes from the lives of saints and figures of 
apostles or angels adorn the sides and roofs of his 
sarcophagus-shaped shrines in profusion. In 
decoration and technique many peculiarities are 
to be noted. Stones are set in holes pierced 
through the metal plate instead of in raised collets 
as is usual elsewhere. Silver bosses simulate 
pearls, and hollow cavities in the form of circles, 
rosettes, or quatrefoils, brightly gilded, serve in 
place of crystals in giving brilliance. Filigree is 
sparingly used, brown lacquer in combination 
with gilded decoration, freely. Plaques with 
repousse' figures are edged with an embossed 
pearled border, and are inscribed in the field, not 
on the framing as in Cologne work, and the 
sloping roofs of shrines are decorated with 
circular medallions, a motive strange to the 
Rhineland. Godefroid's enamelled figures are 
executed in pure champleve on a ground of metal 
thus reversing the Cologne practice of reserving 
the figures in metal on a ground of enamel. His 
heads and hands are, however, reserved in the 
metal and the engraved lines filled in with blue 
or red enamel. His colouring is bright and 
varied, including a fine translucent crimson- 
purple, and he shows much skill in graduating 
colours, green shading into yellow and blue into 
white. Ornamental details, such as borders of a 
repeating pattern, and other small features, are 
often in cloisonne\ 

It is clear that attributions based on such 
technical characteristics unchecked by artistic 
criticism might lead to strange results. The 

9 See K.S., pp. 62-64, etc. 


method of MM. v. Falke and Frauberger involves 
them in including in the school of Godefroid 
such works as the Alton Towers triptych at 
South Kensington 10 and the Stavelot portable altar 
at Brussels n , pieces in a style artistically remote 
from Godefroid's. 

Within the more legitimate boundaries of the 
school, however, many interesting varieties of 
style are found, doubtless representing various 
highly skilled craftsmen working under the 
influence or even under the direct supervision of 
Godefroid. By careful comparison with the aid 
of photographic reproductions it may be possible 
by degrees to arrive at a consistent grouping of 
such varieties. The drawing of the faces is as 
usual the most delicate test of individuality. 

The cross illustrated [Plate I] offers some 
interesting examples of such deviation from the 
standard quality of Godefroid's work. The plaques 
at the extremities [Plate II] represent four Old 
Testament types of the Crucifixion : (1) Jacob 
blessing the sons of Joseph ; (2) Aaron marking a 
house with the blood of the Passover lamb ; 
(3) Elijah and the widow of Sarepta ; (4) Moses 
and the brazen serpent. They are inscribed and 
represented as follows: 1. -IACOB+BENGAMIN (for 
Ephraim)MANASES. Jacob seated, and with a blue 
nimbus, crosses his arms to lay his hands on the 
heads of his grandsons, who bend on either side, 
each with a cup of offering (?) in his hands 
(Genesis, xlviii). 2. AARON. Aaron, with a bowl 
of blood in his hand, signs with a quill the T cross 
on the gable of a house ; in the doorway the 
Passover lamb lies bleeding (Exodus, xii). 

3. ELISEVS (for Elias) p[ro]pH[et]A sarepta. 
Elijah receives a loaf of bread from the widow of 
Sarepta, who grasps two crossed sticks. The 
prophet's scroll is inscribed AVFER-MICHI-OBSECRO 
ET bvc[c]ellam PA[nis] (I Kings, xvii, 11). 

4. MOYSES ivdei. Moses places the serpent of 
brass on the top of a column in the presence of 
the Israelites, one of whom holds a serpent in his 
hand (Numbers, xxi) Moses' scroll is inscribed 
sicvt exaltatvr serpens in ere (a reminiscence 
of John, iii, 14). 

In these subjects the method of enamelling the 
garments of the figures, on a ground of gilded 
copper, characteristic of Godefroid's practice, is 
well exemplified. Though these are executed in 
champleve, the outlines of the folds of the drapery, 
as usual, clearly suggest the cloisonne origin of 
the artist's inspiration. The architecture of the 
Aaron plaque shows a good instance of the use 
of actual cloisonne in conjunction with champ- 
lev£, seen also in the borders of all four plaques, 
where the ornaments are in yellow and white on 

"F.S., pi. 79 ; in colours in H. Shaw, The Decorative Arts . 
of the Middle Ages, 1851, pi. 2- 

"E.S., pi. 78 ; in detail in J. Destree, Les Musdcs royaux . . 
ii Bntxilles, livr. 5 (z pi). 

Platell Enamels of the school of Godefroid de Clam, Jacob blessing the sous o Joseph 
rBenLun " for Ethraim), Aaron marking a House with the Blood oj the Passover Lamb Elijah 
(" Eliseus "for Eli J and the Widow o/Sarfpta, Moses and the Brazen Serpent, from the altar cross 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum 

I^TfA* IVO'il 

Plate 111. Enamels attributed to Godefroid de Claire, 1 lie Story 0/ the Invention oj the Cioss by S. Helena., from the 
Stavelot triptych (Mr. j. Pierpont Morgan, New York) 

a blue ground. The flesh of the figures is 
reserved in the metal with dark-blue filling-in of 
the engraved lines. The colouring of the whole 
is bright and varied— turquoise and lapis blue, 
greyish cobalt blue, green, white, scarlet and 
yellow — the blue of the robes shading into white 
and the #reen into yellow, but by graduated stripes, 
not by blending. All the colours are opaque, the 
blues and greens variously graduated in tone, and 
the scarlet as usual of a granular texture. In some 
of the figures the deeper shadows of the dresses, 
whether blue or green, are put in in scarlet, with 
an unpleasantly harsh effect. Purple is entirely 
absent. The column in the Moses plaque shows 
a remarkable variegation of colours to represent 

In spite of the similarity of method to Godefroid's 
work shown by these plaques, certain striking 
differences of style are observable. Comparing 
(hem with the plaques of the Stavelot triptych 
[Plate HI] 12 , which, considering its provenance, 
may well be one of the things made by Godefroid 
for Abbot Wibald, and is in any case on grounds 
of style a well-attributed example of Godefroid's 
work in his early period, certain differences are 
obvious. The border of quatrefoil ornaments in 
cloisonne, absent from the Stavelot plaques, is of 
course the most striking of these differences, but 
other points are not less important. In the 
plaques of our cross the faces have long eyes ; the 
depression in the upper lip is carefully marked ; 
some of the noses are curiously tilted and the 
mouths misplaced ; the hands are large ; the letter- 
ing is sprawling and closely spaced, and there are 
no vertical inscriptions. In the Stavelot triptych 
the faces are decidedly more wooden and 
expressionless ; they have round eyes ; the 
depression under the nose is absent ; the noses 
are not tilted and the mouths are better placed ; 
the hands are small ; the lettering is small and 
widely spaced, and a taste for vertical inscriptions 
is apparent. The date assigned to the latter work 
by v. Falke, 1160, is surely too late. In the 
particulars mentioned it comes near to the Alex- 
ander Reliquary at Brussels 13 , dated by docu- 
mentary evidence in 1145. It agrees with the 
Brussels work also in the shape of the bishops' 
mitres, in both shown of the early tvpe with horns 
at the sides. In the Heribert Shrine 14 , assigned to 
c. 1 155, the mitres are of the later shape rising in 
front and behind. About n 50 would seem a 
better date for the Stavelot triptych, and one which 
would better accord with the date of Wibald's letter 

12 Now in the possession of Mr. Pierpont Morgan, New York. 
Fully described and illustrated by Sir C. H. Read in Archcco- 
logia, lxii, pi. ii-iv. (Also shown in F.S., fig. 2( and pi. 117). 
Three of the medallions are here reproduced by kind permission 
of Sir C. H. Read and the Society of Antiquaries. They have 
beaded borders, not shown in the plate. 

13 See above, note 7. 

14 F.S.. pi. 82-88. 

of 1 148. Dr. v. Falke considers that the plaques of 
our cross may have emanated from Godefroid's 
workshop in his supposed Maestricht period, about 
n65 ls , and they are perhaps even later than this 16 . 
The Heribert Shrine, assigned to about 1 155, would 
then occupy an intermediate position, and this is 
what its style seems to bear out. So far as can be 
judged from v. Falke's plates, the medallions of the 
Heribert Shrine approximate much more closely 
than those of the triptych to our cross. The 
round eyes of Godefroid's earlier works are 
largely replaced by a longer shape, the vertical 
inscriptions (a Byzantine tradition) disappear, and 
the lettering approaches that on the cross. A 
similar approximation is to be seen in a triptych 
of the Dutuit collection u . Cloisonne borders, 
but much finer than those which distinguish the 
plaques of our cross, are found on two other 
crosses attributed to Godefroid, in the British 
Museum and at Charlottenburg 18 , though not 
applied to the figure-subjects. 

The question then is — are the plaques of our 
cross by the same artist as those of the Stavelot 
triptych, but separated by a considerable interval 
of time ? I think it is clear that they are not, 
but are marked by fundamental differences ot 
style denoting that they are the work, not of 
Godefroid himself, but probably of one of the 
capable craftsmen who no doubt assisted him in 
his workshop. The ignorant mistakes in names 
in the inscriptions, and the absence of purple in 
the colouring, point to the same conclusion. 

The plaque with the Agnus Dei, at the centre 
of the cross on the front, and another with Christ 
in majesty, in a vesica surrounded by symbols of 
the evangelists, in a similar position on the back, 
are executed in a totally different style [ Plate IV]. 
The Christ plaque is of much finer workmanship 
than the other, but both are obviously from the 
same district if not from the same workshop, 
examples of the Hildesheim school of enamelling 
of the mid-i2th century. The grounds are of rich 
blue and green enamel diversified with the spots 
of metal (formed by picking up the metal base) 
characteristic of Hildesheim enamels. The nimbi 
are in yellow, and a white border surrounds the 
plaques. The crucified figure modelled in gilt 
bronze is also a Hildesheim product of the same 
period ,9 . 

The cross is thus formed of pieces of different 
origin. Its present make-up probably dates from 
the 15th century, the date of the cutwork foliage 
and flowers with which it is garnished. The 

13 F.S., P . 131- 

16 The free use of cloisonne (Aaron plaque and borders) and 
the successful drawing of a face in profile (Moses plaque) are 
late features. 

17 F.S., fig. 20. In colours in G. Cain, La Collection Dutuit, 
pi. 46. 

18 F.S., fig. 22 and pi. 74. I hope to illustrate the British 
Museum cross more adequately in the next article of this series. 

"F.S., pp. 71, 131. 

central bands on three of the limbs, with decora- 
tion of Romanesque foliage in shaded colouring, 
may be from Godefroid's workshop. On being 
measured they are found to be cut from two strips 
of equal length, each outlined with a red border, 
and perhaps taken from a book cover. The 
fourth (top) limb has in place of this band a 
cavity with a hinged glass door. Enshrined in it 
is a relic of the True Cross, and a small silver-gilt 
crucifix of the 15th centuiy, probably enclosing 
a similar relic. 

The strips decorated with a leaf-and-trellis 
pattern bordering the limbs of the cross show 
enamels of the same colours and quality as the 
central plaques back and front, and are probably 
from the same source. 

The triangular stand, modelled at each angle 
with a lion-mask and claw-foot, is enamelled on 
each face, in counterchanged colours, with a tree 
between two birds [PLATE IV], a design, it has 
been suggested, probably borrowed direct from a 
Byzantine manuscript 20 . This foot v. Falke con- 
siders to be among the portions of the cross from 
Godefroid's workshop ; but the colours and quality 
of the enamel-pastes are similar to those of the two 
central plaques, and it therefore seems probable 
that, like them, it is a Hildesheim product. 

The British Museum cross already referred to 
(note 18) shows the same four subjects as those on 
the limbs of our cross, together with a fifth, the 
Return of the Spies from the Promised Land. It 
seems probable that this may have been the sub- 
ject of the plaque here replaced by the Hildesheim 
Agnus Dei. 

On the back of the cross, behind the four figure- 
plaques, are four large hollows in gilded copper, 
surrounded by engraved foliage. [One is shown on 
Plate IV.] Such gilt hollows, as already stated, 
are a characteristic of the Mosan School, and 
these plaques are accordingly part of the Mosan 
work of the cross 21 . The limbs are edged with 
brass mouldings and the whole is made up with 
sheet-brass on a foundation of oak. It is said 
to have belonged to one of the churches of 
Cologne, and was sold in 1853 in the P. Leven 
collection in that city !2 . 

sof.s., p. 71. 

21 The same device was used by Nicholas of Verdun in his 
altarpiece at Klosterneuburg, showing that it extended even to 
the school of the Upper Meuse. 

22 The cross alone measures 20-3 inches (51-5 cm.) in height, 
and the foot 5 inches (12-7 cm.). No. 7234—1860 in the 
Museum Register. No. 707 in the P. Leven Sale Catalogue, 
Cologne, 1853. F.S., pi. 75. Reproduced in colours by the 
Arundel Society, Chromolithographs of the Principal Objects 
of Art in the South Kensington Museum, 1875, pi. iv. 


or " Shell Competition ". To them enter two 

female attendants from the verandah of the house, 

one of whom carries on her shoulder a dog. 

Now, those who are acquainted with the ingenious 

methods employed by artists of the Ukiyoye 

school to hint a't a date by the introduction into 

the picture of one of the Zodiacal signs will see 

in this a significancy that might escape the 

ordinary observer. These kind of books were 

known as " Kioka-bon " (Comic Poem Books), 

and were issued in the spring, just in the same 

manner as were issued the Kioka Surimono, on 

which it was common to express the date of the 

New Year by means of one or other of the 

animals of the Zodiac. It is probable, therefore, 

that Utamaro, in introducing a dog into this plate, 

purposelv intended to convey to the New Year 

party a reminder of the new Dog Year, more 

especially as the manner in which the animal is 

being carried into the room gives it an undue 

prominence that certainly does not tend to beautify 

the picture. Now, the only Dog Year in the 

Kwansei period is the 2nd Year, the first day of 

which began on the 14th of Feb. 1790. There is 

yet another circumstance which we must take 

into account, viz., the seal "Jisei Ikke" under 

Utamaro's signature. This seal, the meaning of 

which is " Self-made house ", was evidently 


'HOUGH this book is undated, it has 
been almost universally ascribed by 
Western writers to circa 1780. That 
this is too early is certain for the 
following reasons. The publisher, 
Tsutaya Jusaburo, owned in his early days a 
small shop in Gojukendo, close by the Great 
Gate (" Omonguchi ") of the New Yoshiwara, 
Yedo. Being a keen business man, he found 
these humble premises too cramped for his 
activities, and in 1783 he moved to the Tori Abura 
street, where he had purchased a wholesale book- 
store, together with its godown, known as Maruya. 
The " Shell Book " was issued from this latter 
address. Hence it could not have appeared before 
1783. There is, moreover, no mention of this 
book in the advertisement sheet to the " Insect 
Book" of 1788 already referred to; and there is 
little doubt but that had it appeared prior to the 
latter date Tsutaya would have included such a 
fine work in his advertisement. Let us now see 
whether the book itself offers us any clue in the 
matter. The styles of costume and coiffure point 
to the beginning of the Kwansei period (1789- 
1800). The last plate introduces us to a party of 
ladies seated in a room on New Year's Day 
engaged in playing a game called " Kai Awase " 


Plate IV. Enamels of the Hildesheim school, and (left) engraved gilt-copper plaque of the Mosan school, 
from the altar-cross in the Victoria and Albeit Musem. (The two middle subjects reduced.) 

intended by the artist to announce the fact that 
he had founded a school of his own ; and most 
writers, both Japanese and Western, who have 
referred to the matter agree that the above inter- 
pretation is the correct one. Now, this seal is 
first found in a book illustrated by the artist, 
entitled "Yehon Tatoe no Fushi ", published 
1789. Doubtless the postscript of his master, 
Sekiyen, to the "Insect Book" of 1788 had a 
good deal to do with Utamaro's use of this seal. 
The artist, feeling that he had captured the public 
taste, and being confident of his own ability, 
decided that the time had come for him to turn 
teacher himself. It is interesting to note that one 
of his first pupils was Toyomaro, whose very rare 
prints are signed " Utamaro's pupil, Toyomaro ". 
Taking the above points into consideration, I am 
of opinion that the book was published in the 
1st month (14th of Feb.— 15th March) of 1790. 
It should be mentioned, however, that two 
Japanese magazines, entitled " Kono Hana " and 
" Ukiyoye " (the latter is still current), give the 
date of publication as 1791 and 1792 respectively, 
and in the sale catalogue of the Henri Portier 
collection (Paris, 1902) the latter date, but in 
brackets, is also assigned to this book. I cannot 
say upon what authority these dates are based ; 
perhaps they may refer to later editions. 

Description of the " Shell Book ". 

Title : Shiohi no Tsuto, " Presents of the Ebb- 
tide". 1 vol. io£" X 7^" in album form, containing 
two pages of preface ; 8 plates, with poems on each 
plate, in colours, gold, silver and mica ; and two 
pages of postscript, etc. 

Translation of the preface. " There is a proverb 
which says that a Field-mouse may become a Rice- 
bran bird and a Well-frog a Ladle. In the be- 
ginning of spring several men assembled on the 
beach at Sode ga Ura in order to picnic and gather 
shells on the beach. Now, who were these men ? 
They were . . . (here follow the names of several of 
the comic poem writers which are omitted) ; in all 
we made a company of 36 who participated in the 
picnic. All these fellows were Mow comedians' 
of the literary world — mere good-for-nothings. 
But when the wine cups had circulated freely they 
all became gigantic birds (i.e., men of consequence 
n their own estimation), and began to flap their 
wings which reached to the heavens. Accepting 
an invitation from the Dragon Palace under the 
sea (a fabulous palace called " RyQgu " supposed 
to be inhabited by a Queen named Otohime, the 
daughter of Ryujin the Dragon King), we succeeded 
on our way to the bed of the ocean in gathering 
myriads of shells. We had such a jolly time dur- 
ing our 1000 years' sojourn there that it would be 
a difficult matter indeed to tell to the folk at home 
all that happened. And so, to give vent to our 
happiness and at the same time to ease our wine- 

distended bellies, we have spouted out these songs 
about the shells that we have taken home as 
presents from the Bay of Shinagawa. Hence this 
volume". (Signed) Akera Kanko. 

Date: Undated, but probably 1790. 

Covers : plain reddish-brown boards, with white 
label on which are conventional watermarks of 
geometrical pattern and the title. 

Designer: Kitagawa Utamaro, (sealed) "Jisei 
no Ikke". 

Publisher : Koshodo Tsutaya Jusaburo of Tori 
Abura Street, 8th section, to the north of the Main 
Street, Yedo. 

Author of Preface : Akera Kanko. 

Author of postscript : Chiyeda. 

Plate 1. — A view of the Beach at Shinagawa 
Bay at ebb-tide, where a number of men, women 
and children are promenading and gathering 
shells. The waves and surf are rendered in 
gaufrage, and are tinted blue. The sea beyond, on 
which are sailing and rowing boats, some of which 
are at anchor, is uncoloured. In the left fore- 
ground, two pine trees with brown trunks and 
green tops rise majestically from the green sward. 
Beyond them are visible a cluster of smaller trees 
and houses, and some fishing nets. Over the 
horizon are dark blue cloud streaks which stretch 
across the plate, To the right, a grassy promontory 
juts out into the sea. The costumes worn by the 
holiday makers are purple, red, pink, black, orange, 
blue, brown, green and white. The whole scene 
is one of animation and brightness. In later 
editions, the gaufrage of the waves and surf is 
lacking, and there are several variations in the 
colour scheme. To avoid repetition, it is noted 
that each of the next 6 plates of shells has, in the 
first edition, undulating wine-coloured lines along 
the top to represent conventional waves ; and that 
each of these plates is also freely sprinkled with 
gold dust. In later editions, these conventional 
waves are absent, and the gold dust is only applied 
to some of the plates. Of the two plates which 
Kurth has illustrated, neither has these wave 

Plate 2. — On the sea-bed, which is coloured 
pearl grey with dark grey spots, lie 38 shells of 
various shapes and sizes in white, brown, pink, 
rose-red, greenish-grey, and pale yellow, their 
beauty in many cases being accentuated by the use 
of the finest gaufrage and mica. The poems above 
give the names of these shells, e.g., Shira-gai, Iro- 
gai, Isomakura-gai, and Sadae-gai. 

Plate 3. — On a pearl grey bed, 24 shells, amongst 
which are two large Awabi or Ear-shells, rest on a 
green seaweed. The others comprise Itaya-gai (a 
kind of Scallop), Utsuse-gai (Natica sp. ? ), Asari- 
gai, Ara-gai, and Chidori-gai. Gaufrage is here 
applied to one white shell only. The rims and 
cone of the Ear-shells are silvered. The coloration 
used is brown, green, grey and pink. 


Plate 4. — On the left is a large rock encrusted 
with and half surrounded by a variety of exqui- 
sitely coloured shells. On the right are 24 
other shells. The whole rest on a pearl grey 
bed. The species represented are Ashi-gai, 
Hamaguri (Cytherea meretrix), Ko-gai, Suzume- 
gai (a small Univalve), Akaya-gai (Mother-of- 
pearl), and Katashi-gai. Neither gaufrage nor 
mica is used. The coloration includes rose, grey, 
pale green, yellowish brown, white, brownish 
purple, yellow, pink, black, and dark green. A 
plate of haunting beauty. 

Plate 5. — Nineteen shells in red, grey, brown, 
and pale pink lie intermingled with a green seaweed 
on the bed of the sea. They comprise Beni-gai, 
Hora-gai (Variegated Triton), Utsu-gai, Wasare- 
gai (a kind of Clam), Iro-gai, and Ho-gai. Gaufrage 
and silvery mica are freely used with telling effect. 

Plate 6. — On a green bed repose 18 shells of 
the following varieties : Sudare-gai (a Bivalve, 
Tapes euglyptus), Hana-gai, Sakura-gai (Tellina), 
Murasaki-gai, and Nadeshiko-gai. The coloration 
is black, strawberry, and greyish green, with a free 
use of gaufrage and silvery mica, both of which 
are effectively applied also to a sea-worm. 

Plate 7 [illustrated here].— On a pale green 
bed are strewn 30 shells of the following varieties : 
Minashi-gai (Conus), Shio-gai, Hatsu-gai, Miso- 
gai, and Shijimi-gai (bivalves of the genus 
Corbicula), in rose-red, black, white, pale yellow, 
purplish brown, and pale green. A large greenish 
black and two small olive-green seaweeds inter- 
mingle with the shells, whose beauty is greatly 
enhanced by the most delicate application of 
mica and gaufrage. The jet black of the five 
Shijima-gai and the rose-red of the six adjacent 
shells form a superb contrast, whilst the trans- 
parency of one of the thin mica-coloured shells, 
through which the cone of one of the rose-red 
shells is visible, is a masterpiece of printing. The 
beauty of the whole plate beggars description. 
It should be noted that here the gold dust is 
applied amongst the shells and seaweed, and not, 
as in the previous plates, between the shells and 
the waves. 

Plate 8. — A party of seven ladies are seated in a 
room opening on to a verandah and overlooking 
a garden. They are engaged either in playing the 
Shell Game called Kai Avvase or in conversation. 
The hostess and the chief guest are wearing the 
Kaidori or long outer embroidered garment which 
covers the obi at the back. The Kaidori of the 
former is red with yellow and white embroidered 
pattern, that of the latter is black with red, yellow 
and blue embroidered design. Half surrounding 
the party is a folding screen, a portion of the inside 
of which is visible and discloses a painting of a 
stream swirling between rocks overgrown with red 
and pink peonies. The rest of the screen is not 
shown with the exception of the left wing, on the 


outside of which is a winter landscape of moun" 
tain and water in graded black and white. On the 
water a boat rides at anchor. In the foreground 
a pine and a pinkish-white garden-cherry (Niwa- 
sakura) rear their tops just above the level of the 
flooring. In the background is a white stand on 
which is hung a white towel, the reverse side of 
which is coloured a bluish-grey. Close by is a 
dull yellow coloured jug and basin. On the left 
two female attendants are entering the room from 
the verandah, the foremost carrying a red-lacquer 
stand, the other bearing a light-brown dog on her 
shoulders. In the background behind the latter is 
a cream coloured wainscot edged with black, the 
grain of the wood being shown by means of 
gauffrage. One of the ladies, of whom we are 
afforded a back view only, rests her right hand on 
a hexagonal box which rests on a stand. It is 
important to note that only in the first edition is 
gold dust used on the top and bottom of this box. 
The colour-scheme includes black, red, light 
brown, yellow, pink, purple, grey, blue, green, 
cream, pale blue, and gold. The space underneath 
the verandah is grey in the first edition but black 
in later editions, in which also the white towel- 
sland becomes a black one. This plate, as 
reproduced in colours in Kurth's work, is not from 
the first edition. 

The next page and a half are devoted to the 
postscript, of which the following is a transla- 
tion : — 

"When we carefully consider the nature of 
Friendship we find that in eight or nine cases 
out of ten it takes the form of drinking, after the 
manner of the Eight Helmets and the Seven 
Sages who were wont to pass a thousand days at 
a stretch in a state of intoxication, and to go to 
sleep using as cushions the straw coverings of the 
wine barrels. And so on a certain day we took 
our pillows and went to the seashore in order to 
gaze at Awa and Kazusa l . Ah, me, what a huge 
comedy the Universe is ! At dawn, when the 
curtain is lifted from the waves, the Parent boat 2 
puts out to sea. Then it is that when the tide is 
at its ebb the fisherfolk make a big haul of little 
shells, fishing up things as innumerable as are the 
sands on Fuji Strand. Then it is that the Dragon 
Castle can be seen through a telescope, and that 
smail boats can be drawn along the shore by oxen. 
Then, too, it is that the sleeves of the maidens as 
they float in the sea-breezes suggest the rocks in 
the sea, for they are both ever wet . Thus did 
the 36 of us play our parts of a thousand variety of 
shells 3 , and composed poems which we engraved 
on the pebbles. After we had finished the second 
and third parts of our comedy, we completed the 

1 Provinces forming a peninsula beyond the Bay of Shinagawa. 
- The chief smack of the fishing fleet. 

3 A subtle allusion to the thousand days of intoxication already 

-'^^i ^ — c -X3.1V* 








•-^i^ l^o — 


") o 

e ° 


.5 "w 

— • t° 


u Jo 

-" — 

fourth part of the second act, the eightfold 
wavelets chasing one another to the shore, sug- 
gesting to us our own eightfold circle {i.e., of 

" Following the example of our Chief, I, Kurabe 
Yukizumi of the Golden Saddle, became bold, 
being encouraged in the first place by a skin as 
line as that of the Garden Radish \ Written by 
Chiyeda at the request of the Yaegaki wren (i.e., 
the eightfold circle)". 

The last half-page contains the name of the 
painter with his seal of " Jisei Ikke" and the 
name and address of the publisher as already 
noted. It is difficult to speak in terms of moderate 
praise of the "Shell Book". The colour scheme 
employed by the artist and the manner in which 
he has arranged his subjects are unequalled. 
There is no sense of the artificial. We are shown 
the ocean bed as Nature herself has adorned it. 
From a technical point of view, it is, in my opinion, 
the finest example of wood engraving and colour 
printing that the world has ever seen. 

In conclusion, I append a short account of the 
three most prominent men referred to in the 
foregoing three ai tides, introducing fresh matter 
likely to be of interest to collectors. 

SEKIYEN was born in Yedo in 1712. His 
family name was Sano, his personal name Toyo- 
fusa. He studied painting under Kano Gyokuyen 
Chikanobu, from whom he received the name of 
Sekiyen. Turning his attention to Ukiyoye, he 
founded a school to which he gave the name of 
Toriyama. He trained 33 pupils (including his 
daughter Sekiryu), most of whom designed suri- 
momo or book illustrations. Amongst those who 
in addition designed nishiki-ye were the following: 
Kita-gawa Toyoaki, "afterwards Ki-ta-gawa Uta- 
maro " ; Shiko, who in 1789 changed his name to 
Choki, and who must not be confounded with a 
second Shiko, probably a pupil of Choki, who 
worked during the Kwansei and Kiowa periods 
(1789-1803) somewhat in the style of Utamaro ; 
Yenjutei Banki, not to be confused with Banki 
the second, whose name is spelt differently ; 
Yensensha Sekicho ; Sekiho ; Sekijo ; and Sekiga. 
It is interesting to note that as a collaborator with 
his master in book illustration Utamaro sometimes 
signed " Yentaisai Utamaro". Sekiyen died on 
the 3rd day of the 8th month of Temmei 8 (1788), 
and was buried in the cemetery of the temple 
Shinkwomyo-ji, having attained the age of 77. 
His work is confined to painting and book 
illustration, into which latter he introduced the 

4 In order to understand the last two sentences it is necessary 
to explain that the party had amongst their number some of the 
fair sex of easy virtue. By the expression "After we had 
finished the second and third parts of our comedy " the author 
refers to their having finished drinking ; and by the words 
" Completed the fourth part of the second act " the author means 
to convey that he, following the example of his Chief, suc- 
cumbed to the charms of one of his fair companions. 

style of gradation printing known as bokashi- 

native of Yedo. He began his career as a small 
bookseller and owner of a Tebiki-chaya or guiding 
tea-house near the Omonguchi or Great Gate of 
the Yoshiwara, where he made a small fortune by 
the sale of the " Yoshiwara Saiken " or " Guide to 
the Yoshiwara". A scion originally of the 
Maruyama family, he afterwards adopted the 
family name of Ki-ta-gawa. Amongst those 
writers who contributed prefaces to his Yoshiwara 
Guide were Santo Kyoden, Kyokutei Bakin, and 
Akera Kanko, the author of the preface to the 
Shell Book. Tsutaya became a patron of art and 
literature, and many a young man who afterwards 
attained fame as painter or writer owed his initial 
success to him. He would note any youngster of 
talent who had fallen on evil days, and would 
receive him into his house as a Kakaribito, that is 
one who gives his services in return for free board, 
lodging and clothing. Thus Bakin served Tsutaya 
from the winter of 1791 to the spring of 1793, 
when, owing to his refusal to wed a daughter of 
his protector's uncle, their relations became 
strained and he left Tsutaya. Amongst many 
others whom this publisher befriended was 
Utamaro. I place the date of this event at 1779 
and put forward the suggestion that it was then 
that Utamaro dropped his former appellation of 
Kita-gawa and adopted his benefactor's name of 
Ki-ta-gawa, which he afterwards used as the name 
of his school. In 1783, Tsutaya removed to 
larger premises in the Tori Abura-cho, and soon 
became one of the foremost publishers of Yedo, 
amassing a considerable fortune. It is recorded 
that he was the only man who had ever made a 
fortune out of the Yoshiwara, a place where most 
people used to lose their all. Under the pseudonym 
of Karamaru (sometimes written Karamaro), he 
was known as a comic writer and poet, one of his 
books under this pseudonym being illustrated by 
Utamaro. Tsutaya died in 1797 in his 48th year, 
though his business was carried on till about 1806. 
Care should be taken not to confuse him with a 
publisher of later date named Tsutaya Kichizo 
who, like Jusaburo, used a trademark of an ivy 
leaf surmounted by a triple peak, but with the 
addition of a dot between the leaf and the peak. 

UTAMARO. Fresh light has been thrown upon 
the artist's life by the discovery of his grave in the 
cemetery of the Buddhist temple of Senkwoji in 
the Kitamatsuyama street, Asakusa, Tokio, as well 
as by the following entries in the Kwakocho or 
Register of deceased parishioners kept at this 

(1) Buried on the 26th day of the 8th month 
of Kwansei 2 (4th Oct. 1790) RISEI Shinjo. 
Blood-relation Sasaya Gohei of Shirogane street, 


(-») Buried on the 20th day of the oth month 
of Bun wa 3 (31st Oct. 1806) SHUYEN 
RYOKYO Shinshi, Kita-gawa Utamaro. 

The lady RISEI is thought by Mr. Hoshino 
Choyo to have been Utamaro's mother. Mr. Takeda 
Shinken, however, takes the view that she was his 
wife. After sifting the evidence of these two 
writers I am convinced that the former view is 
correct. Who the blood-relation Sasaya Gohei 
was is not yet clear. Unfortunately neither in the 
Kwakocho nor on the tombstone, of which only 
the plinth remains, is the age at which Utamaro 
died given. Hence the date of his birth is still 
uncertain. An important point to note is that his 
family name is recorded as Kita-gawa, not Ki-ta- 
gawa. Of no less importance is the fact that he 
was buried in a different graveyard from that of 
Sekiyen. These two facts alone prove that he was 
no blood-relation of Sekiyen, much less his son, 
as several writers both Japanese and foreign con- 
tend. This consanguinity theory was first 
ventilated in the Japanese newspaper "Yomiuri 
shimbun " dated the 28th day of the first month of 
iqoi. The writer, under the pseudonym of 
Kyokugwai Kanjin, based his contention that 
Utamaro was Sekiyen's son on the false premises 
that Sekiyen's family name was Toriyama, and con- 
cluded that Utamaro's use of the name of " Utamaro 
Gen Toyoaki" with the seal "Toriyama" proves 
that the latter's family name was not Kita-gawa nor 
Ki-ta-gawa, but Toriyama. He goes on to say 
that "the fact of Utamaro signing 'Toyoaki', 
' Tori Toyoaki ', and ' Toriyama Toyoaki ' is 
proof positive that Utamaro's personal name 
was Toyoaki". As a matter of fact Utamaro 
received this name as a pupil of Toyofusa. The 
writer did not apparently know that Utamaro also 
signed Kita-gawa Toyoaki in several books, for 
he further states that " though it is unknown why 
he called himself Ki-ta-gawa, or Kita-gawa, there 
is a rumour that on reaching adult age he 
indulged in dissipation to such an extent as to rouse 
the ire of Sekiyen, in consequence of which he 
left the latter's house and went to live with a 

wholesale bookseller who some say was Tsutaya 
Jiisaburo of Tori Abura-cho ". This " rumour " is 
generally discredited by modern Japanese critics 
except in so far as Utamaro's living with Tsutaya 
is concerned, a sojourn which lasted until about 
1789. Sekiyen states distinctly in his postscript 
to the " Insect Book" that Utamaro was his pupil. 
Moreover this postscript shows that the pair were 
on the best of terms. Some writers see in Sekiyen's 
affectionate use of the expression " Uta-shi " a 
hint that Utamaro was his son. It was no 
uncommon practice for writers of prefaces, etc., 
to refer to an artist as So and So-shi. Thus Keisai 
Masayoshi is referred to as Kei-shi ; Sekkosai 
Tokinobu as Sekko-shi. Even Utamaro refers to 
himself as " Uta-shi " in one of his rebus series 
of large heads, translated by Kurth on page 115 
as '' Uta-ko " instead of " Uta-shi", which is the 
correct reading. We also learn from his postscript 
that Sekiyen knew Utamaro intimately as a child. 
Now we know nothing of his father ; but 
assuming that Kisei was his mother, it is reasonable 
to accept Mr. Hoshino Choyo's conjecture that 
he was probably placed by her under Sekiyen's 
guardianship. The place of Utamaro's birth is 
still unknown. Yedo, Kawagoye in the province 
of Musashi, and recently Osaka are all claimed 
by different writers, but there is so far no evidence 
to substantiate any of these claims. As an artist, 
Utamaro till about the year 1779 used the signa- 
tures of "Toyoaki", "Kita-gawa Toyoaki", or 
" Toriyama Toyoaki ". Under the former signature 
there is at least one hoso-ye print of the actor 
Iwai Hanshiro impersonating Osanae, the younger 
sister of Tadanobu. Not every print so signed 
is by Utamaro, for there was another artist — 
a pupil of Shunsho — named Katsukawa Hosho 
(may be also pronounced Toyoaki) who also 
designed some actor prints. From 1780 inclusive 
until his death, Utamaro signed his books Ki-ta- 
gawa Utamaro, using the seal of Toyoaki and 
Utamaro in the kioka-bon " Kyo-getsu-bo " of 
1789. His pupils all used the school appellation 
of Ki-ta-gawa. 


HAN POTTERY (continued) 

"E have already observed that the 
ornament on Han pottery consists 

jchiefly of incised, moulded or 
stamped designs, with occasional 

[embellishments in liquid clay or 
slip ; in short, the earliest and most truly ceramic 
forms of decoration which are found wherever 
the potter's art has flourished. A black vase 
described in the last article exemplified the use of 
incised design as a primary ornament. For sub- 

sidiary purposes it was freely used in bands of 
rings and combed borders on moulded vases, and 
in some cases a small roller or wheel was 
employed to produce a running pattern. The 
most usual kind of applied relief was also illus- 
trated by the moulded frieze on a well-known 
type of wine vase ; and we now come to the 
reliefs which were impressed on the ware itself by 
means of incuse stamps or formed by the moulds 
in which the vessels were shaped. On Plate I, 
in the centre of the upper row, is a stand of 


ioj" high 

9" long 

81" high 

<)V' high 

8A" high 

8i* high 

Plate I. Han pottery from Mr. George Eumorfopoulos's collection. — Upper row : Bucket in form of a well- 
he id with well-pitcher on the side; Rectangular stand; Hill-censer (po shan lu). Lower row: Hill-jar; 
Architectural model ; Model of farm pen and shed. 

28" high 

I2|" high 

un-Chinese, probably later than the Han dynasty. 

unglazed, dark grey pottery with sharply stamped 
designs on each of the four sides. On the front 
are two bird-headed dragons, or hydras, con- 
fronted in cloud scrolls ; on the back is a winged 
dragon and a tiger ; at one end is a hydra in 
clouds, and at the other a ferocious demon figure 
frequently seen in the white clay figurines of later 
date and identified as Yama, the Thibetan God 
of Hell. 

Next to this stand on the same Plate, i, is a good 
example of the po shan lit, or " hill censer ", of 
red ware with greenish brown glaze. It is a 
goblet-shaped vessel standing in a deep tray, and 
its cover, perforated to allow the escape of the 
incense fumes, is moulded in the form of a cluster 
of hills peopled by animal figures and surrounded 
by waves. This ornament is doubtless intended 
to suggest a vision of Mr. P'eng-lai in the Taoist 
paradise, and recalls the fact that one of the Han 
emperors, Wu Ti, was notoriously a devotee of 
Taoism. His quest of the elixir of life is the theme 
of many legends, and he is reputed to have made 
a pilgrimage to the seashore in order to look 
towards the island paradise, and even to have 
equipped an expedition to go in search of those 
blessed isles, which needless to say never returned. 

The hill-censer appears to have been first made 
in the Han period, and its counterpart is known 
among Han bronzes. Later it developed variant 
forms. Thus a bronze specimen illustrated in 
the " Chin-shih-so ", a Chinese book of antiquities, 
had projecting foliage on its stem ; and in a rare 
example in glazed pottery in the Rotherston 
collection ' the plant motive has already super, 
seded the hill, the bowl and cover being shaped 
like a lotus flower on the top of which a duck is 
perched to serve as a handle. It is likely that this 
latter piece is of somewhat later date than Han ; 
and it is interesting to notice in the rock sculptures 
at Lung-men \ which belong to the Wei, Sui and 
T'ang periods (mainly 6th to 8th century), that a 
lotus-shaped vase or censer frequently forms the 
central motive of a Buddhistic group. The 
change from the hill form to the lotus doubtless 
marks the passing of the censer from a Taoist to 
a Buddhist environment. 

It is not so easy to divine the use of the some- 
what analogous "hill-jar", a good example of 
which is given on the left of the lower row of the 
same Plate, i. It is of the usual red ware with 
brownish green glaze, and the cover is of similar 
design to that of the po shan lit, but there are none 
of the perforations of the incense burner. The 
cylindrical body is decorated with a frieze of 
moulded ornament similar to that of the Han 
winejars, comprising animals such as the tiger, 
boar and monkey, and spaced by wave designs. 

1 Figured in my Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, Plate 3. 

2 See Chavannes, Mission Archc'ologiquc clans la Chine 

There are two formal handles with tiger masks and 
rings ; and the vessel is supported on three feet 
of conventional bear form. 

Two of the other objects on the same Plate have 
a more human interest. One (left on the top row) 
is a bucket of green-glazed red ware modelled in the 
form of a well-head, with arched top in the centre of 
which is a pulley for the well rope protected by a 
small pent house, giving a delightful insight into 
the mechanical contrivances of the time. The well- 
pitcher is seen resting on the side ready for use ; 
but in other known examples it is represented as 
lying at the bottom of the well. The other object, 
similarly green-glazed, is one of the interesting 
models of farm buildings, which include sheep- 
pens, pig-sties, threshing floors, granary towers, etc. 
Here we have a pen with a small tiled shed at its 
side, intended for pigs or sheep, though the animals 
themselves are not, as sometimes happens, 
represented as in occupation. 

Next to the pen on the same Plate (lower row) is 
one of the architectural models which are not the 
least interesting of the Han pottery relics. They 
include representations of dwelling - houses, 
temples, monumental pillars and watch-towers, 
enabling us to form some idea of the prevalent 
architecture of the period. In many cases it is 
clear that the buildings suggested were of wooden 
structure with large timber supports and sloping, 
tiled roofs, not greatly differing from the temples 
still existing in China. 

The common feature of them all is the tiled roof, 
the tiles being of the form still familiar in China, 
viz., a half tube (longitudinally divided) about 
fourteen inches in length. The tiles which line 
the lower end of the roof are more ornate, and 
terminate in an ornamental disc of about 5 inches 
diameter, projecting in such a way as to produce 
a row of circular ornaments overlapping the 
eaves s . The decoration in these discs stamped in 
countersunk relief usually consists of inscriptions 
expressing a good wish and occasionally recording 
a date ; though sometimes the characters are 
replaced by other ornaments, such as dragons and 
birds, and other designs which are common in the 
circular metal mirrors of the period. Han tile- 
discs, especially those with inscribed ornament, are 
much prized by the Chinese antiquary. Sometimes 
he varnishes them and converts them into ink- 
pallets. The rough-grained pottery serves well 
for rubbing the ink, and the venerable age of the 
material satisfies all the requirements of "antique 
elegance ". Needless to say the demand for these 
objects has produced a fine crop of forgeries. 

The little building in the centre of the lower 
row of Plate I is of red ware covered with 
iridescent green glaze. Its side is decorated with 

3 Roof-tiles with ornamented ends were similarly used by the 
Italist Greeks, as is shown by a reconstructed building in the 
Terra-cotta Room in the British Museum. 


I0 5 

low reliefs in two panels. On the upper storey is 
the stork of longevity, which thus placed might 
suggest to the western mind an old nursery mvth. 
Below is a seated figure, probably Hsi Wang Mu, 
Queen Mother of the West, attended by animals 
and demon figures. On the left of Plate II is an 
interesting model of a two-storeyed watch-tower, 
also of red ware with iridescent green glaze. It 
represents a tall, well-proportioned structure, and 
its architectural pretensions are manifest in the 
ornamental supports of the gallery and roof. 
These supports, which are no doubt intended to 
suggest woodwork, are of a peculiar form in which 
the horned head of a ram or ox is just recognisable. 
On the parapet is an archer kneeling on one knee ; 
and probably there were other occupants of the 
tower who have disappeared. This model recalls 
in many details the splendid tower in the Freer 
collection 4 , which is not only one of the finest 
examples of Han pottery, but one of the first 
acquired, in America. It stands 30 inches high, 
and is built up in two roofed storeys raised on a 
structure of open woodwork on which carved 
designs are indicated. Under both of the roofs 
there are galleries manned by crossbowmen, and 
on the tiles are pigeons alighting, while the saucer- 
like stand in which the building is set is strewn 
with dead birds brought down by the archers. In 
this case too supports in the shape of a horned 
head are seen under the galleries, and it is of some 
interest to note that the use of ornamental reliefs 
in the form of animals' heads was prevalent in 
China, while rams' heads were being similarly 
employed by Roman artists. The Han pottery 
pillar in the Louvre and some large bricks or 
slabs in the British Museum are ornamented with 
horned heads naturalistically modelled and stand- 
ing out in full relief in quite a Roman fashion. 
Incidentally, these architectural slabs are of great 

4 Illustrated in my Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, Vol. I, 
Plate 4. 

interest as a perfect repository of Han ornament. 
They are liberally stamped with relief designs 
which comprise figures, human and animal, 
temples and other buildings, and a whole series 
of formal ornaments and diapers, many of which 
are of great decorative merit. 

To return to the watch-towers, Dr. Laufer'' 
makes the interesting statement that all existing 
examples of these models, "according to the 
unanimous testimony of the Chinese ", have been 
found in the frontier province of Kansu, and he 
argues from this fact that they represent frontier 
watch-towers such as were built along the Great 
Wall, and so would form an appropriate furniture 
for the tomb of a soldier who died on garrison 
duty. It is difficult to check the first part of the 
statement, but the inference drawn gives a very 
reasonable explanation of the meaning of these 
pottery towers. If it is correct, then Mr. Freer's 
model must be regarded as a military structure 
rather than as a " fowling tower", and the pigeon 
shooting as a mere incidental occurrence. 

On the same Plate, II, 2, is a remarkable figure, 
which is one of the puzzles of the collection. The 
ware is of Han type, red with green glaze, but 
the curious mop of hair is coloured black by a 
coating of dark clay. The features of the man 
are quite un-Chinese. He might indeed pass for 
an American Indian. The relatively large size of 
the vase, which, when its neck was complete, 
must have obscured the whole figure, seems to 
suggest an ornamental composition. Whether 
this is the case or whether the group represents a 
wine-bearing attendant of some buried chief, the 
figure is certainly a foreigner who came to China 
from the West. Nor is the date of the piece by 
any means assured. It is probably later than the 
Han dynasty, and almost certainly pre-T'ang. 
The appearance of the bottle-shaped vase is in 
favour of an intermediate period. 

5 Chinese Clay Figures, Chicago, 1914, Part 1, p. 208. 



HE mediaeval Englishman knew little 
of any table except that on which his 
food was set. It is a word that finds 
scarce any mention in early inven- 
tories, since small ones, which after- 
wards came to be used in endless variety, were as 
yet unknown. Thus the table formed no part of 
the furniture of the chamber, while in the hall, 
which for many purposes was needed as an open 
space, removable ones of trestle form were 
customary, and were generally omitted from the 
inventories. In the 16th century heavy framed 


oak tables make their appearance and hold their 
own for a long while, being made in the provinces 
on traditional lines up to the end of the 17th 
century. But their size and weight made them 
immobile. " The shovelboard and other long 
tables, both in hall and parlour, were as fixed as the 
freehold "', wrote Evelyn in 1690 of his father's 
times. But it was still the custom to bring in and 
remove tables when the company at a meal was 
large. Duke Cosmo III stayed the night with Col. 
Nevill at Bdlingsbere in Berks when on his way 
from Plymouth to London in 1669, , and after 
1 Evelyn's Misc. Writings, ed. 1825, p. 700. 

Round flap dining-table, lion mask on knees and ball-and-claw feet, diam. 58", height 28' ; c. 1730 

Sioetable with breche violette marble top, balkmd-claw feet, wave pattern frieze, elaborately carve, apron. 

64" x 32", height 35" ; c- 1730 

Plate X. English mahogany tables of the Cabriole period, belonging to Mr. Percival Griffiths 















<-*— ■ 













. _ 















































— ;l 
























■*— ' 

"! ... 





breakfast " the tables were removed " 2 . It should 
be noticed that the plural number is used, and the 
chronicler of the duke's travels notes the English 
custom of serving dinner on tables of oval figure. 
They will have been not of the trestle, but of the 
gate-legged type, that had then become frequent, 
and which, though still mostly of oak and heavy 
when of large size, were rendered portable by their 
flap form. As we know them they are mostly small, 
and no doubt small ones always predominated. 
But with the introduction of more convenient 
types, such as the leaf system, the big flap table 
would be ousted from the dining-room and be 
broken up, so that their scarcity now is no argu- 
ment against their original frequency, and 
examples at which twelve can sit are still found. 
Some such, dating from Charles II's time, are of 
walnut with twisted legs, and the prevalence of 
the type is shown by Roger North, when he was 
staying with the Beauforts at Badminton in 1680, 
noting as peculiar that the duke's own table " was 
an oblong and not an oval " 3 . The use of 
moderate sized tables in quantity extended to the 
household, for the same visitor says of the duke 
that, " In his capital home " he had " nine original 
tables covered every day" 4 . The gate table with 
flaps was given cabriole legs after the 18th century 
opened. But such a form is not very convincing 
for large tables, either in appearance or for con- 
venience, and they may never have widely 
obtained. Certainly survivals are rare compared 
with cabriole tables of every other form then 
fashionable. But Mr. Griffiths has secured two 
excellent specimens in mahogany. The smaller one 
[Plate X, a] is round, just under 5 feet across, 
and it has four legs — of which two swing out to 
support the flaps — with lion mask knees and ball 
and claw feet. The larger table has legs of similar 
design but six in number. The top is an oval 6 ft. 
2 in. by 5 ft. 2 in., so that 8 people can sit round it 
comfortably. The habit of separate moderate-sized 
tables may well be the reason of the slow adoption 
of any system of table capable of large expansion. 
In George Ill's time the fashion came in of two 
half-circles capable of being hooked or clipped 
together to make a circle, or set wide apart and 
the space between filled by sections on the gate- 
legged principle of a four-legged centre with a flap 
on each side. Any number of these could be linked 
together and a numerous company be seated at 
the one table. But though such tables were not 
usual until the latter part of the 18th century, 
there are certain survivals of an earlier style 
showing that the idea was known and occasionally 
adopted. Sir Wm. Jones, a successful lawyer, 
built Ramsbury Manor soon after the Restoration 
of 1660 and there we find two Charles II walnut 

2 Magalotti, Travels of Cosmo the Third, London, 1821, p. 27S. 
" Roger North, Lives of Iht Norths, ed. 1825, Vol. I, p. 276. 
* Roger North, Lives of the Xortlis, ed. 1825, Vol. I, p. 272, 

half-circles 5 that hook together, and probably had 
centre portions to make an extension. Of later 
date and in mahogany, no doubt of the cabriole 
period but with straight legs for the structural ad- 
vantage, is the Houghton table with its elaborate 
system of draw-out legs, flaps and central 
sections". At Holyrood Palace, there is a table, 
with almost straight, but round, legs, terminating 
in ball and claw feet, that forms sections with flaps 
clipping together and therefore capable of indefi- 
nite multiplication and extension 7 . Though excel- 
lent pieces of simple craftsmanship these tables 
seem very plain when compared with the rest of 
the get up of the dining-rooms in which they 
were placed. But then neither richness nor new 
fashion mattered much in this article of furniture, 
as in all representations thereof we find the 
cloth hanging low, so that not merely the top, 
but also the framing, is unseen. Quite different 
was the treatment of the side tables then in fashion, 
for on them were profusely lavished both fine mate- 
rial and elaborate design in accord with the 
sumptuous decoration of the rich man's dining- 
room. For great country magnates they were 
produced of enormous size with audaciously 
carved and gilt frames supporting marble tops of 
rare quality and great thickness. Men of more 
normal taste and purse had them on a somewhat 
less scale with mahogany frame. Of such Mr. 
Percival Griffiths has brought together four very 
representative and well-preserved pieces. The 
largest [Plate X, b], dating from about 1730, 
carries a top of Breche Violette marble, 64 
in. long by 32 in. wide. The mahogany frame 
has a wave pattern frieze with carved aprons 
below it, and the legs have ball and claw 
feet. A very similar, but rather smaller, table has 
a much bigger central shell to the apron, which 
is exceptionally bold and massive in its carving. 
A much less important piece — only 40 in. long — 
has a plain frieze of choice veneer, and the feet 
are fully-furred lion paws. These three side- 
tables are all much of the same date, but the 
fourth one — likewise about 40 in. long — comes 
nearer to the close of the cabriole period, having 
a Chinese fret frieze and " French " feet. 

Away from the dining-room smalf light tables 
found ready acceptance during the latter end of 
the 17th century. But there is seldom anything 
so distinctive about those of that period as to 
show that any one form was restricted to an 
exclusive use. Distinctive names, however, begin 
to occur. In 1690 Evelyn published " Mundiis 
Muliebris, or the Ladies' Dressing Room Un- 
lock'd ", wherein a tea-table is one of the many 
novel and luxurious adjuncts enumerated 6 . In 

5 Illustrated by Mr. Macquoid, Age of Walnut, fig. 33- 
" Illustrated by Mr. Macquoid, Age of Mahogany, fig. 42. 
' Illustrated in Country Life, Vol. xxx, p. 97. 
8 Evelyn, Misc. Writings, ed. 1825, p. 700. 

I I I 

the same year Lord Bristol, furnishing his new 
house in St. James' Square, pays -£io " to Medina 
y e Jew for a Tea-table & 2 pair of China cupps 
for dear wife". 9 Much oriental porcelain was 
bought for " dear wife" during that and the fol- 
lowing year, for there are a score of payments to 
various dealers, six entries being for cups and 
saucers and two for teapots. Vases and large 
pieces were, no doubt, placed on mantel and 
other shelves as designed by Marot for Hampton 
Court. But the teapots and cups would be set 
out on tables, which soon had a raised edge or 
gallery for the protection of the precious little 
pieces. In the cabriole period such tables, when 
small, were fixed or hinged on to a central pillar 
rising out of a tripod base. The example given 
[Plate XI, c] consists of a round tray, about 
two feet across and tilting up at need, set on a 
tripod, of which the unusual detail is the human 
mask on the knee of the cabriole shaped legs. 

It is very solidly constructed, there being much 
weight of mahogany in the beautifully carved 
pillar and footing, but it was intended to be carried 
about, as is shown by the four hand openings that 
break the line of the balustered rail. It may there- 
fore be assigned to the service of tea rather than 
to the display of china, whereas the oblong four- 

legged table [Plate XI, d] is better suited to the 
latter purpose, although much greater size is 
attained with little more weight. It is a piece 
exquisite in design and execution, a cabriole 
precursor of the Sheraton manner when the 
craftsman, having attained the highest mastery 
over both material and construction, was able to 
give durability and strength combined with a 
rlimsiness of appearance that seems to deny those 
utilitarian qualities. Much water must have flowed 
under London Bridge before the devotion to 
massiveness that marks the early Georgian use of 
mahogany was replaced by the desire for cutting 
down the amount of wood to a minimum which 
resulted in the production of the example illus- 
trated. It will therefore date from about the 
time of Chippendale's first publication of the 
" Director ", where Plate LI shows two light 
oblong railed tables, one straight legged, but the 
other cabrioled with French ieet and elaborate 
stretchers of ornate Chinese type with a tree 
standing at the central point of junction. He 
describes them as: "Tables for holding each a 
Set of China, and may be used as Tea-Tables. 
. . . Those Tables look very well when rightly 
executed ". 10 

1 Director, p. xiv. 

9 Diary of John Hervey, Earl of Bristol, 1894, p. 39. 

{To be continued?) 


|T is an ancient and time-honoured 
/tradition of the British stage that its 
decor should be expressed in an artistic 
I formula which has long ceased to have 
lany meaning for painters or for the 
public which cares for art. There is, therefore, 
to us something paradoxical in the idea of going 
to a theatre to see experiments in the art of visual 
design — still more, experiments which indicate 
new possibilities in the art of picture-making. 
Yet, thanks to M. Serge Diaghileff's taste and 
enterprise, this incredible phenomenon may be 
seen at the Coliseum. In Russia, the Imperial 
Ballet, as it then was, became long ago the focus 
of national endeavour in all the arts. Dancing 
occupied for the Russians almost the same posi- 
tion as the mother art that architecture did in the 
middle ages. So that to the Russian mind there 
is nothing so surprising in the employment of a 
really creative artist for theatrical decoration and 
for the design of costume. For a long time, how- 
ever, the Russian Ballet was content with a decor 
which, though it could not be called old-fashioned 
or reactionary, was by no means on a level with 
the conceptions of the great original designers of 
Europe. M. Bakst was a most effective and 

ingenious designer, sufficiently alert to pick up 
ideas from all sides, but he did not himself stand 
in the front rank of creative designers. Probably 
the exact note of compromise on which M. Bakst 
fixed, and to which he gave the coherence of a 
personal style, was nearly exactly suited to M. 
Fokine's habitual methods of choregraphy. But 
when M. Fokine, striking out a new line, 
created Petrushka, it became apparent that the 
choregraphic conception was far ahead of the 
decor, and the same dissidence was even more 
apparent between the extremely original and 
formal design of the dance in " Le Sacre du 
Printemps " and the rather fusty romanticism of 
M. Ruhrich's scenery. It was evident here that 
both dance and music had outstripped the scenic 
artists, had arrived at a conception of formal unity 
which demanded something much more logically 
conceived than the casual decorative pictorial 
formula of the scenery. 

The new ballet, of which the dancing is de- 
signed by M. Massine, actually increases the pace 
of development along these lines. For he has 
aimed at a conception of the dance which one 
might call "heraldic". In it the movements which 
express dramatic states are rendered within defi- 


Decors oi •' tSaba Jaga 

W mm« 

Costume of tlie cat in " Kikimora" 

Coulisse foi " Le Soleii de Nuit ' 

Designs by M. Larionow 

fH.ff •*<•«■ n* 1 *"^ 

Designs by M. Larionow, for " La Marche Funebre ", and " Histoires Natnrelles " 

nitely restricted silhouettes. Moreover, the formal 
relations of movement in all the different parts 
of the ballet have become more and more distinct 
and evident — the whole pattern is keyed up to an 
intenser unity and the intellectual quality of the 
design is further intensified. In the case of "The 
Good-humoured Ladies ", it was evident that M. 
Massine had left his scene-painter panting several 
laps behind him in the race. But with the ap- 
pearance of the " Midnight Sun ", and still more 
decisively of "Children's Tales", one saw with 
delight that the harmony of the three arts was 
once more established. Certainly in M. Larionow 
and Mme. Goncharova the ballet has discovered 
two designers who are able to accept with eager- 
ness the new conception of the heraldic dance, 
and whose natural inclination is to give to their 
designs an exactly corresponding transposition of 
the actual into a formal equivalent. 

Quite apart from the sheer beauty and logical 
completeness of the effect, what strikes one most 
is the way in which M. Larionow's designs support 
the choregraphic design — the extent to which both 
form and colours underline and support the move- 
ment. Indeed 1 suspect that one secret of M. Lario- 
now's success lies precisely in this fact, that for 
him the movement of the figure, whatever it be, is 
the fundamental fact of his design. As we shall 
see further on, he has treated animal forms, and 
in those he has seized on the specific movement as 
the key to his design ; in treating of human beings 
he has an eye to the type of movement character- 
istic of the particular individual, or in the ballet 
the type of movement ordered by the designer of 
the balet. Thus his designs are not merely 
decoratively satisfying ; they also have a vivid 
expressive purpose. And that purpose is adjusted 
with exquisite tact to the ensemble of the ballet as 
conceived by M. Massine. 

It is difficult to speak of colour, since the 
reproductions here given are all in half-tone, and 
there is perhaps the less need in that everyone is 
familiar with the performances at the Coliseum ; 
but M. Larionow relies on it so much and exploits 
it with such originality and taste that it must be 
alluded to. Already in the Coq d'Or, M. Larionow's 
fellow worker Mme. Goncharova had shown us 
for the first time what could be done by a serious 
use of colour on the stage, and in the present 
examples of their art they have carried their ideas 
a stage further. In the Children's Tales the 
general scheme of each scene is admirably varied. 
In the Kikimora scene there is an almost crude 
vehemence of colour which sets just the right key 
by its reminiscence of Russian peasant art and 

children's toys. The colour here is treated 
playfully and, as it were, half ironically. In the 
scene of the Swan Princess all is changed to an 
almost monochrome scheme of mauve greys, pale 
dull blues and ochres beneath a greenish light. 
And here as so often M. Larionow gets a new and 
delightful effect by his use of white in spots and 
dashes in such a way as to give the feeling of 
intense and brilliant colour. 

In the scene of the rescue of the Princess we go 
back to Russian local colour, but with something 
more sumptuous and Oriental. It is reminiscent 
rather of the richest effects of Persian art, and yet 
withal entirely modern and novel. And herein we 
find one of M. Larionow's peculiarities, his use of 
entirely modern discoveries in design with a 
certain retrospective allusiveness to the arts of 
other times and countries, and this without ever 
falling into anything approaching plagiarism. It 
is this power of using form and colour with a 
double meaning, first as pure design, and secondly 
as a means of evoking vague suggestions and 
flavours of time and place, that makes him so 
consummate a designer for the theatre. 

Considering the inveterate customs which cling 
to the stage — customs which even the most en- 
lightened director may scarcely feel able to defy — 
it is surprising how complete an idea of design 
comes through at the Coliseum. But for all that 
one is not surprised that, like other artists who 
have been employed in stage designing, M. 
Larionow should have cast longing eyes at the 
puppet show where the designer reigns supreme, 
where the performers are his own handiwork and 
display an unfailing obedience to his wishes 
And it is clear that in his designs for the puppet 
show M. Larionow has been able to carry his 
ideas to a still further point. The reproductions 
on PLATE II will give an idea of the curious and 
fascinating conceptions he has worked out. 
They are for the most part for performances 
adapted from Jules Renard's masterpiece, " His- 
toires Naturelles ". 

If space had permitted, it would have been 
interesting to place side by side with M. Lario- 
now's interpretation of Jules Renard's animals 
those of M. Pierre Bonnard. It is not often that 
a good book inspires good illustration, but Renard 
has had the rare fortune to inspire two interpreters 
whose work is on totally different lines, and yet 
as one looks at the work of either, one can con- 
ceive for the moment no other possible interpre- 
tation of Renard's odd humour. The two artists 
stand at the opposite poles of modern art, Bonnard 
a last refinement on Impressionism, with an almost 

Marionettes designed by M. Larionow. 
[a] Personnage pour " La Marche funebre ", musique de Lord 
Berners (Tyrwhitt). 


[b] Lc Mariage dii Paon, [c] Le Cygne. [d] Le Martin Pechcur, 

pour " Histoires naturelles" de Jules Renard, musique de 

II 7 

exasperated sensibility, incredibly alert to spot 
the characteristic note in whatever shimmering 
kaleidoscope of forms nature appears. The 
infallible Tightness of his aim in this contest with 
nature's elusiveness gives one the sense of some- 
thing just as wittily iniime and sympathetic as 
Renard's prose. One would have thought it 
impossible to make a third in so happy a dialogue, 
but M. Larionow has come in from the other 
end of the street. By some mysterious process 
(in which Picasso's researches have much to say) 
M. I arionow decomposes his animals into shapes 
of an almost geometrical simplicity, and then 
recomposes those shapes so that they become 
not only the animal, but the animal as expressive 
of the human passions which Jules Renard's 
sympathetic imagination read into their behaviour. 
Take as an example the Peacock. Here is Jules 
Renard : — 

II va surement se marier aujourd'hui. 
Ce devait etre pour liier. En habit de gala, il etait pret. 
II n'attendait que sa fiancee. Elle n'est pas venue. Elle ne 
peut tarder. 

Glorieux, il se promene avec line alluie de prince indien 
et porte sur lui les riches presents d'usage. L'amour avive 
lVclat de ses couleurs et son aigrette tremble comnie une 

La fiancee n'arrive pas. 

II monte au haut du toit et regarde du cote du soleil. II 
jette son cri diabolique: 
Leon ! Leon ! 

C'est ainsi qu'il appelle sa fiancee. II ne voit rien venir 
et personne ne repond. Les volailles habituees ne levent 
meme point la tete. Elles soht lasses d'admirer. II re- 
descend dans la cour, si sur d'etre beau qu'il est incapable 
de raurune. 

Son manage sera pour demain. 

M. Bonnard gives in a few hasty scratches and 
blots of ink exactly the movement of a peacock 
mounting the steps of a garden terrace. So 
exactly characteristic of the appearance are these 
few lines that one can read into it what Renard 
read into nature, but no one would beforehand 
guess at the Indian prince. 

M. Larionow [Plate II] gives us only slight 
suggestions of the actual appearance of a peacock, 
but out of certain geometrical forms, the sugges- 
tions for which are given by nature, he builds 
us a figure which has almost ridiculously the 
character Renard describes. It is, indeed, curious 
how convincing an idea of mood and character 
these abstract forms convey, how exactly the 
movements suggested might stand either for the 
peacock or the Indian prince. 

In the original figure the colour is also at once 
non-natural and intensely suggestive of the 
character. It is in tones of intense ultramarine, 

vermilion, deep maroon, intense green, and, as the 
intensest accent of all, white in spots and half- 
circles. It is largely by the intensity of the 
accents of white that the whole movement is 

Or take again the Kingfisher — here M. Larionow 
has taken black and white only, in which to suggest 
the flashing colours of nature, but how exactly he 
has caricatured his original with its heavy stumpy 
body that can fall like lead or rush through the air 
with the impetus of a projectile. He has got the 
weight and the rapid jerkiness of the movement ; 
and again what a delightfully humorous character, 
which is, by the by, his own invention, for here 
for once Jules Renard has no interpretation of 

I may be thought to have over-emphasised this 
illustrational aspect of M. Larionow's art. I 
frankly admit its secondary importance, except for 
the purposes of the stage. These figures have the 
beauty of completely balanced and logical structure 
and suggestions of movement, quite apart from all 
that I have discussed, apart from any titles that one 
may give to them. But it strikes me as a curious 
and rather unexpected outcome of certain re- 
searches into purely abstract form that they should 
possess incidentally such a vivid illustrational 
value, for, as I suggested, M Larionow's methods 
of analysis and recomposition are based on the 
experiments carried out by Picasso and others. 
For Picasso, as I understand it, the purpose of 
decomposition was mainly to arrive at what one 
might call a canon of form — the discovery in any 
given object of certain elementary units of form 
out of which he built up his total design by 
repetitions on various scales and in various 
positions. By this method a certain uniform 
quality of form was imposed on every part of the 
design. It is this intensification of the formal 
unity that M. Larionow has also adopted, but he 
has shown that by the use of such means it is 
possible to express, perhaps more vividly and 
poignantly, certain aspects of character and mood 
that hitherto all artists have tried to express by 
means more akin to those of M. Bonnard. 

M. Larionow appears to have made most 
entirely his own the study of movements and the 
methods of adapting forms to its completest 
expression. It is this no doubt that has drawn 
him to the ballet, and it is this that has enabled 
him to place almost for the first time in modern 
history a real work of visual art within the frame 
of a proscenium. 

1 1 8 

-j 'tiiSaam 

Carpet made by William Morris, " Redcar" design, 10' 10" x 8' 2" 



IT is not surprising that William Morris, 
Jwho, in spite of his many activities, 
could always find time, turned his 
/attention to the knotting of carpets, 
Iwhich perhaps of all textiles combine 
the greatest possibilities of beauty and usefulness. 
At the time he did so real hand-knotted carpets 
were not made in this country. The art, which 
was introduced in the 16th century (the earliest 
ascertained date of an English carpet being 1570), 
was practised till the middle of the 17th century, 
and after its revival by the venture of Parisot in 
1750, and the efforts of the Society of Arts in 1756, 
died away about the time of the accession of 
Queen Victoria. The second revival, due to 
Morris's enterprise, is therefore of such import- 
ance that his work should undoubtedly be repre- 
sented in the national collections, and especially 
at the Victoria and Albert Museum, with which 
the great craftsman was always so closely asso- 
ciated. Until recently, however, there was nothing 
more than a small fragment — merely a specimen 
forming part of the model of a carpet loom which 
Morris made, and gave in 1893. The want of a 
suitable example was long unsatisfied, for his finest 
carpets were usually made for large mansions like 
Naworth Castle and Hurstbourne Priors, and even 
his smaller ones rarely came back to the market. 
Not long ago, however, was found a carpet admir- 
able for the purpose — made under Morris's super- 
vision, representative of his productions, and in 
perfect condition after its many years of use. 
Through the generosity of Mr. Thomas Glass, this 
carpet has come to the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
Morris started carpet knotting about 1879, and 
by October 1882 was able to offer his wares to the 
public. The design of this carpet is probably one 
of his earliest, though it does not show the 
hammer which was for a time often introduced 
in the borders of " Hammersmith " carpets. 

The pattern, known as the " Redcar", is shown 
in the Plate, and naturally accords with Morris's 


Gentlemen, — In his interesting notice in your 
January number of a newly discovered Flemish 
painting of the Annunciation Dr. Borenius makes 
no mention of a detail which at once attracts the 
attention of students of pottery. I refer to the 
little boccalc of Italian maiolica used to hold the 
stem of lilies. It is painted with the San Ber- 
nardino badge — the Sacred Monogram within a 
rayed medallion, popular in Italy at the time— 


expressed ideas on carpet designing. The bold 
details are unshaded, though often emphasised by 
a dark outline, and have the effect of lying abso- 
lutely flat. Its arrangement follows that of most 
of his carpets, which usually have a wide border 
either darker or lighter in tone than the rest, 
separated by a "barber's pole" band from the 
central space, which is covered with a floral 
pattern, and sometimes contains one or more 
detached panels. The ground of the carpet and 
the edge outside the border is the pale brown 
colour of the natural camel-hair used ; the ground 
of the border is dark green. The other colours 
are mostly pale tints of blue, green, cream, pink 
and violet, but there is a little red, blue and brown 
of greater intensity. 

The technique is excellent, but, if the somewhat 
free use of camel-hair be excepted, in no way 
peculiar. The warps, which count ten to the 
inch, are of white cotton, and are knotted to form 
a deep fringe at each end. The weft, of jute, is 
shot once across after each row of knots. The 
pile is, as indicated above, partly of undyed 
camel-hair, but mostly of sheep's wool ; the 
Ghiordes or Turkish knot is the one employed. 
The " pitch ", or fineness of texture, was designed 
to be 5 x 5, or 25 knots to the square inch ; but, 
as usually happens, the knots have been beaten 
together rather tightly, so that there are actually 
about 28 to the inch. 

This gift from a gentleman closely connected 
with the carpet industry is a pleasing proof of the 
interest that carpet manufacturers take in the 
museum, and of their opinion of the utility of its 
collections. At the same time that the carpet was 
received, Messrs. Morris and Co. enhanced the 
gift by presenting the original sketch-design that 
Morris made for it. This shows, one-sixth full 
size, a quarter of the carpet, with the colouring 
actually adopted. These objects fill a gap that 
has long existed, and will help materially towards 
the end, always kept in view, of assembling in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum a representative 
collection of the works of William Morris. 

enclosed by a ladder-like border. This latter 
motive was a favourite with the maiolica painters 
of Faenza, but it also occurs on jugs of probable 
Tuscan origin, so that it would be dangerous to 
attempt a precise determination of the origin of 
the jug in 'the picture; its date maybe assigned 
to the last quarter of the 15th century. 

This painting is an interesting new piece of 
evidence of the exportation of maiolica to the 
Low Countries, a traffic of which the consequences 


to the Netherlandish pottery manufacture have 
only lately been fully appreciated, thanks to 
recent discoveries in Holland, to which I have 
had occasion to refer in the pages of your maga- 
zine. A parallel instance is that of the jug of 
similar form in the Annunciation by the " Maitre de 
Flemalle" belonging to the Comtesse de Merode, 
figured by Henry Wallis in "Oak-leaf Jars", fig. 
62 — Yours faithfully, 

Bernard Rackham. 

London, February 7th, 1919. 

Mr. Fairfax Murray.— By the death of Mr. 
Fairfax Murray the public collections of this 
country have lost a good friend, whose benefactions 
were obscured by his hatred of publicity. We 
have also lost one of our leading connoisseurs, 
who covered a wide field of interests, but 
was specially concerned, by his training, with 
Italian painting. He began, as a painter, in the 
circle of the Preraphaelites, exhibited at the 
Grosvenor Gallery, worked as a copyist for 
Ruskin and as an assistant for Rossetti and Burne- 
Jones, and thus acquired a close knowledge of 
the technique of the art. He became a collector, 
for himself and others, and in later years had a 


Lair-Dubreuil, at the Hotel Dreuot, will sell, 7 March, the 
Drawings, etc. (Expert, Loys Delteil), and part of the Objets 
d'Art (Expert, Henri Leman) belonging to the late M.le Barbier 
de Timon, and on 8 March the remainder of the Objets d'Art. 
Among the Drawings, Modern Prints, Autographs, Pictures and 
Books to he sold on 7 March, Seven Engravings by Felicien 
Rops (Lots 9-15) will attract more attention in England than 
they merit, in consequence of the recent action of the Post 
Office. The Pictures (Lots 18-26) consist of Netherlands, 
French and Italian works from the 15th to the 17th cent. The 
Objets d'Art for sale on this day include Leather Work, various 
articles, Arms and Tools. On 8 March will follow Ceramics, 
Sculpture; Carvings in Wood, Tapestries and Stuffs, and Furni- 
ture. To judge by illustrations, the Sculpture in stone and wood 
is the most important part of the whole collection. 

Charles Dubourg and Lair-Dubreuil, at the Hotel Drouot, 
will sell, 10, 11, 12 March, the first portion of the late M. Georges 
Papillon's collection of Antique Ceramics. The catalogue must 
be consulted for the days on which the lots are sold, because the 
numbers are not sold consecutivelj — e.g., No. 1 to 45, 103 lo 
145, and 253 to 275 are sold on 10 March. The collection 
consists of French, and Foreign European Faience of Aprey, 
Bordeaux, Goult, Les Islettes, Lille, Lyon, Marseille (i3-44)> 
Moulins, Moustiers (46-75I, Niderviller (76-102), Rouen (lo.i- 
227), Sceaux, Sinceny, and Strasbourg ; Alcora, Brussels, Delft 
(260-334) and Marienberg. A large number of the lots arc 
clearly illustrated in 24 plates. 

]. and R. Edmiston, 7 West Nile St., Glasgow, will sell, 
13 March, the late Mr. Robert Hood Brechin's collection chiefly 
of Modern Pictures from his house, Redlands, Pollokshields, 
Glasgow. The collection includes the work of some masters 
born in the 18th century, such as Raeburn and Constable, but is 
best characterised by our later deceased contemporaries, English 
and French, Corot, J. and M. Maris, Burgess, Sam Brough, 
Orchardson, Diaz, Fantin Latour, Boudin, Cecil Lawson, and 
Ihe living artists, Henry, Hornell, Cameron, Luke Fildes. Its 
fairly comprehensive scope within these periods is shown by a 
glance at the 36 pages of illustration. Catalogue, is. 

Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge, 34-S New Bond St., W.i, 
will sell, 20 March (Lots 1-184) and 21 March (Lots 185-364), 
Lord Mostyn's collection of Early English Plays from about 
1560 onwards, including hitherto unrecorded editions, and 


post as consultant in the firm of Messrs. Agnew. 
With all his opportunities for gain he lived and 
died a comparatively poor man, readier to enrich 
the public galleries than himself. He was the 
anonymous donor of a large number of pictures 
to the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge ; gave 
a whole roomful of signed examples of English 
portrait painters to the Dulwich Gallery ; and, 
when the Birmingham Gallery had purchased 
part of his collection of Rossetti and Burne-Jones 
drawings presented as many again. He gave 
several things to the National Gallery, and would 
have done much more had his readiness been met 
in the right spirit by the authorities of the time. 
When the National Art Collections Fund was 
making its desperate effort to buy the Rokeby 
Venus, he contributed £5,000 of borrowed money, 
paying it by instalments from his professional 
income. Altogether, a friend estimates, his public 
gifts may be reckoned as worth ^150,000 or 
more. He would have resented so much being 
said, and made express stipulation that certain 
of his benefactions should not be disclosed ; but 
the example of his generosity is not one that can 
be allowed altogether to pass without record and 
acknowledgment. D. S. MacColl. 

some unique copies. The illustrated catalogue, at 5s., includes 
9 reproductions of specimen pages. 

Henry Bricout and Lair-Dubreuil (Expert H. Brame), will 
sell at the Galerie Manzijoyant et Cie, Paris, 13, 14 March, the 
first part of the late M. Manzi's collection of Pictures, Pastels, 
Water Colours and Drawings, together with some modern 
Bronzes, the lots bearing even numbers, 2, 4, etc., on 13 March, 
those bearing odd numbers, 1, 3, etc., on 14 March. The pictures, 
etc., are modern and mainly of the French school, and are very 
well illustrated in numerous plates. They represent by many 
works most of the artists whose names are best known here, and 
need not be specified, also of Bjldini, J. L. Brown, Carriere, 
Dalcourt, Gauguin, Guiguet, Mancini, Casals, Menzel, Saint- 
Marcel, Toulouse-Lautrec, with bronzes by Barye, Rodin, etc- 

Henry Bricout and Lair-Dubreuil (Experts, H. Leman, 
Marius Paulme, G. B.-Lasquin) will sell, at the same place, 
20, 21, 22 March, the same owner's Ceramics, consisting of 
French Faience (Lots' 1-87), Chinese Porcelain (263-265), 
Medallions by Nini (266-270) 20 March : other European 
Faience (88-118); Persian (119-188) 21 March : and Damascene 
Faience (189-202), Rhodian Faience (203-241), and various 
Oriental Faience (242-262) 22 March. As in the first cata- 
logue, many of these are well illustrated in more than 2 dozen 

Lair-Dubreuil (Experts, Bernheimjeune, Durand-Ruel, 
A. Vollard) will sell (Galerie Georges Petit), 26 March, the 
Baron Denys Cochin's collection of 20 Modern French Pictures, 
6 Corot, 1 Courbet, 1 David, 1 Degas, 4 Delacroix, 1 Goya, 4 
Manets, and 2 Puvis de Chavannes. Almost all are important 
works of those masters, and are very well illustrated. 

Lair-Dubreuil will sell at the same auction-rooms, 31 March 
and 1, 2 April, the first portion of the very large collection of 
the late M. Georges Hoentschel. It consists of the Pictures, 
Pastels and Drawings of Old Masters (Lots 1-31), Decorative 
Paintings (32-43), Chinese and Japanese Porcelain (70-73), 
Sculpture from the Far East (55-37). Woodcarvings, Frames 
and various other objects 179-135), and Sculpture (44-54). for 
sale on 31 March ; Bronze Ornamental Fittings (136-270), 
Lead Ornaments (271-274), for sale on 1 Ap. ; Books (74-78), 
Goldsmiths' Work (58-69), Furniture, etc. (275-344), Tapestries, 
Needlework, etc. (345-365). All the different species of objects 
are copiously illustrated in the large catalogue. 




HE picture of a monk reading, by 
Rembrandt, dated 1661, and formerly 
in the collection of the Earl of 
Wemyss at Gosford House, is of 
course a work well known to all recent 
authorities on the master and duly mentioned and 
illustrated by them ; but as the picture in the 
past has been somewhat indifferently reproduced, 
the readers of The Burlington Magazine will 
doubtless be glad of the opportunity of a closer 
acquaintance with this masterpiece, which lately 
has passed into the possession of M. Hjalmar 
Linder, a Finnish collector, by whose kind per- 
mission we are enabled to illustrate the picture. 
Carried out in a scheme of golden brown, the 
picture offers an unsurpassed example of that 
power, which was only fully acquired by 
Rembrandt during the final stage of his career, 
of more than compensating, by richness and 
delicacy of modulation, for want of variety of tints, 
and of achieving a marvellously poetical and con- 
soling effect by the golden light playing across 
even the deepest shadows. That Rembrandt's 
use of chiaroscuro, with a view to obtaining an 
effectively silhouetted pattern of lights and darks, 
ultimately was derived from Tintoret there can, 
I suppose, be no doubt ; and it is interesting to 
find how in this composition, and notably in its 
extraordinary concentration of light on the edge 
of the piece of paper held by the monk, the sug- 
gestion of Tintoret's methods is particularly close. 
The picture has, too, all the ageing master's superb 
freedom and expressiveness of handling, which 
enables us to follow the swiftness and bold- 
ness of his pentimcnti, e.g. in the contour of 
the cowl ; while as regards the conception 
there is here as impressively embodied as any- 
where that sense of noble pathos and infinitely 
disillusioned resignation which the closing 
years of his career brought to Rembrandt's 

It may be of some interest to recall how, from 
the point of view of its subject, the picture offers 
an argument bearing upon the question of Rem- 
brandt's hypothetic travels and visit to England 
in 1661-2, a question which was discussed 
in these columns some nine years ago (see 
The Burlington Magazine, vol. xvii, p. 334 sqq). 
A monk being an unlikely sight in real life in 
contemporary Holland, the fact that about 1661 
Rembrandt more than once painted figures of 
monks — as evidenced by this picture and the 
similar subjects in the National Gallery and the 
Stroganoff collection — affords an argument of 
some importance in favour of a hypothesis of 
Rembrandt's having visited Belgium at that time. 
The whole question of Rembrandt's possible 
travels in the 'sixties has lately been again dis- 
cussed by Dr. Bode in one of the most recent 
instalments of the Berlin Jahrbuch to reach 
England (vol. xxxviii, No. III., 1917) a propos of 
the discovery of a male portrait by Rembrandt 
of about 1661, in the Imperial collections at 
Berlin. The portrait in question represents a 
man of pronouncedly Russian type, and asso- 
ciating it both with the three pictures above 
referred to and a number of other contemporary 
Rembrandt works reproducing Russian models, 
Dr. Bode puts forward the question where Rem- 
brandt can have come into contact with these 
Russian models. The most likely suggestion is 
probably that it was amongst a group of Russian 
pilgrims bound for the Holy Land, and Dr. Bode 
thinks it more likely that Rembrandt came across 
these pilgrims in Holland than in England. The 
point is a debatable one ; but one element of 
confusion seems to me certain to have crept in : 
and that is, the associating of the Russian models 
with those of the above-mentioned three monastic 
subjects, none of which, it seems to me, shows a 
Slavonic type, whilst their monastic dress is 
distinctly Western too. 



HE collection of pottery and porce- 
lain at the Holburne Museum, Bath, 
includes a few pieces of Italian 
maiolica, amongst which is one of 
outstanding interest and importance. 

This is a large dish painted with the subject of 

the Death of Actaeon. 

The dish is of the form known as bacile, of 

substantial construction, with deep middle of 
segmental section, broad slanting rim, and pro- 
jecting footling to give support at the back. The 
pigments used in the decoration are a dark cobalt- 
blue, strong orange-yellow, lemon-yellow, bright 
green and opaque dark red. The back is partly bare 
of glaze, partly coated with a clear glaze to which 
the underlying paste gives a pinkish tone where 
it is not thickened by splashes of white enamel. 

The Botilinqton Magazine, No. 193. Vol. XXXIV— April 1919. 

I2 5 

The main figure-subject fills the well of the 
dish. In the middle is an oblong bath with a 
columnar fountain rising from it. Diana standing 
with three attendant nymphs, their legs concealed 
by the wall of the bath, is distinguishable by her 
action ; it is the moment of the story at which 
water splashed by the hand of the goddess is 
turning into a stag her unhappy lover. The 
metamorphosis is already half completed. Only 
the lower limbs of the hunter, clad in hose and 
buskins, remain in human form ; his head and 
forelimbs are already those of a stag, upon which 
his three hounds, without loss of time, are 
springing with open jaws. To the right stands 
a youthful hunter, horn in hand, in dress of the 
15th century, perhaps intended by the artist, in 
conformity with a not unusual convention of the 
time, to represent Actaeon himself at an earlier 
stage of the episode ; as against this interpreta- 
tion, however, it may be pointed out that the 
glance of the youth seems to be turned not in the 
direction of the bathing nymphs but towards the 
hounds and their quarry. The foreground is 
filled with herbage rendered with a simple but 
charming convention, whilst the sky is diapered 
with tiny spots in groups of three l . A banderole 
overarching the scene is inscribed with the words : 
water which thou hast cast on my back with thy 
hand I am made a stag and killed by the hand 
of my hounds ".) 

Figures of horsemen and centaurs in combat 
and satyrs in drunken riot form a continuous 
frieze round the rim. They are rendered, above 
a band of green for the soil, in blue against 
a background of dark yellow, over which, in 
the intervals of the figures, are rosettes roughly 
painted in opaque lemon-yellow and red. The 
use of yellow as a groundwork for the reserved 
figures, in place of the usual blue, is to be noted 
as an exceptional feature. 

A comparison with dated pieces, such as the 
plaque in the Sevres Museum dated 1477 with a 
shield of arms upborne by three putti*, suggests 
that the dish must have been made about 1480. 
In its treatment of a mythological subject it 
comes very near to a dish reproduced by 

1 Other instances of the use of identical diapering appear to 
be all of Tuscan origin. It is seen on a jug in the Figdor 
collection, Vienna, as background for a lion, and on a bowl in 
the Salting collection, with a portrait (figured by Dr. Bode, 
Anpnge dcr Majolikakitnst in Toskana, T. xxix, xxxvii re- 
spectively), and surrounding a shield with the Orsini arms on a 
dish in the Pringsheim collection (O. von Falke, Die Majolika- 
sammluug Priugsheim in Miinchen, T. 31, No. 51). The only 
other instance I know of its occurrence in landscape is 
on a dish depicting a horseman with an owl perched on 
the crupper, shown in Delange, Rccueil de faiences ' italiennes, 8 

-Compare Henry Wallis, Figure Design in 15th-century 
Italian Maiolica, fig. 20, 


Delange', depicting the story of Apollo and 
Daphne, which is however undated. In both 
pieces the figures are shown in quattrocento garb, 
in contrast with the definitely classical treatment 
of later times, as, for instance, in a dish with 
nymphs bathing and a satyr, dated 1503 4 . 

As bearing on the provenance of the dish I may 
point out that the painter must certainly have been 
acquainted with the well-known Florentine print 
of various wild animals hunting and fighting 
(Passavant, V, 23, 46) generally attributed to the 
hand of Maso Finiguerra, who died in 1464. Two 
of the three hounds, the upper and nethermost, 
are almost exactly copied from this engraving, 
whilst the treatment of the ground as a series of 
rocky ledges "seems also to be a reflection of it. 
On the other hand there is no trace of the influence 
of the Venetian editions of Ovid with woodcuts 
which were a fertile source of motives for the 
maiolica-painters of Faenza and the duchy of 
Urbino. The inference is that the dish was 
probably made south of the Apennines, and the 
inference becomes almost a certainty when we find 
that amongst the pigments used upon it is the dark 
red which occurs early in the 16th century on the 
wares of Siena and Caffaggiolo, but not till a much 
later date at Faenza. The form of the dish was a 
favourite for the lustred ware of Deruta, but as we 
now know that this Umbrian botega was in its 
earlier stages largely under the influence of Sienese 
potters, the evidence points to Siena as the most 
likely place of origin. Caffaggiolo may be ruled 
out until satisfactory proof can be found of the 
manufacture there of painted maiolica before 
about 1500 ; moreover, the blue on the dish is not 
of the brilliant tone seen on pieces with the 
Caffaggiolo mark. 

I have shown that certain motives in the com- 
position are derived from a Florentine engraving, 
but I have searched in vain for an engraved type 
for any of the others, and this may account for the 
fact that the hounds are far better drawn than 
any other part of the design. The figures on the 
rim in particular are rendered with a naif un- 
gainliness, not, however, lacking in vigour, which 
speaks more for the intentions of the artist than 
for his powers of execution. The dish is, in fact, 
an interesting illustration of the fact that before 
1500 maiolica-painters were wont even in figure- 
subjects to draw sometimes on their own imagi- 
nation, and were not, like all but the most accom- 
plished after that date, almost entirely dependent 
for their themes on the masters of engraving. It 
is this first-hand quality which makes the dish at 
Bath worthy to be recorded as an important 
example of 15th-century maiolica. 

'Op. cit., pi. 17; then in the possession »f Baron de 
'Delange, op. cit., pi. 17- 


Italian maiolica, bacile, Death oj Aciaeon, inscribed " PEL-AQVA | CHE | MIGITASTI | ADOSO | CONTVOMANI | FATO 
SOCERVio | emorto | manocani ". {Reproduced by permission of the Trustees, Holburne Museum, Bath) 

Italian maiolica devotional roundel, S. Francis, toith SS. Bonaventnra and Louis of Toulouse (City Art Gallery, 
Manchester, reproduced by permission oj the Committee) 


In the Leicester Collier bequest of pottery 
recently acquired by the City of Manchester Art 
Gallery is a large devotional roundel in maiolica 
which is worthy to be recorded as an important 
though late work of the Casa Pirota. Faenza. 

The roundel is bordered by an invocation in 
Latin to the three saints Bonaventura, Francis and 
Louis of Toulouse, of whom full-length standing 
figures are the subject of the painting. St. Francis, 
as founder of the Order of which his companions 
were leading adherents, is raised on a pedestal of 
masonry between them, on.the front of which is 
the date August 30th, 1550 ; of the stigmata none 
are shown in the painting save the wound in the 
side. The two other saints, alike mitred and 
crosiered, are distinguished by the emblems 
lying at their feet, St. Bonaventura by his 
cardinal's hat, St. Louis by the crown of Naples 
which he renounced. 

The roundel is unmarked, but the technical 
characteristics are those which are common to 
many marked productions of the Casa Pirota. The 
ground is the greyish lavender-blue enamel 
(berettino) much affected at that workshop. The 
outlines of the drawing are in grey, the colouring 
is in bright yellow, orange, greenish-brown, green 
and deep blue (the last named particularly in 
the herbage and in the broad strokes across 
the sky), with high lights in white. The drawing 
is, of course, not equal to that of earlier works 
from the factory, its inferiority being apparent 
in the summary treatment of the landscape 


HE mediaeval arts of that part of 
Italy which was invaded and colonised 
by the Longobards at the time of the 
barbarian inroads must always attract 
the special attention of the art his- 
torian, because it was in that region that the 
mingling of the new barbarian spirit with old 
classical forms and traditions generated a new 
style, notably in architecture and sculpture, and 
this Lombard style formed a most important 
tributary to the stream of architectural develop- 
ment flowing on toward Gothic. Hence histories 
of Lombard architecture have followed one 
another steadily during recent decades, and now 
we are presented with yet another stately work 
by Mr. Arthur Kingsley Porter, entitled " Lombard 
Architecture ", and published by the Yale Uni- 
versity Press. It consists of three large octavo 
volumes of well-printed text, and a box of larger 
plates bearing the reproductions of some six 

background, and the lack of definition in the 
patterns of the copes (that of Saint Louis is 
diapered with lilies of France) and in the figures 
on the orphreys. In the main, however, the 
painting retains, to a surprising degree for so late 
a date, the directness of intention and the skilful 
use of the pigments for suggesting at the same 
time local colour and light and shade, which are 
the characteristics of this type of Casa Pirota 
maiolica. The same style may be traced backwards 
in the sketchy, but vigorous, figure-medallions 
reserved amongst grotesque and scrolls on a dark 
blue ground on the pair of giant drug-jars, dated 
1540, in the Salting Collection, and on the large 
baccate, dated 1536, in the Pierpont Morgan Collec- 
tion (formerly in the Mannheim Collection). It 
appears again in a dish at Berlin, dated 1535, with 
the subject of Alexander and Diogenes, in the putti 
supporting the shield with the arms of Guicciar- 
dini on a large dish of i525 r ' in the British 
Museum, and in a plaque, also dated 1525, at 
Berlin, with the subject of the Adoration of the 
Magi ; a dish in the Salting Collection at South 
Kensington, with the Judgment of Paris,is another 
instance of the isame year, showing that this dis- 
tinctive manner was fully established at that date. 
Its survival through a quarter of a century is 
proof of the energy and vitality which kept the 
Casa Pirota amongst the most influential of the 
Northern maiolica factories. 

5 Figured by Solon, History and Description of Italian 
majolica, pi. vn. 


hundred or more photographs completely illus- 
trative of the subject, and many of them taken 
by the author. 

The first volume contains a summary of his 
theses and conclusions ; the other two are filled 
with detailed accounts of the various buildings in 
alphabetical order, analysed and illustrated by 
him. Each building in turn is treated in the 
same methodical manner under rive headings. 
In the first he mentions and discusses previous 
publications dealing with the history and archi- 
tecture of the building ; the second section is 
devoted to its history ; in the third the building 
is described ; the fourth is concerned with its 
ornamentation and fittings ; in the fifth he sums 
up his conclusions as to the dates of the various 
parts, and sets them down boldly and without 
ambiguity — an exceptionally rare virtue. 

The result is a corpus of information, labori- 
ously collected over a long series of years, during 


which he has visited, with the assistance of a 
motor car, often more than once, practically 
every building described. He has examined his 
authorities at first hand, either in Italy or else- 

where such a number of building's are dealt 
with, it is impossible, within the limits of articles 
in The Burlington Magazine, to deal with them 
categorically, but a very long and careful study 


where, and has ungrudgingly lavished labour on 
what has evidently been for him a work of love. 
We may not always agree with his conclusions, 
but it is impossible not to respect them. The 
materials thus brought together form an un- 
rivalled and invaluable collection, which all 
future historians will prize. The book is in every 
way creditable to the author and his university. 

*3 2 

of his pages has suggested to me certain con- 
siderations of general interest which I propose 
here to set forth, confining myself in the main to 
the earlier part of the subject — that is to say, to 
works of architecture and sculpture of the 8th 
and 9th centuries, when the Lombard style was 

When the news came last autumn that the 

Italian front was broken, and that Cividale had 
been abandoned in flames, the relatively few 
travellers by whom that beautiful little town with 
its wonderful monuments was well known and 
beloved cannot but have felt peculiar grief. It 
is, or was, in Cividale that the best surviving 
monuments of nascent Lombard art in the 
8th century remain, or remained — the so-called 
Tempietto (S. Maria in Valle), the Baptistery of 
Calixtus, the altar of Ratchis, and various sculp- 
tured stones and other precious objects in the 
Museum and Treasury of the Cathedral. Supreme 
among them, indeed one of the most beautiful 
little interiors in all Italy, we must reckon the 
Tempietto, with its rare and delicate stucco 
decorations, especially the wreath of ornament 
surrounding the lunette of the western door. 
[Plate I, a]. The question of the date of this 
building and its stuccos is of high importance in 
the history of art. Mr. Porter ascribes the stuccos 
to the last quarter of the 12th century. I am 
obliged to disagree with him. 

It was shown by Haupt that the building was 
originally roofed with wood, and that the frieze 
of modelled figures passed completely round it. 
Haupt thought that one of the side walls fell at 
some unrecorded date, perhaps overthrown by 
the earthquake of n 17, and that when the wall 
was rebuilt the vaulted roof was added. As it is 
the date of the stuccos and not of the vaulting 
which is of importance, we may confine our 
attention to thein. The accompanying illustration 
will dispense us from the tedium of description 
[FlG. I]. An analogy has often been indicated be- 
tween the row of figures above the arch and those 
in the famous 6th-century mosaic in S. Apollinare 
Nuovo at Ravenna. An even more striking re- 
semblance may be found in the 8th - century 
frescoes in S. Maria Antiqua at Rome, which in 
style are declared by Haupt to be similar to the 
remains of fresco on the lower part of the walls 
in the Tempietto. It is however by the wreath 
and other ornaments in stucco, which were so 
perfectly preserved, that any assigned date must 
stand or fall. Conspicuous across the west wall, 
and still, in fragments, remaining returned on the 
north and south walls, was a band of delightful 
ornament consisting of a row of eight-petaled 
formalised flowers. The same type is discoverable 
on the altar of S. Montanus at Henchir-el- 
Begueur, Orleansville, Algeria, which is not later 
than the 7th century 1 . Here each flower is in- 
cluded within a square frame. A yet earlier form 
of the design appears, alternating with a key 
pattern and likewise framed, on a Coptic grave 
stela of the 7th century, in New York Museum. 
1 can cite no example of this ornament later in 

1 Cattaneo, lij«. 26. R. de Kleury. La Mcssc, 1, p. 128, pi. 50. 
Dc Rossi attributes it to late 5th or early 6th century ; Cattaneo 
to the 7U1 century. 

dale tli. m the 8th century*. Byzantine craftsmen 
adopted the eight-petaled flower in ro *vs as a 
favourite decorative device, but not until the time 
of the Byzantine Renaissance, especially in the 
nth and later centuries. It is common on the 
well-known ivory caskets, and it appears in 
sculpture on a parapet panel of about 1008 in 
Torcello Cathedral and a pair of capitals in the 
upper tier on the west front of S. Mark's, Venice. 
But in all these cases each flower is included 
within a circular ring and the petals are differently 
treated. Evidently the Cividale examples come 
much nearer to the North African in point of 
date than to those of the nth century. 

A similar conclusion will be reached by an 
examination of the beautiful wreath surmounting 




the west door. Here within each circle of the 
undulating tendril we have side by side a vine 
leaf and a bunch of grapes. A resemblance may 
be cited between this and the band of ornament 
in the mosaic round the opening of each of the 
four arms of the Mausoleum of Gal la Placidia. 
I find it again on a stone vase-base of about the 
8th century from Saqqarah in Cairo Museum 
(Cat. No. 7374, fig. 126). It also appears on the 
sarcophagus of Teodota in Pavia Museum :: (about 

- A similar but not identical form t > i this ornament will be 
found among the sculptured decorations of the Visigothic 
church at Bafios in Spain. Later developments of the orna- 
ment will be found reproduced in the Bulletin Monumental, 
1910. p. 452- 

J Reproduced in The Burlington Magazine, vol. xxx, p. '>')■ 


720) and on an 8th or at latest 9th century 
column from S. Salvatore at Brescia ; but the 
most striking analogy is the ornament surround- 
ing one of the archivolts of the Baptistery of 
Calixtus [Plate II A, and Fig. 2] in Cividale 
itself, the date of which cannot be other than 
the year 737. How differently the same deco- 
rative elements were handled in the 12th century 
may be observed on the pulpit at Troja. The 
outer rim of decoration of the Cividale arch 
finds plentiful 8th-century analogies, of which it 
will suffice to cite again the sculptured decora- 
tion in the afore-mentioned S. Salvatore. At the 
other end of the church the choir, under its three 
parallel barrel vaults, contains certain capitals, 
obviously of the same date and by the same group 
of workmen as the capitals of the Baptistery of 
Calixtus. Notwithstanding the removals, the re- 
erections, and the restorations to which this 
important little edifice has been subjected, it 
seems to me impossible to doubt but that capitals 
and archivolts were of contemporary origin, about 
the year 737. 

The lintel of the west door of the Tempietto is 
carved with an ornament of linked S's, alternately 
erect and inverted. The same ornament is found 
on a pediment walled in in an adjacent chamber. 
It is of early type and Eastern origin, occurring 
as it does in a mosaic of the 5th century in 
S. George's at Salonika, and on a carved wooden 
box from Cairo in Berlin Mus. (No. 1664) of a 
rather later date. It would be entirely out of 
place in Italy in the 12th century. It appears 
also on a 7th-century circular gold fibula found 
at Cividale and preserved in the museum, and it 
is common in 7th-century Lombard fibulae. It is 
in fact a characteristically Lombard ornament in 
the 7th and 8th centuries. This is probably the 
earliest form of the rope ornament of linked S's, 
to which we shall recur. For these reasons I am 
obliged to conclude that the Tempietto was a 
building of the 8th century, and that its con- 
temporary choir-fittings and stucco-decoration 
are to be counted among the most precious 
examples of the arts of that obscure period. They 
can scarcely have been the work of local crafts- 
men, but whether we are to ascribe them with 
Strzygowsky to Mesopotamian modellers, or 
whether the hands that made them were Syrian, 
Coptic, or Byzantine, are questions which cannot 
here be discussed. 

For excellence of quality a fragmentary group 
of decorative marble sculptures from the church 
of S. Salvatore, Brescia, which perhaps once 
formed part of an ambo, are worthy of con- 
sideration in the same category with the Cividale 
stuccos. They are now preserved in a Brescian 
museum. The largest piece contains a splendid 
representation of a peacock amidst tendrils, fine 
as any product of Byzantine chisel at its best 

[Plate I, b]. This stone must have formed the 
balustrade of one of the two staircases mounting 
to the platform from left and right. A bit of the 
corresponding peacock on the other side is like- 
wise preserved. How the archivolts, string- 
courses, piers, and cornices, whereof only broken 
portions remain, should be fitted together no one 
knows. It would be easy to point out more 
resemblances in detail to the Cividale stuccos 
than those already indicated, and the date of the 
Brescia stones is not disputed. There are stucco 
mouldings in the crypt of San Salvatore itself, 
belonging, as it seems to me, to the same school 
and period, though Porter's thesis compels him 
to refer them to the 12th century. The 8th and 
9th centuries were in fact a great period of stucco 
decoration, which we find employed from far- 
away Central Asia (as Stein has revealed), through 
Persia, at Samara on the Tigris, and throughout 
the lands of Islam, to Lombardy, France, and 
Switzerland. By the nature of things stucco 
ornaments have not as easily withstood the action 
of time as those in stone. Berlin Museum 
possesses a number of broken bits of richly 
decorated 8th-century stucco from near Jericho, 
which in style are not far removed from con- 
temporary Italian decorative panels ; they are 
also linked, though less closely, with the carved 
surfaces of the Palace at Mshatta. 

High up on a hillside in the Brianza, between 
Lecco and Como, sits the lonely church of San 
Pietro in Civate, once a small Benedictine 
monastery, and doubtless a pilgrimage resort. 
There is no house near it, and the visitor who 
would find his way within must carry the key 
with him during a steep two hours' ascent up a 
mule-path from the village below. All that now 
remains of the monastery is the church, a neigh- 
bouring chapel, and some ruined outworks, 
whereby ascent is made to what is now the 
principal portal. This is cut in the middle of 
the eastern apse, obviously not the original 
arrangement. What is externally one apse was 
internally three small apses, whereof the central 
has been cut away to form the present door. 
Entering through it, passing into the nave, and 
turning round, we are faced by an arrangement 
altogether similar to that of the choir of Cividale. 
A couple of columns divide the eastward opening 
with three arches, supported upon them and the 
side walls, and corresponding to the original 
three small apses. The door now occupies the 
middle space at the end, and there is a window 
in each of the remaining apses. This threefold 
subdivision of the east end of a church marked 
out by columns on the choir screen was common 
all over the Christian world at this time. We 
find it in England in the ruins of S. Pancras at 
Canterbury (6th and 7th centuries) and of the 
Reculver Church. We find it in Visigothic 


A. S. Maria in Valie (Tempietto), Cividale : lunette of western door 

B. Marble sculpture from S. Salvatore, Brescia 

Plate I. Lombard architectun 









































churches in Spain, such as S. Cristina de Lena, 
a church of the 8th century. 

Magistretti, Rivoira and Feigel l attribute the 
church at Civate to some date before 860. They 
hold that the western apse, now used as a choir, 
was added in the nth century or thereabout, 
when the door was inserted at the east end, the 
change of orientation having been made for 
reasons not recorded, but probably connected 
with pilgrimage processions and the configuration 
of the ground on a steep hillside, a matter tedious 
to discuss except on the spot. The exterior of the 
eastern apse and of the nave is diversified with 
flat buttresses and the usual threefold arcading 
between them, whereas the western apse lacks 
these features. Nevertheless Porter holds that 
both apses were contemporaneous, and ascribes 
the whole building to about the year 1040, basing 
his judgment in this, as in so many other cases, 
on the character of the masonry. The interior of 
this church is embellished with stucco decorations, 
so similar in character to some of those at 
Cividale that Porter believes them to be the work 
of the same hands. It is, at all events, evident 
that both groups are of the same school and not 
separated from one another by any considerable 
interval of time. There are likewise in Civate 
stucco figure-subjects and panels of a later type, 
to which we shall return, but the decorations of 
the columns, capitals, and arches supported by 
them, and of the encircling Arch of Triumph, 
must be attributed at latest to the 8th or 9th 
century. The core of columns and capitals is 
granite ; the decoration is superadded in stucco 
and is wrought into a spiral form on the columns. 
Similar stucco spiral columns and not dissimilar 
capitals have been excavated from the ruins of a 
church at Dissentis 5 dating from about 717 to 
739". It is interesting to note that among the 
Dissentis fragments were many painted stucco 
heads and parts of bodies, as well as quantities of 
decorated architectural pieces, bearing incised 
patterns in the style corresponding to the date. 
The work is crude, as we might expect in so 
remote a locality, but we shall hardly be wrong 
in concluding that the church in question was 
adorned with stucco figures perhaps arranged in 
a frieze as at Cividale. 

We must now deal with a group of decorative 
sculptures which in quality of cutting and accu- 
racy of design approach the best of those in 
S. Salvatore, Brescia. The bulk of the 8th and 
9th-century decorative work in this kind is the 
reverse of finished, and is marked by rudeness of 

* Moiiatshefte,/. A'., 1909, p. 206. 

'See J. R. Rahn in Anzeiger fur Schweiz. Altertunisktmde, 
1908, No. 1, and E. A. Stiickelberg in Monatshefte f. A.'., 1909, 
p. 1 17. gth-century stucco decorations will also be found about 
a tower window in Germigny-des-Pres. 

8 It is worth noting that imitation spiral semi-columns are a com- 
mon decoration of ivory and bone caskets of Carlovingian date. 

outline and inaccuracy of curve and surface. The 
works now to be dealt with are exceptions to this 
rule. They include the afore-mentioned sarco- 
phagus of Teodota (c. 720), the ciborium piers of 
S. M. Aurona (Milan), a number of fragments at 
S. Abondio (Como), two panels of c. 829 at 
S. Mark's (Venice), ciborium fragments in Zara 
Museum, parts of a remade pulpit in S. M. 
Maggiore at Toscanella and work in S. 
Sabina (824-7), s - Clemente on the Celian, and 
S. Prassede (817-24) at Rome, to which we may 
add fragments in France at S. Guilhem-du-Desert 
and Montmajour. It appears to me impossible 
to distribute these carvings over several centuries, 
ascribing some to the 8th and others to the nth. 
They are all of one school and one approximate 
date, whatever that may be. Mr. Porter, in a 

article contri- 
buted to The 
Bti rlington 
(vol. xxx, p. 
98), con- 
tended that 
the pre-Lom- 
bard or Car- 
lovi n g i a n 
school of 
ornament ac- 
its best in the 
8th century, 
and thence- 
forward de- 
clined to the 
lowest depth 
toward the 
end of the 


The nth century saw the growth of a new style 
which in time gave birth to Gothic. The date of 
several of the above mentioned works being about 
825, I should be inclined to regard that period as 
about the date of the best work in this kind. The 
Como fragments must be of about this date. 
They contain elements which cannot be late ; for 
instance, the basket-bottom pattern. In origin 
this is probably Byzantine rather than Lombard. 
It is commonest in the Adriatic lands and in 
Rome. It is also found in Switzerland at Schannis 
and at Mais near Trafoi, the Schannis example 
being so like that of Como that we might well 
believe both to be cut from the same design. 
The basket-pattern is characteristic of the 8th and 
9th centuries. An altar-frontal in S. Abondio 
contains a basket-pattern as well as a panel of five- 
legged helices, very characteristic of the 9th cen- 
tury [Fig. 3]. Above the basket-pattern is a belt 


of (he running S or linked 8 pattern, which, as I 
have above suggested, is probably of Eastern 
origin. We find it both in single and double 
form on Barbarian ornaments of the time of the 
invasions ; for example, on a horse-trapping in 
Zurich Museum, which depicts a mounted warrior, 
and on several buckles. It appears sculptured at 
Brescia, Ventimiglia, Spalato, Aquileja, Anagni, 
Ravenna and Rome 7 not later than the 9th century. 
Two examples of it are in S. Ambrogio, Milan. 
1 shall claim both for the 9th century. 

In Aosta Cathedral cloister is rather a fine 
sculptured panel | Plate II, b] which Mr. 
Porter (II, p. 53) attributes to about the 
year 1010. Having so attributed it, he employs 
its help to bring down the date of other 
works. It contains as large central ornament a 
highly decorated helix, surrounded by a ring of 
the curlicues so common in the 9th century. In 
each upper corner is a lamb with a cross ; in each 
lower corner a hart drinking from a brook. The 
combination of lambs and " panting " harts is an 
early Christian, not a mediaeval, feature ; see, for 
instance, the 4th-5th-century mosaic in S. John 
Lateran (much restored in the 13th century by 
Torriti) 8 . What, however, fixes the date of the 
Aosta stone to the 8th or 9th century is the figure 
of the lamb holding a cross. The lamb's head is 
in profile in the same direction as his 
body, nth-century cross-bearing lambs almost 
invariably turn the head round facing the 

7 H. v. d. Gabelentz, Plastik in Venedig, p. 81. 

* E. Muntz in Revue arclicol.. 1879, p. 109. The little figures 
of SS. Francis and Anthony were added at this time. The 
angels above are likewise of this date, and the draperies were 
much altered, but the design is early. 



HE Department of Mediaeval Anti- 
quities at the British Museum has 
recently acquired, by bequest of the 
Condesa de Valencia de Don Juan, a 
remarkably fine fragment of silk and 
gold embroidery dating from about the middle jpf 
the 13th century. Nothing is known of its history, 
beyond the fact that it was previously in the pos- 
session of the testatrix's father, the Count de 
Valencia, of Madrid, and that it has been exhibited 
already in this country at a loan exhibition of 
Spanish and Portuguese art at the South Ken- 
sington Museum in 1881. It was then labelled 
" Spanish " but is now rightly recognised to be a 
genuine example of opus Anglicamini. It measures 
9^ in. high by 2o| in. long, sight measure, within 
its modern frame, and has at one time been cut 

tail 3 . The reader may convince himself of the 
early date of the Aosta lamb by comparing it with 
the following which are of the 8th century •: a sarco- 
phagus in S. Apollinare in Classe (Ravenna), the 
ciboria at Bagnacavallo and Bolsena, a well-head 
(No. 362) in the Museo Civico at Venice, and the 
sculptured end of the sarcophagus of Teodota at 
Pavia. I am therefore compelled to add the Aosta 
panel to the list of 8th or 9th century sculptures 
of the better class. The resemblance of the helix to 
those on a 5th-6th-century sculptured stone in 
Cairo Museum (No. 7319) from Tell-el-Amarna 
confirms its early date. Curiously enough, the 
only 10th-century lamb with a cross that I have 
chanced upon is not in profile in either direction, 
but turns his face directly to the spectator. He 
is in a medallion on an altar-frontal in S. M. 
Aventina at Rome 10 . Thus before the 10th century 
the lamb's head is generally turned away from his 
tail ; in the 10th century it begins to revolve ; in 
the nth century the turn is complete and the 
head normally /aces the tail. In the 5th and 
6th centuries the lamb's head may be found in 
either direction, but oftenest away from the tail. 
Such trifles are valuable guides to the historian of 
art, though they constitute nothing more than the 
scaffolding of art history. (To be continued.) 

"nth-century examples are in an archivolt in the south 
transept of S. Nazaro, Milan, on a cross from S. Vincenzo now 
in Cortona Museum, inscribed " Vbertils magister fecit", over 
the main portal and on a column beside it at S. Ambrogio 
(Milan), on one of the crosses at S. Petronio (Bologna). The 
only exception I can find is on a capital in S. Babila's (Milan), 
but this is closely copied from the lamb at the end of the 
sarcophagus of Teodota. 

10 R. de Kleury' La Messc, 1, pp. 152, 1S6 and pi. 64. A lamb 
of the 8th-ccntury type also appears on one of the parapet 
panels in Aquileja Cathedral, and suffices to disprove the attri- 
bution of those stones to the early nth century. 


vertically through the middle, and subsequently 
joined together again. One or two gaps, occa- 
sioned by the process of dismemberment, have 
been made good in colour on the lining, thus 
rendering the defect less appreciable than it would 
otherwise be. The work comprises three groups 
of figures, depicting (from left to right), first, the 
Annunciation, secondly, the Visitation of the 
Blessed Virgin, and thirdly, the Nativity 0/ Christ. 
Each subject is canopied by a Gothic arch of 
flattened, almost segmental, shape, the arches 
being cinquefoil-cusped underneath, and springing 
from slender columns with foliated capitals. Of 
the last, or right-hand, subject quite half at the 
right extremity is missing, the surviving portion 
displaying the Blessed Virgin reclining upon a 
couch, with her Infant robed in a light blue 
gown, and adored by an ass at the foot of the 






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picture. The two spandrels are occupied each by a 
demi-angel holding up a crown in either hand, the 
wings outstretched, as in the sculptured spandrels 
of the angel-quire at Lincoln Minster, and of the old 
pulpitum now in the north transept at Salisbury. 
The human figures, if the poses are somewhat 
exaggerated, are appropriate to the mannerism of 
their time, yet never exceed the limit of what is 
really graceful. The modelling of the faces is, 
perhaps necessarily, inclined to be flat, owing to 
the fading of the tender flesh tints, but the 
rendering of the drapery folds is excellent. The 
colours of the silks have not undergone uniform 
change, the greens being much better preserved 
than the blue and the crimson parts. The latter, as 
usual, have faded to a pale fawn colour. The 
hair is rendered, for the most part, in reddish 
brown. The stitches of the silk needlework are 

extremely fine and delicate. The background, 
worked in gold thread, now much worn, is 
occupied mainly by scroll-work of conventional 
foliage ; the middle compartment, however, 
having, at fixed recurring spots amid the leaf 
ornament, roundels enclosing each a heraldic lion 
rampant. The remains are altogether too slight 
to afford a positive clue as to what purpose the 
embroidery may originally have served ; but it is 
not unreasonable to conjecture that it may have 
been a frontlet (in modern terminology, a " super- 
frontal ") for an altar. 

In conclusion, it may be mentioned that, to- 
gether with the embroidery, there were bequeathed 
four pieces of old English furniture, which, Sir 
Hercules Read having obtained the sanction of 
the executors of the testatrix, were handed over to 
the Victoria and Albert Museum. 


JAPTAIN F. M. Drake, R.E. 1 , sends 

'us his drawing of a tesselated pave- 
ment discovered during operations in 

,the Palestine campaign, with a note to 

^the following effect : — 

the whole of the Palestine campaign, 
undoubtedly the most beautiful locality into which 
our troops penetrated was that covered by the 
sister hills of Bara'aish and Deir Dakleh, which 
we reached in the spring of the year 1918. At 
this time of the year the whole of the surface is 
carpeted with exquisite flowers, from the midst 
of which peeps here and there the magnificent 
" Black Lily". 

The two hills, year in and year out, are disturbed 
only occasionally by the tread of the Arab, who 
goes to pluck the fruit from the fig and olive trees. 
The Greeks and Romans apparently had an 
unerring instinct in choosing suitable and 
conspicuous localities for their sacred edifices ; 
and amongst others recorded during the cam- 
paign that of Deir Dakleh, on the southern bank 
of the Wadi Ballut — a short distance north of 
Rentis — deserves note. 

On Deir Dakleh, buried by the accumulation 
of the dust and soil of centuries, three feet below 
the existing ground surface, are the remains of 
an ecclesiastical building of about the 4th or 5th 
century A.D. 

In the spring of 1918, General Allenby's forces 
captured the hill, and a divisional headquarters 
was established there for a short while. It was 
during our stay here that the mosaic floor and 
foundations of an Early Christian church were 
discovered. A very small portion only remains, 
and unfortunately even this is sadly disturbed 
and disintegrated by upheavals caused by fig-trees 

'For other tesselated pavements so discovered see The Bur- 
lington Magazine, Vol. xxxii, p. 185, and Vol. xxxiv, p. 3. 

and olives growing up through the concrete and 
mosaic. The drawing illustrating this note 
depicts a small portion, which is more or less 
still a flat surface, and shows the general design 
of the floor of the aisles of the building. The 
nave floor has practically disappeared. A small 
portion only of the foundations and floor has 
been unearthed ; but it is very doubtful whether 
any but a few panels of the mosaic could be 
preserved, being in a bad state of decay. Traces 
of a mosaic of a coarser type show distinct signs 
of the precincts having extended far beyond the 
building itself. 

The tesserae are of the same size as and of 
similar tints to those at Shellal and Umm Jerrar, 
as regards marble, all of which must have been 
imported from Greece. No traces of green and 
blue vitreous tesserae are apparent here. 

As in the case of the two previous floors found, 
the coarse mosaics round about would indicate 
extensive ambulatories and public thorough- 
fares. Only as regards foundations is Deir Dakleh 
more interesting than the mosaics previously 
found during operations. The foundations are 
extensive ; and undoubtedly with m^e excava- 
tion, the larger part, if not the whole^f the plan 
of the building could be traced. The floor 
further exemplifies the very high standard of art 
and workmanship which prevailed in all the 
classic works of a similar nature during the 
period of the Greek and Roman occupations of 
Palestine. Here is shown the usual cleverness in 
geometrical design, and playfulness and harmony 
in choice of colouring. A nation is judged by its 
art. Let us see to it that if we cannot equal in 
beauty, truth and sincerity the works of the past, 
we at any cost preserve those works as a monu- 
ment to our forerunners and a standard to be 
aimed at by ourselves, so far as modern conditions 
will permit. 




IHIPPENDALE'S "Director" sheds 
'very little light on the character and 
uses of the varieties of small tables that 
prevailed in the cabriole period. Be- 
dsides the two "tea or china" tables 
already mentioned he only gives a couple of 
little "breakfast" tables with flaps and four 
straight legs. There is no tripod table, if we 
except a little kettle-stand, so that it would seem 
that this form was already beginning to lose 
favour. But it is a very distinct feature of early 
Georgian furnishing, the majority of surviving 
examples belonging to the latter half of George IPs 
reign. Such is a very fine specimen belonging to 
Mr. Percival Griffiths (Plate XII, a). The top, 
instead of having the usual round form, is oblong, 
with undulating sides and cut-off corners. It 
rests firmly on a quintette of short columns and is 
hinged to turn up. The gallery bends over basket- 
wise with richly modelled pierced scrollwork. The 
column and tripod have acanthus leaf ornament, 
and the feet are of a late and decadent ball-and- 
claw type. Such tables, and the smaller stands of 
the same form, could easily be set about for the 
convenience of ladies taking tea and needing 
adjuncts and lights for their needlework. But 
neither they nor chairs were left permanently in 
the central portions of reception rooms, which 
were intended to hold people rather than furni- 
ture. In media? val and Tudor times the latter 
was so scarce that immobile pieces were not in 
the way because there were so very few of them. 
With the multiplication of the numbers and the 
purposes of the pieces, thought was at once given 
to a mitigation of their weight and clumsiness. 
Walnut replaced oak, and the flap, the tilt and the 
slide became usual table features. When the full 
surface was not needed such pieces, assuming 
their compact form, projected little from the walls 
they lined, and the area of the room was available 
for a croweWnore accustomed to stand than our- 
selves. The gate-legged table with two vertically 
hinged flaps was one form. The half-square or 
round with one flap folding over the fixed part, or 
opening out to complete the square or circle, 
was another, and this became almost universally 
adopted for card-playing. An early form, in oak, 
occurs in a style that betokens the pre-Restora- 
tion period, but as the chief purpose was no 
doubt card-playing, drinking and such conviviali- 
ties as were taboo under the Puritan regime, its 
scarcity until Charles II's time is accounted for. 
The top was of wood, suitable to all purposes, 
and the final specialisation of the card-table 

only took place within the cabriole period. Yet 
two and a half centuries before that cards were a 
commodity in sufficient demand in England for 
the London makers to have so strong an objection 
to free trade in them as to obtain an Act prohibit- 
ing their import. Card-playing was then esteemed 
a mild form of pastime, and, unlike such " lowde 
dysports" as "harpyng, lutyng and syngyn", was 
permissible in a household still mourning for its 
deceased lord. 1 In Charles II's time its extreme 
popularity at Court made it usual at Whitehall all 
seven days of the week, and Evelyn, moralising 
over the death of the King in 1685, records how 
on a previous Sunday "twenty of the great 
courtiers and other dissolute persons were at 
Bassett round a large table". 8 This will probably 
have been a walnut gate-table, for there was not 
yet a distinct card-table even of small size, al- 
though such were then being specialised for chess 
and backgammon. They were not folders, but 
the top, inlaid as a chess-board, slid or lifted off, 
disclosing a well— the depth of what in an ordi- 
nary table would be a shallow drawer — inlaid for 
backgammon. Samuel Pepys possessed one, the 
top of which is illustrated by Mr. Macquoid, 3 and 
there is a specimen at Hamilton Palace, which 
was rebuilt towards the close of the seven- 
teenth century by Duke William and Duchess 

With the cabriole came the folding card-table ; 
but at first the plan of covering the inner surface 
with a woven material glued on was not adopted. 
Not only veneer, but lacquer, was used for the 
top, and that this was not used bare for tea and 
such purposes, but covered with a cloth for the 
convenience of taking up the cards, is shown by 
such surfaces being, at the corners, rounded with 
a slightly raised moulding to hold the candlesticks, 
and at the edge, right-handed for each player, an 
oval depression for money. These are found in 
mahogany and of the time of George 1 1. But there 
are Queen Anne examples with woven material. 
This might be needlework, such as we find at 
Raby Castle on a walnut table of about 171 2. 
The walnut is used for the banding round the 
edge and for the candle roundels, but the rest of 
the surface is needlework. Here there are no 
money hollows, but they, as well as the candle 
circles, occur in a table at Penshurst similarly 
covered but dating a score of years later. It is of 
mahogany and has lion mask and paw on knee and 

Paston Letters, vol. ill, p. 314. 1875 edition. 
1 Evelyn's Diary, Feb. 5> i 68 5- 
Macquoid. Age of Walnut, fig. 115. 





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C. C.ird-table, 'with lion mask knee and lion paw feet ; c. 1720 

IK Card-table of Chippendale's "French" type. The choice nature of the 
figured walnut veneer is the excuse for so late a use of this wood ; 1'. 1745 ; 

I 'late XIII. Walnut card-tables of the cabriole period 

foot, resembling those of a table of the same date 
now illustrated [Plate XIII, c]. Here, however, 
the lion holds a ring in his mouth. The whole cha- 
racter of the leg and the nulling of the lower edge 
of the frame exactly resemble the treatment of 
the large settee that was shown on Plate V 
(vol. xxxiii, p. 1 38), and as both these choice pieces 
have also the characteristic of being of walnut 
though dating from the mahogany age, they are 
likely to be by the same maker, if not of the same 
set. The card-table is of unusually large size, 
38 inches across when open. The top has been 
re-covered, but in the old material and on the old 
lines. The practice of using a close-woven green 
cloth, similar to that of billiard-tables, and clean 
cut against the edge of the banding, came 
later, and is characteristic of the round straight- 
legged card-tables of George Ill's time. The 
most usual earlier covering was green velvet, with 
a narrow gold gallon, fixed with small-headed gilt 
nails about an inch apart, masking the junction 
of wood and stuff. So normal was this before 
the close of Queen Anne's reign that Pope, in a 
mock heroic description of a game of ombre, 
calls the cards 

. . . party coloured troops, a shining train 
Drawn forth to combat on the velvet plain. 4 

The multiplication and development of the 
card -table was then called for by the rage for 
gambling with card-playing as its basis. " Rather 
than forego my cards, I'll forswear my visits, 
fashions, my walking, friends and relations" 4 , 
cries Lady Lurewell after a ruinous loss. Nor 
were they merely a pastime for the frivolous ; for, 
describing the Assemblies fashionable in 1741, 
Lady Hertford writes to Lady Pomfret, who was 
in Italy : " Boys and girls sit down as gravely to 
whist-tables as fellows of colleges used to do 
formerly. It is actually a ridiculous, though, I 
think, a mortifying, sight that play should become 
the business of the nation from the age of fifteen 
to fourscore. I am to have one of these rackets 
next Wednesday" 6 . 

Some card-tables were fitted with a double 
flap, thus providing both a velvet and a wood 
top. Such may Pope have had in mind for his 
game of ombre as, the moment it is over, 

" Sudden the board with cups and spoons is crown'd " 7 . 

* " Rape of the Lock ", canto III, lines 43-4. 

6 Farquhar, "Sir Harry Wildair", act II, sc. 2, first per- 
formed in 1 701. 

' Correspondence of Lady Hertford and Lady Pomfret, 
vol. in, p. 103. 

7 "Rape of the Lock", canto ill, line 105. 

and the company drink coffee. Such tables were 
often of round form and dating from Queen 
Anne's time, as does one — not, however, with 
double flap— belonging to Mr. Percival Griffiths, 
with legs of the pied de biche type merging into 
the full cabriole. But the square shape, with 
serpentine front and projecting corners to accom- 
modate candlesticks, prevailed throughout the 
cabriole period. Thus the form of both the 
tables illustrated is the same although they date 
some thirty years apart. The later one (Plate 
XIII, D) may, indeed, not have been made till 
George III was King, for, though the legs are 
still cabrioled, they show the same lightness 
already commented on in the oblong " tea or 
china" table illustrated on Plate XI (vol. 
xxxiii, p. no). The whole treatment and 
ornamentation of the card-table shows the late 
Louis XV influence that possessed Chippendale 
when he published the " Director ". It is an 
exceptionally finished piece, and the fine quality 
of the wood will be the excuse for the use of 
walnut so long after mahogany had established 
itself in popular esteem. It is in untouched 
condition, and retains its original fiddle varnish 

As a change from needlework and cards many 
ladies dabbled in art. The rather large and heavy 
drawing tables, with various fitments and tops 
to fix at any angle, which began to be made for 
architects and artists before the close of the 
cabriole period, were too clumsy and inelegant 
for the boudoir ; but that the idea could be 
adapted to the use of the fair is shown by the 
example given (Plate XII, b). It is a charming 
little piece in Chippendale's Chinese style, with 
an oblong top, 2 feet long by 18 inches wide. 
The double top when raised reveals a shallow 
depression wherein unfinished drawings can lie 
flat, while there is room in the little spaces 
afforded at the ends by the bowing-in of the 
front for pencils and other such material. The 
rachets, that enable the top to be fixed at any 
angle, work in a curved case, making, with the 
corresponding flat slat, an X-shaped filling to the 
sides with perforated ornament. These, and the 
stretchers below them and along the back, render 
the cluster column legs, fragile as they look, 
quite capable of sustaining considerable weight. 
It is in the best manner of the straight "Gothick" 
leg that began the ousting of the cabriole form 
and was the forerunner of the tapering square 
leg of Sheraton times. 

J 5 1 


PROPOSITION attributing to Car- 
dinal Bessarion 1 the gift of this 
I standard to the Monastery of Sta. 
'Croce at Avellana, is without foun- 
dation 2 . It is true that it is recorded 
in an Inventory drawn up in 1425 by the Domini- 
cans of Gubbio, to whom at that date the 
Avellana Treasures were entrusted for greater 
security, thus: "a small banner embroidered 
with an angel armed with a sword ". 3 In another 
Inventory of 1641 it is thus described : "a very 
ancient standard embroidered in gold and small 
pearls, representing St. Michael and the Emperor 
Manuel, who died in the year 1180 ". 4 At the 
close of the 18th century Cardinal Stefano Borgia 
vainly longed to acquire it ; but during the course 
of the following century it was regarded as lost 5 . 
It consists of a piece of crimson silk cloth, 
75 cms. square, attached to another piece, also 
red, but of a paler shade, interwoven with em- 
broidered designs, executed principally in gold 
thread 6 . 

A study of the accompanying illustration shows 
that the subject is a full length figure of an 
archangel with a drawn sword, at whose feet 
crouches a kneeling man. Around the border 
and under the right wing of the archangel — in 
accordance with Byzantine art usage — are long 
inscriptions in Greek characters. The figure of 
the archangel is well proportioned and firmly, 
though not rigidly, poised. Clothing, armour and 
accessories are rich and handsome, with all the 
luxury customary in Byzantine art ; but the 
figure is not altogether lacking in considerable 
grace and charm. The fine youthful head is 
surrounded by a vertical halo edged with a double 
border of pearls ; the tresses of chestnut hair are 
touched with red, and silvered in the high lights ; 
the forehead is adorned with an ornament in the 
shape of a blue butterfly, beneath which appears 
a chaplet bordered with red ; and behind float 
two blue ribbons. 

The modelling of the face is obtained by silk 
threads worked in varying shades of pale yellow, 
and heightened by touches of red, added where 

* Translated from the Italian by Mr. Robert Cust. 

1 Giuseppe Cozza Luzzi. Paper read 25th January, 1889, at 
the Accademia Pontificia Archeologica, under the title Di tin 
antico vessillo navale. Dissertazioui della Pont. Ace. romana 
di Arckeologia, serie n, Torao m ; Roma, 1890. 

2 Alberto Gibelli, Monografia dell' antico Monastero di S. Croce 
dell' Avellana. Faenza, Conti, 1895, p. 41. 

3 Op. e pag. cit. 

4 P. 45. 
'P. 47- 

" " Crysoclavo " (xpus<5/<Xa/3os) — i.e., silken material woven 
and sewn with gold. 
" Holovero " (oXovfyos) — i.e., silken cloth of a single shade, 
generally purple. 

needful, now in bright patches, and again in light 
touches and faint lines of greenish shadows 
around the eyes, along the nose and outlining 
the contour of the face and neck. 

The delicate arches of the eyebrows are out- 
lined in chestnut-coloured silk, over large, wide- 
opened oval eyes ; the nose and mouth are defined 
in violet, the latter being further modelled by 
touches of yellow shading. 

The body of the archangel is clad in a cuirass 
of golden scales with a wide collar (part of which 
only is preserved). It reaches to the elbows, 
leaving the bare forearms and hands outlined and 
defined in bright red. A girdle confines the 
waist, below which there falls to the knees a 
tunic adorned with bars and spots. Two long 
stoles support a mantle which falls from the 

The legs, appearing beneath the tunic, are out- 
lined and modelled in the same shades and colour 
as the face ; and they are clad a third of the way 
up the calf in buskins, decorated with bars, spots 
and circles in sections. 

The wings, composed of wide oval scales, are 
edged with a species of border decorated with 
angles and circles, and they turn up at the end in 
slight curves. The sword is formed of two bands 
of gold thread, edged with three rows of pearls, 
which at the handle are wound round and round 
in varying lengths, whilst the scabbard hanging 
down from the girdle displays a line of circles. 

The kneeling figure, shrunken and contracted 
after the conventional Byzantine manner of re- 
presenting worshippers, exhibits no individuality 
in its vacant countenance. Even the feebly 
fluttering hands are without expression. Whilst 
in the archangel the artist — following the abstract 
type of celestial heralds accepted by Byzantine 
traditions — has succeeded in reproducing a per- 
sonality which, in spite of its conventionality, is 
instinct with nobility and grace, when he comes 
into direct contact with reality he presents a 
figure, certainly naturalistic, but undeveloped and 
stopping short at the point of juncture between 
life and its essential accent. 

The masterly technique is substantially the 
same as that expressed in the archangel. The 
fabric is markedly rounded in the face, slightly 
undulated in the hands with their long fingers, and 
outlined even in the palms with pale red thread. 
In the eyes there are the same round, not very 
dark, pupils as in those of the archangel, and they 
stand out upon a blue background surrounded 
by black circles. The abundant hair in soft 
smooth curves terminates in three curls of a pale 
yellow shade like the eyebrows. A beard outlines 


A Byzantine naval standard, in the monastery of S. Croce, Avellana 

the lower part of the face by means of curvilinear 
threads, whilst a moustache sprouting from the 
lips is marked out by stitches of violet. The 
figure wears a violet robe, of which only a small 
portion is visible, beneath a white collar with studs 
and bands of silver, at the sleeves and along the 
length of the right leg, for it is almost entirely 
covered by a sumptuous red and gold cloak, 
embroidered with a conventional pattern of flowers 
in quadrangular divisions, a checkered orphery 
marked with crosses and a border of wavy lines. 

The whole effect is archaistic, but not pro- 
nouncedly so, nor does it in any way suggest 
imitation. The letters of the inscription are 
worked in bands of gold thread, now partially 
worn away, showing the design drawn on the 
material itself. Reconstruction is thus easy. The 
words are represented by abbreviations. There 
is a free and fragmentary Latin translation of 
the whole in the Annates Camaldnlenses 1 , which 
records the standard under the year 1177, and 
identifies the figures as representing the Archangel 
Michael and the Emperor Emanuele Paleologo. 
The inscriptions are there given in full and in 
facsimile, and are finely rendered into Latin by 
Cristoforo Amaduzzi 8 . Moroni 9 also repeats the 
same information regarding the personages, but 
does not give the inscription. It is, however, 
again translated and transcribed into Italian by 
Giuseppe Cozza-Luzzi 10 , who, following Amaduzzi's 
text, comments upon it with copious philological 
and historical learning. Setting aside historico- 
philological explanations, which are out of place 
here, we give the translation of the inscrip- 
tions, making use of the original text rather 
than the transcription and version already cited, 
merely remarking that the divergences between 
these various translations are solely in matters of 

From the upper frame work, passing to the 
right and thence to the left and along the bottom : — 

" As once Joshua, the son of Navi, bending the 
knee threw himself at thy feet, imploring thee to 
grant him strength for the purpose of defeating 
the hordes of his enemies, so I, thy servant 
Manuel, son of the glorious and thrice happy 
Eudocia, who had (for her consort) the father 
of an Emperor, and was herself the parent of an 
Imperial line u , now, in the guise of a suppliant, 
cast myself at thy feet and implore thee that thou 
wouldst protect me with thy golden wings, and 
going before me deliver me from all harm ; and 
that I may have thee as my patron and guardian 
of my soul and my body as long as I live, so that 
at the last dread Judgment I may find, thanks to 

'Mittarelli e Costadoni, Venetiis, 1759, vol. IV, lib. 32, p. 69. 
8 Anecdota Litteraria, Settariam, Koinae, 1774, III, pp. 23-28. 
3 Dirionario, Venezia, Tip. Emiliana, vol. 52, 1851, p. 104. 
10 Op. cit. 

11 " Porfirogenito " — i.e., a line of persons born to the purple 
— i.e., to Imperial rank. 

thy favour, the Lord merciful. Since from my 
mother's womb I was entrusted to thee, Oh ! 
Captain of Spirits " (that is to say, " of the 
Angelic Hosts"). 

In the upper angles to the left : " The chief 
Captain, the Guardian" ; to the right : " Michael". 
Under the right wing of the archangel : " Mine 
ear heareth thy prayer and I am protecting thee 
with my own wings as my servant. Thine 
enemies I am putting to flight with my sword." 

With regard to the persons represented, whilst 
there can be no doubt about the celestial Being, 
obviously the Archangel Michael — so widely 
honoured in Byzantine art — a mistake may easily 
arise as to the human figure, who in point of fact 
has been wrongly identified with Emanuele 
Paleologo, Emperor of the Greeks, who died in 
1 180. Such a supposition would throw the stan- 
dard back to a period openly contradicting its 
stylistic traces, which clearly mark the 15th or, 
at the earliest, the end of the 14th centuries. It 
is to Cozza-Luzzi's credit that he has demon- 
strated with elaborate precision the evidence 
which relates to Emanuele Paleologo, natural son 
of John Paleologo, Emperor from 1373 to 1391. 
This man did not succeed his father on the 
Imperial throne ; for John's legitimate son — also 
named Emanuele (1391-1425)— was elevated in- 
stead of him. He was nevertheless appointed to 
the command of the fleet by his Imperial brother, 
who, becoming jealous of the applause gained by 
him on account of the naval victory at Plate 
(Troad) over the Turks, shut him up, together 
with his children, in prison, and kept him there 
for several years ; if not until his death. Since 
such an event was that which closed the active 
career of this Emanuele Paleologo, it would seem 
clear that this standard should be attributed to him, 

As regards the iconography of the figures upon 
the standard the most obvious resemblances are 
to be collected from miniatures. 

In the Psalter of Basil II (10th or early nth 
century) 12 the Emperor Basil is shown standing 
with a lance in his right hand and a sheathed 
sword in his left, attended by a number of kneel- 
ing figures. In the Codice Regina " (10th century) 
we see Bishop Nicholas with the protector and 
superior of the convent on their knees before 
him. In the Exultet Vaticano u , illuminated at 
Benevento during the reigns of Pandolfo and 
Landolfo (1038- 1059 , there is a miniature, with 
inscription attached, representing the priest 
Giovanni, chaplain of the monastery of San 
Pietro at Benevento, crouching down to the left, 
on his knees before the saintly patron of the 
convent, who stands with a banner in his right 
hand and keys in his left. 

12 Venezia, Biblioteca Marciana. 

13 Biblioteca Vaticana, No. 1. 
"Val. Lat. 9820. 


We can also adduce comparison with work of 
another kind. A panel of brass in the Schlum- 
berger Collection shows S. George, full face, with 
a prostrate donor on his right hand (ioth or 
nth century). In a mosaic in the Church of 
the Martorana at Palermo (12th century) the 
Admiral George of Antioch kneels with uplifted 
hands on the left side of the Virgin, who is 
standing upright, whilst to the left again there 
is a label, upon which runs a long inscription. 

From these and other similar artistic repre- 
sentations we can only collect generic resem- 
blances; but in the Rotulo di Giosuc (5th & 6th 
century most probably) and in the Menologio di 
Basile II w all the elements in the figures on this 
standard are to be found so strongly in evidence 
as to establish its direct dependence upon them. 

In one of the miniatures of the Rotulo di Giosuc 
that warrior is represented in an open landscape 
with the City of Jericho in the background prone 
before the Archangel Michael, who, with outspread 
wings and drawn sword, listens graciously to the 
prayer of his mortal worshipper. The Archangel 
is turned to the right because the suppliant is 
kneeling on that side, and not, as in the standard, 
on the left. The whole composition — in the 
drawing and the position of the wings, in the 
manner of grasping the sword and its sheath — 
exhibits a resemblance to the analogous figure on 
the standard. Also between the two human figures 
there are not lacking similarities, although they 
are not so marked. There are also long inscrip- 
tions explanatory of the scene represented. So 
that in its essential parts, as well as in its elements, 
the illustration in the Rotulo di Giosuc has served 
as a model for the author of the standard. In 
the Rotulo, however, the story presented is de- 
scriptive : for in one and the same scene Joshua 
is represented as interviewing the Divine messen- 
ger and also as adoring him when he learns his 
true identity, and, moreover, other figures are 
added to the composition. In the standard, on 
the other hand, the design is simply reduced to 
the two indispensable elements and stamped with 
a monumental and hieratic character, so that the 
figures shine out with an even greater majesty of 
inspiration and bearing. 

In the Menologio di Basile II we find the very 
episode in the life of Joshua alluded to in the 
commencement of the inscription which borders 
the standard. In this example, likewise, the land- 
scape is wider and richer ; but it also appears 
simplified in comparison and free from details of 
locality and subordinate figures. The Archangel 
stands in the centre of the composition, with his 
left wing folded and right still raised, as if to 
indicate that he had just paused in flight ; whereas 
in the standard the two wings are composed with 
greater nobility and with a quiet decorative feel- 

15 Both in the Vatican Library. 

ing. With his right hand he raises his sword and 
with the other he grasps its sheath. To his right 
the crouching figure of Joshua, in full armour, 
begs that the course of the sun may be stayed, 
the orb of which is shown at the very top of the 
picture, and cut by the frame. A writing explains 
the figures and helps out the other details. 

In the same Menologio there is another illustra- 
tion which also recalls this standard. It repre- 
sents a pastoral staff in the form of a column, 
surmounted by a capital, upon which a figure 
with upturned face and raised hands, like 
Paleologo, kneels before a bust of St. Simeon 

In spite of its derivation from pre-existing 
Byzantine monuments, this naval standard from 
Avellana asserts its own importance, not only on 
account of its rarity — since, although many 
Byzantine standards decorated with figures ( 16 ) are 
recorded, and several of them may be seen repre- 
sented in goldsmiths' work in miniatures (as, for 
example, in the Codice Rosano of the sixth 
century : Christ Before Pilate and Christ and 
Barabbas, etc.), none, it appears, have come 
down to us so complete as this one — but also 
on account of its pleasing workmanship, 
which, if it does make use of earlier ideas, 
renews and adapts them, with distinction. We 
must not, however, exaggerate its value. A 
comparison with two finer examples of Byzan- 
tine needlecraft belonging to about the same 
period : 1, the Dalmatic, said to have belonged 
to Charlemagne, preserved in the Sacristy of 
S. Peter's at Rome ; ,and 2, the Piece of Material 
treasured at Castel'Arquato, which can be attri- 
buted to about the 14th century, will suffice to 
prove that the Urbino standard, although not of 
any distinct individuality, may be considered as 
a valuable example of artistic expression during 
the declining period of Byzantine Art. 

The Dalmatic displays an organic design in- 
comparably more complex and sumptuous, 
broadly inspired with a wonderful feeling of 
grandeur and stupendous decorative fancy, en- 
livened by strongly marked designs of great 
variety in effect, and executed with exquisite 
technical skill. In comparison with it the design 
of the standard appears academic, confused in 
its ideas, poor in decorative feeling, and limited 
in executive resource. / 

Beside the Piece of Material at Castel'Arquato 
it fares no better : for in this example the subjects 
are abounding in warm and manifold vitality, 
expressed naturally in the single figures into 
which the artist has succeeded in infusing varying 
individuality, both of aspect and movement. The 
forms, the clothing, and the buildings, pro- 
portioned to the figures, are embroidered in 
delicate detail. 

16 " Labara " — i.e., Ad/Sapa, avyurtat, S7;/i?ia. 

Both these works of art are by expert masters 
of Byzantine art, and they alone are sufficient to 
prove the magnificent inspiration of that art, 
even if no other proofs but these had survived. 
The standard, on the other hand, is the work of 
an artist of modest aims, who flourished at a 
time when Byzantine tradition was drifting fatally 


The Wilton Suits : A Controversy, with Notes on other 
Archasological Questions by various writers ; 48 pp., 7 pi. 
(Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge.) For private circulation. 

Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge have 
issued a booklet entitled " The Wilton Suits ; a 
Controversy ". In this the opinions of the various 
authorities on the subject are fairly set forth, but 
the result is certainly, as the title says, "a con- 
troversy", and, as one of the authorities says, the 
explanation of the presence of these two suits at 
Wilton is difficult, and a difficulty which can 
only be satisfactorily solved from the archives at 
Wilton. Baron de Cosson and Mr. ffoulkes 


The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. — The 
Seventieth Report of the Fitzwilliam Museum 
continues the record of wide and well-balanced 
activity that characterises its direction. It is a 
great advantage to the country that all works of 
art and archaeology should not be piled up in the 
metropolitan museums, and peculiarly agreeable to 
find collections such as those of Cambridge and 
Oxford expanding in congenial association with the 
Universities. As time goes on, even undergra- 
duates, in greater number, may become interested 
in them, and the new scheme under consideration 
at Oxford for a school of the History of Art may 
help in this direction. The war has delayed the 
building of the new Marlay wing at Cambridge, 
and penury of endowment limits purchases ; but 
friends of the Museum are still generous, and a 
variety of gifts and bequests is noted in the Report. 
Among these are pictures given by the late Joseph 
Prior, coins and medals by the late J. D. Tremlett 
and the Rev. E. C. Derrick, watercolours, drawings, 
prints, autographs and objects of art from various 
sources. A notable addition is the Tarquin and 
Lucrece attributed to Titian, the gift of a late 
generous donor whose modest " anonymity " is 
wearing thin. A picture with this title was in 
the collection of Charles I. To the particulars 
given in the Report it may be added that it was 
afterwards sold to Louis XIV, and for a time in 
the Louvre. Waagen, Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 
Gronau and other authorities say that it belonged 
also to Lord Hertford, but this is a mistake. He 
bid ,£500 for it at the Coningham sale in 1849, but 

towards extreme exhaustion, but who, not 
without a certain nobility of treatment, has 
succeeded in securing some of its most living 
aspects, enough to confer an artistic value upon 
an historic relic which may be considered one of 
the latest and most conspicuous records of Greek 
naval power. 

represent the two sides of the question as to the 
nationality of the armourer or armourers respon- 
sible for the suits, and the one point that the 
wearers of the armours were never the prisoners 
of the Earl of Pembroke, but of the Spaniards, 
makes their appearance at Wilton very mysterious. 
The whole question is one which may some day 
be definitely answered when more of the historical 
MSS. commission has come to light. With the 
controversy are some interesting notes by Mr. 
G. D. Hobson, Baron de Cosson, and an especi- 
ally noteworthy one on " The Construction of 
Armour " by Mr. Paul Hardy. D. 

it was bought in at £525 (see the Catalogue of 
Paintings of the Wallace collection, under Cagnacci, 
No. 643). The bid, and the existence of the 
Perseus and Andromeda at Hertford House prob- 
ably led to the mistake ; for Waagen did not see 
the picture, and his statement was doubtless copied 
by later writers. Some discrepancies remain to 
be cleared up before the Fitzwilliam picture can 
be identified with that of Charles I, and the writer 
has not yet seen it. The other most striking 
acquisition is The Metz Pontifical, presented by Mr. 
Yates Thompson. This gift and another to the 
British Museum Library will temper to some extent 
our regrets at the dispersal of a magnificent 
collection of illuminated manuscripts. D. s. M. 

Dr. Gustavo Frizzoni. — We greatly regret 
having to chronicle the death of Dr. Gustavo 
Frizzoni, which occurred last month in Milan. 
Born in 1840, Dr. Frizzoni came of an old Ber- 
gamesque family, and both his father and his 
uncle were intimate friends of Giovanni Morelli, 
whose letters to Federico Frizzoni, it will be 
recalled, have yielded an interesting series of 
excerpts for the memoir of the author, contri- 
buted by Dr. Frizzoni to the final edition of 
Morelli's writings. It is as the faithful guardian 
of the Morellian tradition that Dr. Frizzoni will 
always retain his place in the history of art criti- 
cism ; and no student of Italian Renaissance 
painting can ever afford to disregard the numerous 
papers, which to the last he went on contributing 
to the leading art magazines of Europe, so vast an 
amount of detailed information do they contain, 


the purely analytical element in them doubtless 
predominating over the synthetic and constructive 
element. Many visitors to Milan will retain a 
grateful recollection of the kindness and hos- 
pitality shown them by the late art-critic in taking 
them round the various picture collections of 
the city, both public and private, including Dr. 
Frizzoni's own, so charmingly shown in his flat, 
first in the Via Pontaccio — Morelli's old flat, I 
believe — and later in the Via Cusani. And now 
that Dr. Frizzoni is gone, and the door to the 
studio of his friend Cavenaghi closed by death 
too, Milan will hardly seem to us the same city — 
the whole Morellian period has receded into 
history ; and something that still took one back, 
one felt it very definitely, to the atmosphere 
of Stendhal's Lombardy, has ceased to be a 
portion of tangible reality. T. B. 

Early American Painters. — In "One Hun- 
dred Early American Paintings ", a book recently 
put forth by H. L. and W. L. Enrich in memory 
of their father, Louis R. Ehrich, founder of the 
Ehrich Galleries, New York, information is asked 
concerning the dates of birth and death of the 
following 18th and 19th century artists: T. E. 
Billings, Bowen, Buddington, O. A. Bullard, 
Henry Chapin, George Courahoe, F. V. Doornick, 
Drinker, D. R. Fairfax, Duncan Ferguson, 
J. Frazer, Green, W. Lewis, McConkey, James 
McGibbon, McKay, William T. Matthews, 
B. Onthank, Thomas Parker, John Ritts Penniman, 
William Polk, Roberts, John Russell of Guilford, 
James Sawyer, William Southworth, Martin 
Sprague, Taylor, M. C. Torry, Caroline Weeks, 
Westoby, Joseph Willard, Henry J. Wright. The 
Biulingtoii Magazine will be pleased to forward to 
Messrs. Ehrich any information concerning these 
artists which may be sent to its offices. 

Paintings and Drawings by J. Marchand ; 
Carfax & Co. — M. Marchand takes an honour- 
able place among the many artists who have 
profited by the study of Cezanne. A few years 
ago his work was more like Cezanne's in manner 
than it is now, but not in the purely external, 
caricatural way which is so common, and which 
seems so fatally easy to follow. To this time belong 

the views of Ceret in the present exhibition, and 
other examples will be remembered by those who 
saw M. Marchand's first exhibition at the Carfax 
Gallery. One or two pictures here (Pot Persan 
and La Charrue — both austere in colour, but with 
a very marked painter-like quality, particularly in 
the masterly still-life) are still earlier, and show 
him at another preliminary stage. He is still a 
young man, and, as his latest work has a new 
freshness and freedom, one may assume that he 
will go much further. The rendering of clean 
cold light in Azay-le-Rideau (Nos. 1 and 2) has a 
beauty differing widely from the qualities to be 
found in the more stately arrangements of 
southern landscape such as the pictures of the 
Pont de Ceret and the Eglise de Bonnes. These 
have other beauties appropriate to their kind ; 
and what M. Marchand can do with full rich 
colour is shown in the still-life Bnste de Charles- 
Louis Philippe ct fleurs. The portraits are solidly 
established with that appreciative realism which 
underlies all that M. Marchand does, and the few 
drawings exhibited are alert and sensitive pota- 
tions of form and colour. In the latter one may 
notice again the gradual abandonment of the 
Cezanne manner for one which is definitely 
personal. M. Marchand has intellectual balance 
as well as a fine sensibility, aad has attained an 
unusual power of self-expression. R. S. 

Messrs. William Griggs and Sons, Ltd. — 
Most of the skilled operators of this well-known 
firm of printers (Hanover Street, Peckham, 
S.E. 15) having now been demobilised, Messrs. 
Griggs, we are glad to learn, are able to resume 
printing ; and the business has been reorganised 
in order to .meet present and future conditions. 
The work of Messrs. Griggs in collotype, litho- 
graphy, and other artistic printing in colour and 
in monochrome has been of high repute for sixty 
years. They have done much fine printing for 
the British Museum ; the Pierpont Morgan cata- 
logues showed their powers in colour-printing ; 
and "The Journal of Indian Art" and other 
productions which they have printed for learned 
societies are a standing testimony to their 



Gentlemen, — Sir Frederic Kenyon's report 1 
to the Imperial War Graves Commission calls for 
public protest. We are all aware that to be effec- 
tive such protest must come from the millions of 
men and women whose sons and husbands and 
fathers are buried in foreign lands, rather than 

1 War Graves. Report to the Imperial War Graves Com- 
mission by Lieut. -Colonel Sir Frederic Kenvon, K.C.B., Director 
of the British Museum (H.M. Stationery Office, 3d. net). 


from any body of specialist opinion. I am, 
however, convinced that something will have been 
gained if the government's proposals can be dis- 
credited upon technical and artistic grounds alone. 
In the first place, and generally, it seems clear 
that the principal mistake is the placing of the 
matter of war graves in the hands of architects. 
Architectural advice is possibly desirable, but 
leadership by architects in such a matter is a 
mistake on two grounds, viz. : 1. The provision and 

erection of monuments, whether central monu- 
ments or headstones, is the principal business 
under discussion, and this is not an architect's 
job, but a sculptor's and a tombstone-maker's. 
2. The architect is, by the nature of his profession, 
one who directs the work of builders — he is not 
himself a maker of things. The designing of 
monuments is properly the business of those who 
make monuments. 

In this matter of war graves there is, upon the 
one hand, the department of government con- 
cerned,^., the Imperial War Graves Commission, 
and, upon the other, there are the various classes 
of workers and makers of things, among whom 
we are here only concerned with those who make 

The business of the War Graves Commission is, 
in this matter of monuments, to decide what 
form, if any, the national or central monuments 
shall take, having regard, not at all to the artistic 
views of architects, but solely to the sentiment of 
the nation, poor as well as rich, if ascertainable, 
and to the funds at its disposal. If it should 
decide that headstones should be placed upon 
every known grave (i.e., if it should conclude that 
such is the nation's wish, and the French or other 
foreign governments, mirabile dictu, do not object), 
then it is its business to ascertain and declare 
the number of headstones required, and, calling 
together a representative body of headstone-makers 
(small firms rather than big, because the heads of 
small firms are generally themselves working 
masons and not merely business managers, how- 
ever cultured by acquaintance with architects), to 
discover the best method of production. 

This method has not been followed by the War 
Graves Commission, which, impressed, as most 
people are at the present time, by the commercial 
success of organised production and, probably, 
quite ignorant, as rich people generally are, of the 
evils resulting from modern industrial methods, 
naturally allowed itself to be led by architects — 
the artistic counterparts of business managers. 

This would be the less deplorable were it not 
that the making of tombstones is still in a very 
large degree in the hands of small firms which, 
scattered up and down the country (there is 
probably hardly a town without a small mason's 
yard), are quite capable of supplying all the head- 
stones or crosses required, and that in a manner 
which, if not up to the artistic level of former 
times (and that cannot be expected in an age 
concerned more for the volume of international 
trade than for the good quality of the product), 
would certainly have the merit of being representa- 
tive of the national culture or lack of culture, and 
not representative merely of the ideas of a few 
individual architects. 

The commission's attitude in the matter is the 
more easily understood inasmuch as it is the whole 

trend of our time to impose the ideas of the few 
upon the many while being careful to hide the 
process under a guise of democratic sympathy 
and social reform. Thus the idea that half a 
million headstones should be made according to 
the ideas of a few architects (an idea worthy of 
the Prussian or the Ptolemy at his best) instead 
of according to those of several thousand stone- 
masons and twenty million relatives is not sur- 
prising, and under the plea of commemorating 
"the sense of comradeship and common service" 
and "the spirit of discipline and order", etc. 
{vide" Report"), it is hoped that the very widespread 
desire of relatives to have some personal control 
of the monuments to their dead will be overcome. 

If the graveyards in France and elsewhere, and 
the bodies buried in them, are the absolute property 
of the government (a legal question as to which I 
am ignorant), then the wishes of relatives need not 
be considered, and the government has only to 
discover how best to provide, if such be its desire, 
a permanent memorial, and, if only from that 
point of view, the idea of erecting over half a 
million headstones from the designs of a few 
architects stands condemned, for, by such a 
method, nothing will be commemorated but the 
ineptitude of a commercial nation blind to the 
fact that good workmanship is a personal achieve- 
ment and cannot be ordered, like coal, by the ton. 

But few successful architects, still less men of 
business and administrators, can see the truth of 
these contentions, and the hypocrisy becomes 
appalling when, on the strange contention (vide 
" Report ") that " we are a Christian empire ", it is 
proposed not only to put up crosses as central 
monuments but even sham altars. The central 
doctrine of Christianity is the freewill and conse- 
quent responsibility of the individual. Yet here 
is a nation calling itself Christian which refuses 
responsibility to the workman, and under the cloak 
of culture denies to mourners even the unfettered 
choice of words ! (Vide " Report ".) 

I assume that the administration decides that any 
known grave shall have a headstone (whether or 
no this is really desirable or desired). 

I assume that the administration has the right, 
and it has the power, to make certain regulations 
(we are not anarchists) as to the size of headstones. 

I assume that the administration has not the 
right, though it has the power, to enslave, intellec- 
tually, morally, aesthetically, or physically, even 
one man, and certainly not a very large number 
of men. 

I assume that, provided certain regimental par- 
ticulars (name, date, regiment, etc.) be inscribed 
upon each stone, the administration has not the 
right to dictate to relatives as to what shall or 
shall not be inscribed upon the stone, and this 
in spite of all that may be said (vide " Report ") 
about "the sentimental versifier or the crank". 


Now, an ordinary small monumental mason 
could, without turning his shop into a factory, 
easily and without hurrying, supply, say, six 
hundred small headstones in three years at the 
cost of a few pounds each (say between £3 10s. and 
.£5). Presumably a thousand other small work- 
shops could do the same, and it would be 
desirable and seemly to distribute the work so 
that, as far as possible, the stones commemo- 
rating men of a certain locality should be made 
in that locality — Brighton masons doing stones 
for Brighton men, Marlow for Marlow, and so 
on — placing the work always in the hands of 
" small " men and not big firrns. 

In this way a certain local quality would result, 
and the graveyards would gain the desirable 
quality of variety. Anything in addition to the 
regimental particulars could be paid for by the 
relatives and not by the government. What 
would it matter if the lettering and mason's work 
varied between one stone and the next — some 
good, some bad ? That variety would be better 
than a uniform mediocrity, however quasi-artistic 
{vide Postscript to this letter). Why should not 
the inscriptions be as varied as the men they 
commemorate — some good, some bad ? If we 
are, as we are, a nation without a strong tradition 
of good workmanship, why hide the fact under a 
pretentious scheme of architectural origin as do 
the Prussians in Berlin ? 

It is suggested in Sir Frederic Kenyon's report 
that the rows of headstones will be like a regiment 
on parade. But a regiment on parade is, though 
uniformed, not composed of men all of one size 
and shape and colour and kind. 

It is said that the existing wooden crosses are 
very impressive, and they well may be. But they 
were not made all at one time by the thousand 
from the design of an architect ! A crowd in 
Trafalgar Square is very impressive ; but if you 
were to replace it by an equal number of tailor's 
dummies it is not certain that the result, however 
architectural, would be equally impressive. 

In conclusion, I would urge that the govern- 
ment should take the advice of those who have 
some respect for individuality and responsibility 
instead of that of persons whose whole outlook 
is coloured by the notion that good work can be 
produced by proxy.— I am, yours faithfully, 

Eric Gill. 
P.S.— I understand that, for the actual doing of 
inscriptions, the government is employing several 
architects and assistants to experiment with a 
process by which acid shall be used to "bite" 
the lettering into the stone. Even if the result 
were not bound to be a failure upon artistic 
grounds (as all methods must be which have 
their origin in the desire to save money), and it is, 
to say the least, unlikely that the repetition upon 
many thousands of headstones of the same rather 
feebly artistic lettering (we have seen specimens), 


made more or less worse by the acid process, will 
be a success, it is clear that such a process would 
never have been thought of if the government 
were not inspired by quantitative rather than 
qualitative notions. If a single firm should have 
the job of turning out 600,000 headstones, 
naturally it would cast around for cheap and 
quick processes, and it is, I think, not the 
least merit of the counter proposal suggested 
above that the temptation to sacrifice quality 
to quantity would be reduced to a minimum. A 
man who has got three years in which to make 
six hundred small headstones has (provided the 
payment be reasonable) no need to hurry himself, 
and he can put his best into the work — always 
supposing that he is himself a workman and not 
merely the master of other workmen with no 
interest in the work but the profit to be got 
out of it.— E. G. 

Gentlemen, — Having, since my arrival in 
London some time ago, heard many anxious 
enquiries about the fate of art treasures in Russia, 
I venture to ask you whether you will allow me, 
by printing these lines in Tin Burlington Magazine, 
to convey what information I possess on the 
subject to all lovers of art. 

I left Petrograd at the end of last October, 
having remained there nearly a full year under 
the Bolsheviks, and having devoted all my time 
to saving works of art from destruction. When 
the Bolsheviks usurped power in the first days of 
November 1917, a few of my friends and myself 
decided to stay on and exert our energies in that 
one direction of rescue work, and when I was 
obliged to take to flight our numbers in Petrograd 
reached about eighty. 

All the best things of the Hermitage had been 
packed and sent to Moscow after the fall of Riga, 
and, therefore, previously to the Bolshevist revolu- 
tion ; not only the pictures and the Greek and 
Scythian works of art, but also the 18th-century 
china and the best of the smaller works of sculpture, 
of the furniture and vases. The packing was done 
so thoroughly that when one of the boxes con- 
taining porcelain groups was dropped at the 
station in Petrograd it was brought back to the 
Hermitage and when unpacked it was found that 
none of its contents had suffered. Two trains had 
taken the packing-cases to Moscow, at an interval 
of ten days ; the Provisional Government had 
given a special guard of cadets from military 
schools for accompanying the trains, which proved 
very useful, as they had to defend one of the 
trains at a small station against an attack from 
demobilised soldiers, who wanted to seize the cars 
for travelling themselves. During the bombard- 
ment of the Kremlin these packing-cases remained 
untouched, having been stored in the basement of 
the Kremlin Palace. One box was grazed 

by a bullet which came in through a window, 
but no damage was done. Rumours having 
spread of boxes being taken away from the 
Kremlin at night, a commission was sent to 
Moscow from the Hermitage in September 1918, 
to investigate the matter ; the commission 
reported that all the boxes were untouched and 
their numbers corresponded to those on the 
lists. Fearing, however, that when the Bolshevist 
chiefs, who now live in the Kremlin, were turned 
out, a second bombardment might ensue, we 
took steps towards returning the things to the 
Hermitage. Unfortunately, the Moscow railway 
absolutely refused to put separate trains at our 
disposal, offering, instead, two cars a week for the 
work ; this we all deemed unacceptable. With the 
Hermitage things are stored some of the best 
things from Peterhof (two waggon -loads), and 
from Tsarskoe-Selo (three waggon-loads), also a 
number of cases with pictures from the Academy 
of Fine Arts and from the Alexander III Museum 
(now re-named by the Bolsheviks " Russian 
Museum"). The Malmaison pictures, though 
claimed by the German Government, have not 
been surrendered, and are in their packing-cases 
in Moscow. I have good reason to believe that 
all the plate from the Winter Palace, and the Greek 
jewels, coins and medals from the Hermitage, also 
the snuff-boxes, watches and jewels from the 
Treasure Gallery, which were taken away from 
Petrograd by order of the Emperor after the fall 
of Warsaw, are safe. During the bombardment 
of the Winter Palace, and the looting which 
ensued, one first-rate work of art perished, that 
was the portrait of the Emperor Nicholas II by 
Seroff. The rumours about the ancient plate 
having been looted were untrue, as this plate 
was no more in the palace ; the mob broke 
open packing-cases full of modern forks and 
spoons, and could, fortunately, steal only those. 
The palaces of Ielaghin, Tsarskoe-Selo, Pavlovsk, 
Gatchina, Peterhof and Oranienbaum were 
turned into museums, and nothing really im- 
portant has perished in any of them. I undertook 
to do the work in Pavlovsk, and by the time I 
escaped (leaving a perfectly reliable man in my 
stead) I believe I had succeeded in instilling into 
the minds of the local people that the palace was 
national property, and not merely booty offered 
by the Revolution for plunder. The same in the 
other palaces, though for months the battle had 
been a hard one. 

I was fortunate enough to save the collection 
of Russian porcelain belonging to Grand- Duke 
Nicolas Nicolaievitch and also Count Poush- 
kin's enamels and silver by having them seized 
and handed over to the Stieglitz Museum ; the 
latter is packed in cases and stored in its own 
building. All the museums of Petrograd started 
taking in private property for storage. The Bol- 

sheviks seemed to chuckle over this, intending 
probably to declare the things national property. 
I do not think, however, that they will be taken 
away, as in all the museums the former staff has 

Many private collections have been looted ; 
luckily the Stroganoff Palace is untouched, owing 
to part of it having been turned into a club for 
sailors. The miniatures, pictures and library of 
the Grand-Duke Nicolas Mikhailovitch (who was 
murdered on January 29 of this year) have been 
saved. The palace of the late Grand-Duke Paul 
(who was murdered the same day as his cousin), 
full of beautiful things mostly collected by the 
Grand-Duke and his wife, Princess Paley, had 
been also turned into a museum. 

When all houses were declared public property, 
and the mob began settling in other people's 
drawing-rooms, we succeeded in having a certain 
number of the best houses declared national pro- 
perty, and to these the choice things from the 
neighbouring streets were brought for storage. 
In that way Count S. Cheremeteff's and Count 
A. Bobrinskoy's houses were saved, and into the 
latter all Prince A. Dolgorouky's china was 
carried over. About seventy men of good will 
had by the end of last summer divided the town 
into as many parts, and, by joining the local 
Soviets and urging them to be given a free hand 
in selecting " national property ", managed to 
save a good many works of art. 

Of course this was only possible in the large 
towns, and most of the country seats, in many of 
which there were splendid things, have perished. 
One of the worst losses for the world is up to 
now that of the Treasury of the Patriarchs, 
which had been for many years on view in the 
Tower of John the Great in the Kremlin ; after 
the bombardment it was stolen in its entirety and 
melted down by the robbers. 

The other irreparable calamity is the destruc- 
tion of a number of the most beautiful ancient 
churches in Russia during the bombardment of 
Iaroslav. Unfortunately the splendid collection 
of prints and drawings belonging to Mr. V. 
Kotchoubey was stored in Iaroslav at that 
moment, and was equally destroyed. 

I should like to add that the Bolshevist chiefs 
have a wish to appear enlightened in the eyes of 
the world, and, therefore, were in a way pleased 
with our work, which, as they seemed to think, 
added a halo of civilisation to their laurels ; at 
heart of course they were vexed with having to 
comply with our demands, but they realised that 
they could not find men amongst their own 
people to replace us ; therefore they on the whole 
helped us with our work, and did not try to force 
us into joining them politically as members of 
the Bolshevist party. — Yours sincerely, 

A. Polovtsoff. 



Lair-Dubreuil and Delvigne, with MM. Delteil and Leman, 
experts, will sell, at the Hotel Drouot, 7, 8 and 9 April, the third 
portion of the Pictures, Pastels and Drawings by Degas, and 
coming from his studio. The catalogue, which consists entirely 
of illustrations, is as interesting as those of the two previous 
sales already noticed. A selection of Drawings, Pictures and 
Pastels is to be sold each day : 7 Ap., 79-185, 1-15, 41-55 ; 
8 Ap., 185-292, 16-30,56-70; 9 Ap., 295-410, 31-40, 71-78. 
The catalogue having arrived very late, no more can be said at 
present concerning this important sale. 

Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge will sell at 34 and 35, 
New Bond Street, on April 8, 9, 10 and 11, printed books, 
illuminated manuscripts and autograph letters. The sale includes 
some interesting Wotton and other bindings, a very fine first 
folio of Ben Jonson, a Shakespeare first folio, and some early 
Horae and other illuminated MSS. 

Knight, Frank and Rutley will sell in May the Isaac Lewis 
collection and other contents of Bedgebury, Kent. The sale 
will include the tapestries brought to the house by its former 
owners, the Beresford Hope family, among them being a 
Mortlake tapestry ordered by James I for Prince Charles, and 
bearing the Prince's cypher and motto, " Ich Dien ", the subject 
mythological ; and four large 1 7th-century Brussels panels 
designed by Teniers. The Isaac Lewis collection includes full- 
length portraits by Lawrence of Lady Beresford Hope, Lady 
Peel and the Archbishop of Armagh ; examples by Lucas 
Cranach, Rubens and Vandyck, and modern paintings by 
Landseer and others. There is a large quantity of French 
furniture from Louis XIV to Empire, Chippendale and lacquer ; 
besides armour, old silver and porcelain, and a library mainly 
composed of ecclesiology. 
Charles Butters and Sons will sell in May the Earle 

Collection of pre-Wedgwood Pottery. Probably no collection 
of Staffordshire wares so comprehensive as that of Major Cyril 
Earle has been brought together in recent years. It covers all 
the chief types from the time of the slip ware of the 17th century 
to that of the blue-printed wares and the highly-coloured images 
of the beginning of the last century. Slip ware is represented 
amongst other pieces by a dish with four crowned heads of 
Charles II. The early 18th-century red ware, with applied reliefs 
in white, made by Astbury and his contemporaries, is exemplified 
by many good specimens, as also are the agate and tortoiseshell 
wares of the Whieldon school. One of the rarities in the 
collection is a curious bear jug ; a fine parrot shows the skill 
in restrained modelling of these potters at their best. The 
specimens of salt-glaze include the earlier types with applied 
decoration, oil gilding and "scratch blue" ornament, as well as 
the moulded and enamelled types of a later stage ; the last-named 
in particular is very fully exemplified. Amongst the figures of 
Ralph Wood the Elder and his followers the most noteworthy 
are one of Apollo playing a lyre and a group of a shepherd 
piping to a shepherdess. A few specimens of miscellaneous 
origin are included, of which the most important is a Lambeth 
delft dish, with figure in relief of Abundance, after a model of 
the school of Bernard Palissy. 

Messrs. Hodgson will sell on April 29th the library of Sir 
Charles Philip Huntington, Bart., which includes four unusually 
fine sets of the first editions of Dickens, Thackeray, Ainsworth, 
and Lever, amounting to 294 volumes, bound in morocco ; a 
library edition of Carlyle, presented by the author to Lady 
Ashburton, with an autograph inscription ; Ireland's " Life of 
Napoleon ", a coloured copy of the "Picturesque Tours", and a 
rare first edition of Apperley, with the coloured plates by 


Publications cannot be included here unless they have been delivered before the 16th of the previous month. Prices must 
be stated. Publications not coming within the scope of this Magazine will not be acknowledged here unless the prices are stated. 

Serial Publications will for the present be arranged here according to the ordinary periods of their publication, and only the 
latest number of foreign serials actually received will be entered, in order that foreign editors and publishers may learn which 
numbers of their publications have failed to arrive. 

Cambridge, University Press. 
Sampson (Geo.), Ed. Cambridge Readings in Literature, 
Book 2, XVI + 24S pp. ; Book 3, xvi + 236 pp., each 5s. and 
4s. 3d. n. ; Book 4, xvm+286 pp., 6s. and 5s. n. ; all illust. 
Hutchinson, 34 Paternoster Row, E.C. 
Carter (A. C. R.). The Yearns Art, 1919; 524 pp., illust. ; 
7s. 6d. n. 

Institut d'Estudis Catalans, Palau de la Diputacio, 
Puig y Cadafalch (J.). Falguera (A. de), Goday y Cacals 
(J.), L'Arquitectura Romdnica d Catalunya, vol. Ill [with 

Lane, New York and Bodley Head. 
Gallatin (A. E.). Portraits of Whistler ; A Critical Studv 
and an Iconography, with Forty Illustrations, xn + 82 pp.'; 
50s. n. ; and special numbered and signed edition, 63s. n. 
Lee Warner, 7, Grafton Street. 
Coleridge (Lieut. J., R.N.V R.). The Grand Fleet; A War- 
time Sketch Book, 46 pp., 3s. 6d. n. 
Pepler, Ditchling, Sussex. 

Green (A. Romney). Woodwork, vol. 1 ; xvi + 110 pp., illust. 
Junta para Ampliacion de Estudios, Madrid. 

Orueta (R. de). La Escultura Funeraria en Espana ; 
Provincias de Ciudad Real, Cucnca, Guadalajara, vin + 
384 pp., illust. ; 12 pesetas. 
" Mundo Latino ", Madrid. 

Frances (J.). El Ano Artistico, 1917 ; 424 pp., illust. 
Periodicals — Weekly. — American Art News— Architect- 
Country Life — La Federation Artistique, No. 2 402 
Fortnightly. — Bulletin of the Alliance Francaise, S3— La 
Revista (Barcelona), iv, 83— Veil i Nou, v, 86. 


Monthly.— The Anglo-Italian Review, 4 (15 Aug.)— Art World 
(New York), Mar. — Colour — Connoisseur — Fine Art Trade 
Journal — Franco-British Review (Classical French Theatre 
Association) No. 2 — Journal of the Imperial Arts League, 33 — 
Kokka, 342, 343 [new cover) 344. — La Renaissance de l'Art 
francais et des Industries de luxe, II, 1 — Les Arts, 164 — 
Managing Printer, 26-30 — New East, I, I — New York, Metro- 
politan Museum, xiv, 2 — Onze Kunst, XVIII, 2. Rassegna. 2. 

Bi-monthly. — Art in America, vn, 2 — Boston, U.S.A., Museum 
of Fine Arts, Bulletin, 99 — L'Arte, xxi, 4 + 5, 6. 

Other Monthly Periods. — Cleveland, Ohio, Museum of Art, 
Bulletin (10 a year), v, 10 — Minneapolis, Instituteof Fine Arts, 
Bulletin (9 a year), vm, 2. 

Quarterly. — Boletin de la Sociedad Espaiiola de Excursiones, 
xxvi, 4 — Faenza, vi, 3 — Felix Ravenna, 27 — Gazette des Beaux 
Arts, 697, and Chronique des Arts, Nov.-Dec. — Manchester, 
John Rylands Library, Bulletin, vol. 1 + 2 — Oud-Holland, 
xxxvi, 4, and Table of Contents from year 26 to 35 — Pennsyl- 
vania Museum, Bulletin, 64 — Quarterly Review, 458 — Root 
and Branch, II, 4 — Town Planning Review, vm, 3+4 — 
Worcester, Mass., Art Museum Bulletin, IX, 4, and Index to 
vol. vm. 

Pamphlets. — Allied War Salon, introduction by A. E. Gallatin, 
catalogue of exhibition, Dec. 9- 2 4. illust. — Old Church Silver 
in Canada, by E. Alfred Jones, M.A. Cantab. {Transactions of 
Royal Society of Canada ; series m, vol. xn), Ottawa — The 
Wilton Suits, a controversy, with notes on other archaeological 
questions by various writers, 48 pp., 7 PI. ; Sotheby, Wilkinson 
and Hodge, for private circulation. 

Trade Lists, etc. — Maggs Bros., 34-5 Conduit St., W. 1, 
Cat. No. 374, Rare and Beautiful Books and MSS., 100 pp. — 
Norstedts (Stockholm), Nyheter, 1919, No. 2. 





■ ■ 

■ M 


It is 





'h black, 

he edges 



- upon 



mting tha 
eans of sir 
e with th( 
lake could 

■re impei 
omy of 




special mi 
of 1 






the middle distance of woodland are slightly 
changed. In the painting Job's wife is clothed 
in a cream-white clinging robe. Both in the 
magnificent silhouette design, which may be 
compared in style to the design for The Angel at 
the Gate of Dis (" Inferno ", Canto 9) for the Dante 
illustrations, and in the weird splendour of the 
colour of the sun setting in the sea, this work is 
one of Blake's most powerfully imaginative con- 
ceptions. The ball of the setting sun is suffused 
with orange-red as it sinks into the dark sea ; 
about it is a blood-red glow fringed with black, 
and above a circle of deep blue sky, the edges 
where the colours meet being as it were engrailled. 
There is gold on the wings of Satan and upon 
the arrows in his right hand, and upon the flames 
and clouds behind him. The hills and grass are 
a pale bluish green, and between them is shown 
a valley full of trees with white buildings. 

The utter prostration of Job and the despairing 
sympathy of his wife beneath the triumphant 
malice of Satan, which is more impersonal in the 
painting than in the engraving, are rendered by 
means of simple gestures observed first hand from 
life with the sublime economy of means that 
Blake could command. 



HIS painting in tempera on a ma- 
hogany panel, I2f by 16J, formerly 
in the collections of George Rich- 
mond, Frederick Locker, and Sir 
Charles Dilke, has now been pre- 
sented to the National Gallery, British Art, by 

Miss Mary Dodge. 

It is not mentioned in Gilchrist's " Life of 

William Blake ". 

It was exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts 

Club Exhibition in 1876, No. 150 ; at the Blake 

Exhibition at the Carfax Gallery in 1906, No. 18; 

and at the Blake Exhibition at the National 

Gallery, British Art, in 1913, No. 10. 
The composition is nearly identical with 

plate 6 of " The Book of Job ", but the magni- 
ficent red wings which are outspread behind 

Satan's extended arms, contrasting effectively 

with the black thunder - clouds, do not occur 

in the plate, and there are one or two minor 

differences. The right arm of Job's wife, shown 

in the plate, is concealed in the painting by 

her down - hanging hair, and the buildings in 




pg ft ' frg QN the preceding article ' attention was 

WJ1 Lt3)) drawn to the variety of style existing 
among the works produced by the 
(School of Godefroid de Claire. This 
I variety of style is not a matter for 
surprise when it is considered how many capable 
craftsmen are likely to have been employed on 
such an extensive work as the Heribert Shrine at 
Deutz, the masterpiece of the School \ And we 
know from Suger's statement that the great 
enamelled pedestal (" columnam . . . subtilissimo 
opere smaltitam ") for his cross at St. Denis 
occupied sometimes five, sometimes seven crafts- 
men, working for two years. 3 He suggests no 
distinction among his Lotharingian goldsmiths, 
but it is reasonable to suppose that they com- 
prised a master (Godefroid or another) and his 
assistants. Among the latter it is not improbable 

1 Vol. xxxiv, p. 85. 

2 F.S., pi. 82-88. The initials K.S. are used, as before, to 
indicate v. Falke und Frauberger, Deutsche Schmelzarbeiten des 
Miltelaltcrs. etc. 

•Labarte, Htsioirc des Arts Industries, 1865, m, p. 644. 
(The original is printed in J. von Schlosser. Qucllcnschriftcn fiir 
Kunstgeschichte, vn, p. 275.) For the suggestion of Godefroid's 
connection with this work see F.S., p. 76. 

Tbb Bdblisoion Magazine, No. 1W. Vol. XXXIV— M*y 1919. 

that there would be some of sufficient in- 
dividuality of talent to account for such varieties 
of style combined with similarity of methods as 
the works attributed to the School of Godefroid 

It is clear enough that enamelling was no more 
than one side of Godefroid's versatile art. It is 
as a goldsmith (aurifex and auri/aber) that he is 
spoken of in the records, and his skill in 
enamelling was no more than a part of his equip- 
ment as a goldsmith, which passed without 
special mention. Similarly Suger speaks of the 
craftsmen who were engaged on the enamelling 
of his pedestal not as enamellers, the word 
apparently did not exist until later, but as gold- 
smiths (auri/abri)*. It may be reasonably con- 
cluded that in the Mosan school of goldsmiths 
at this period, enamelling on copper was regarded 
as an essential part of the craft, and every com- 
petent goldsmith may be supposed to have 
practised it as occasion required. When we read 
of the monastic goldsmith Frere Jean at Lobbes 
1137-1149, or the lay goldsmith Jourdainof Liege, 

4 Ducange (1843 ed.) has esmailliator under date 1317. 


:6 5 

who made the shrine of St. Bertuin at Malonne in 
the last decade of the 12th century 5 , we must 
suppose them to have been capable of turning 
their hand to a piece of enamelling in the manner 
of the Mosan School as their work demanded. It 
would be quite unreasonable to suppose that 
Godefroid, whatever may have been his superiority 
to most of his contemporaries, was exceptional in 
this respect. 

The goldsmith was in a special sense a master 
craftsman, and understood not only working in 
gold and silver, and enamelling on copper, but 
working also in bronze, lead, and iron. Wibert 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, who lived in the latter part of 
the 12th century, is recorded to have made not 
only the great corona of bronze or copper still in 
the minster-church there, but also silver burettes 
for the altar, the gilt cross (presumably of iron) 
on the tower, the bells, and the (lead) roofing of the 
whole church 6 . We are reminded of Theophilus 
in the preceding century, who in his Schedula 
shows himself equally at home in making gold 
and silver chalices, cloisonne enamels, a cast 
brass censer, bronze bells, and iron implements 
for his own use. The bearing of these remarks 
will become apparent in the course of these 

The beautiful altar-cross in the British Museum 
shown in Plate V is of interest in several 
respects. Like the cross previously described 
it is decorated with Old Testament types of 
the Crucifixion, of which the first four subjects 
are the same as before. The inscriptions and 
subjects are as follows — 1. AARON - MOYSES. Moses 
and the brazen serpent. 2. vidva'HELyas. 
Elijah and the widow of Sarepta. 3. 'IACOB - 
effraim-manasse. Jacob blessing the sons of 
Joseph. 4. slGNV[m]-TAV. An Israelite marking 
his house with a T cross in the blood of the 
Passover lamb. 5. caleph ■ ■ IOSVE'BOTR^s]. 
The Return of the Spies from the Promised Land. 
The scale is smaller than in the cross at South Ken- 
sington, and the subjects are differently designed. 
An Israelite replaces Aaron in the Passover plaque, 
and the blunders in two of the others are avoided. 
The drawing is both more correct and more 
summary, and the artistic feeling of the work is 
on a higher level. The method of rendering the 
figures in enamel on a ground of gilt metal is the 
same in both, and as before the cloisonne inspira- 
tion of the champleve technique is apparent, but 
this time the only actual cloisonne in the figure- 
plaques occurs on the column in the Moses 

The colouring is remarkably gay and bright, 

6 J. Demarteau in Bulletin de L'Inst. Arclicol. Liegeois, xvn, 
PP '54-6 ; J- Helbig, La Sculpture etc. an pays de Liege, 2 ed., 
P- 65. 

8 F. Bock, Der Kronleuchter Kaisers Friedrich Barbarossa im 
Karolingischen Munster zu Aachen, 1864, p. 34. 


and set off by brilliant burnished gilding of the 
ground. The colours include lapis blue, shades 
of greyish cobalt blue, turquoise blue, green, 
sealing-wax red (not perceptibly granular in 
texture), yellow, and white. Purple is entirely 
absent. In the dresses the sequence of shading is 
from blue to white and from green to yellow. 
The ugly shading with red noticed in the South 
Kensington cross is absent, and this time the 
shading, both in dresses and details, is by actual 
blending of tones, not by mere graduated striping. 
The bunch of grapes in the bottom plaque is 
most effectively carried out in a fine turquoise 
blue with spots of light cleverly put in in a paler 
shade. The open doorway in the Passover plaque 
is in pure lapis blue of splendid quality. 

The flesh is reserved in the metal, with dark- 
blue filling-in of the engraved lines. The central 
figure of Jacob is distinguished by the hair being 
rendered in grey-blue enamel, and by a red 
mouth. The heads are of moderate size, and 
the hands vary curiously between large and 

The limbs of the cross between the figure- 
plaques are decorated with cloisonne borders at 
the edges, and enclosing the lozenges of champleve 
foliage. They show a pattern of quatrefoils in 
white, red, and yellow, on lapis blue, turquoise 
blue, and green, and are much finer in execution 
than the cloisonne borders of the cross described 
in the previous article. So exquisite is this de- 
coration that, although executed on copper with 
opaque colours, it almost rivals the finish and 
brilliancy of Byzantine cloisonne executed with 
translucent enamels on gold. 

The stones — lapis, crystal, garnet, and amethyst 
— are set in holes pierced in the metal, in the 
manner of Godefroid's school ; they all appear to 
have been renewed. The cross is made in four 
sections, with a beaded edge, and is mounted on 
a modern wooden backing 7 . 

It needs only a comparison with the medallions 
of the Stavelot triptych, which served before as a 
test [Plate VI ; see also Plate III in the 
previous article] 8 , to be assured that this time we 
have to do with the handiwork of the master 
himself, not of a pupil. Whether the test is 
applied to the drawing of the faces, with their 
round eyes and characteristic rendering of the 
hair, or to the lettering of the inscriptions, the 

7 It measures 1475 inches (37'2 cm.) in height by 101 inches 
(25'7 cm.) in width. When acquired in 1S56, it was made up 
with other pieces of different origin. At an earlier date it was 
in the possession of M. Bouvieu at Amiens. 

8 The section of the Stavelot triptych illustrated shows (leaf- 
and-trellis pattern above) an example of the brown lacquer 
decoration, and (below) the stone-setting in holes, which have 
been remarked (p. 86) as characteristics of the work of 
Godefroid's school. The illustration in the previous article 
gives a better definition of the figure-drawing and lettering. I 
have to thank Mr. G. L. Durlacher for the use of his photograph 
from which the section here shown is reproduced. 

1 " 1 ' 


Plate V. Altar cross decorated with enamels, Old Testament types of the Crucifixion; 12th century. By Godefroid 
de Claire, with details full size. (British Museum.) 

Plate VI. Above, detail from centre of Ihecrosson plate V. Below, detail of the 
Stavelot friptych, with enamelled medallion, the baptism of Constantine. Bj 
Godefroid de Claire. (Mr, |. Pierpont Morgan, New York.; 

similarity is equally marked. The faces, however, 
are distinctly more expressive and less wooden 
than in the Stavelot medallions, which suggests a 
slightly later, date. The same conclusion may be 
drawn from the inscriptions, which show an 
advance in boldness and a closer spacing. The 
taste for vertical inscriptions is still apparent. 
The Es, square on the Stavelot work (except one 
on the enclosing arch), are here all round except 
one, and the fine purple enamel is absent ; but in 
spite of these differences in detail the more 
weighty testimony of style is conclusive. 

If 1 150 is taken as the approximate date of the 
Stavelot triptych (see p. 91), the British Museum 
cross might reasonably be put about 1155. This 
is the date assigned to a counterpart of this cross, 
with another series of subjects (the Invention of 
the Cross by St. Helena) at Charlottenburg 9 . It 
is the same size as the British Museum example 
and probably formed originally the back of the 
same object. 

9 F.S., pi. 74- 

BY D. S. MacColl 

N 1910 my friend Mr. Alfred Thorn- 
ton, the painter, ever on the look-out 
for unrecognised talent, brought to 
^me at the Tate Gallery a portfolio of 
kLb! noticeable drawings by an artist un- 
known to me, and I think to students generally 
of English drawing and painting, though some 
of his etchings were to be found in the Print 
Room at the British Museum. This was John 
Baverstock Knight, a figure of the first half of 
the nineteenth century. The drawings came from 
a parcel of between two and three hundred 
sketches bought at the sale of his works, shortly 
after his death, by one of his sons, and when I saw 
them in possession of the Rev Alfred Pontifex, 
who had married a daughter of that son. Mr. 
Pontifex, encouraged by Mr. Thornton's appre- 
ciation, had decided to offer examples to various 
public collections, and we were fortunate in 
securing three of the best for the Tate Gallery. 
Others went to the Print Room and to ten pro- 
vincial collections, including Dorchester Museum, 
which, as the capital of the artist's native county, 
claimed the lion's share of forty-one : two were 
given to the gallery of Sydney in Australia. By 
this pious action Mr. Pontifex has secured the 
memory of his kinsman, and he has furnished 
me with the nucleus of facts about his life and 
activities which I here put on record. 

Baverstock Knight was born on the 3rd May 
1785, and died on 14th May 1859. He was the 
second son of James Forster Knight, captain in 
the 3rd Dorset Regiment of Militia, by his wife 

The geometrical patterns in cloisonne on these 
crosses are pretty obviously derived from the 
similar decorations in gold cloisonne of the 
Treves and Essen workshops of the 10th and 
nth centuries, in turn copied from Byzantine 
originals 10 . It seems probable that it was such 
products of local goldsmith's art under Byzantine 
influence which led up to the earlier champleve 
enamelling of the 12th century on the Rhine, in 
which the cloisonne inspiration is apparent". 
This method of enamelling figures on a ground of 
metal, forthwith abandoned by the Cologne school 
in favour of the reverse method of figures reserved 
in metal on a ground of colour, was persisted in 
by the Mosan enamellers, in whose products, even 
of the second half of the 12th century, as we have 
seen, the cloisonne inspiration of champleve 
technique is still apparent. 

10 Compare two of the crosses at Essen, shown in Humann, 
Die Knnslwcrkc dcr itunsterkirche zu Essen, pi. 13, 14. 

11 E.g. Eilbert's portable altar in the Guelph Treasure now at 
Hanover, F.S., pi. 18, 19. 

Sophia Kay. He inherited the lands of his great- 
uncle, James Forster Knight of Littleton and 
Langton Manors, who had been High Sheriff of 
Dorsetshire, and possessed a fine old mansion, 
with formal garden and park, The Down House, 
Blandford St. Mary (close to the birthplace of 
Alfred Stevens). Baverstock Knight himself for 
many years lived at West Lodge, Piddlehinton, 
and built himself a fine studio there with a domed 
ceiling, which he decorated with a mythological 
painting, still extant. He had been privately 
educated, and an unusual father encouraged his 
early turn for drawing : of his training in that 
nothing seems to be known. For the rest he 
appears to have been a magnificent specimen of 
the country squire, six foot six in height, hand- 
some, well dressed, mistaken for a duke when he 
rode with one ; full of country interests, stock, 
agriculture, apple culture ; an excellent sportsman 
in hunting, shooting, fishing, and professionally 
a land agent. He invented an instrument for 
his work of surveying, and was employed by the 
Duke of Bedford, Eton and Winchester Colleges 
and other owners of large estates. Further, he 
was a churchwarden, and notable for his charities 
(once a week there was a feast for the poor at his 
house), had the reputation of a wit, and a turn 
for scribbling letters in verse. He married a wife 
of good old stock, Miss Elinor Bulkeley Evans, 
and had eight children, like his father before him. 
Here was a full life, and it seems improbable 
and unfair that this admirable Crichton should 
have been a painter to any purpose. How could 


he find even time for it ? But that we do know. 
At the age of twenty-three, after his father's death, 
he made it a strict habit to rise at five and work 
at his art from six to nine : the rest of the day 
went to business, sport and company. Of the 
extent of his painting we get a glimpse in the 
following letter, addressed apparently to his 
brother Edward, who seems to have shared his 
taste, and, as the address shows, to have been 
staying at the time with Sir George Beaumont of 
the " brown tree ", the friend of Constable, Wilkie 
and Wordsworth, another amateur who was an 
honorary exhibitor at the Academy. 

To Edwd, Knight, Esq., Cole Orton, Ashby de la Zouch, 

West Lodge, 31 Jany., 1821 
Dear Edward, 

I have been expecting to hear from you for some time 
past, and begin to think that you are planted in Leicestershire 
for good. We are here increasing the name ; Elinor was 
brought to bed on the 22nd of a fine little girl, so that we 
have now half-a-dozen and thriving stock, all, too, at home. 

I have been painting away at a great rate. Two 
whole lengths of Mr. and Mrs. Farquharson, 7 ft. 10 by 
4 ft- 10, and a half-length of the dowager Mrs. F. were 
fixed in Langton dining-room in superb frames on the 18th 
December last, and I have in hand a picture, 7 ft. 4 by 
7 ft. 10, of the three young F's, with two more half- 
lengths of the elder Mrs. F. and a small copy of the great 
picture for Mr. Grove, a cabinet portrait of Sir William 
Fraser's sister, a hunting picture for Fern House, 6 ft. by 
4 ft. 6, another for Mr. Bragge (having finished and sent 
home two for him), a picture for Mrs. Fane, a fat pig for 
Mr. Browne of Frampton, etc., etc., etc., etc., etc. 

But among all this I stick, as usual, to the old trade, and 
catch all the fish I can. I am about to make a new poor's 
rate for Wyke Regis. I have nearly finished a perfect copy 
of the celebrated Wardour Murillo, and mean soon to send 
you up something or other to gag the baronet's eye. 

I have a young gentleman coming to me (as far as I 
know) on Thursday next, the 1st, for two years, for improve- 
ment in painting, which he is smit with the love of, and 
gives up a mercantile concern for the profession of the 
brush. His father comes down £400 for the term, and I 
am to have his works (if he can make any). What think 
you of this speculation ? 

I am sent for to Bath to paint your friend Meyrick, and to 
Cornwall to copy Lord Grenville's ancestors at Bosconnox, 
and I have commissions at Uxbridge, but as yet can go to 

Your friend Mr. Way and I spent a few days together 
at Denham last frost, and he enquired very kindly for you. 

Your friend Colson paints like anything. He has in 
hand another for you. 

Do let me hear from you and let us know if you are coming 
this way. Mrs. Knight joins me in kind regards to Mrs. E.K. 

I shot with John Wickers at Wootton the other day, and 
you were enquired for by the parson and his lady very 
kindly ; the latter said you had forgot her view of Wootton, 
but 1 told her you had left the painting business to me. 

I have not been to Evershot for some time ; I suppose 
you know more of matters there than I do. I want to get a 
commission northward to beat up your quarters. 

I remain, dear Edward, Yours truly, 

J. B. Knight 

Of his oil painting I can say nothing. It won 
the praise of Benjamin West and Fuseli, but 
remains to be disinterred from the oblivion or 
disguise into which it has sunk. It was, perhaps, 
more remarkable as coming from a country gen- 
tleman and amateur than in itself. In 1818 and 
1819 he appeared at the Royal Academy with the 
privilege of honorary exhibitor, showing four 
landscapes in all. Much of his oil painting was 
copying, good enough, it is said, to deceive the 
expert : possibly it still does, here and there. He 
was also an etcher of topographical subjects, 
published a book of views, and contributed to the 
illustrations of the Gentleman's Magazine for some 
years, and to those of Hutchins's History 0) 

But it is the drawings that have brought him to 
the surface again, or shall I say a picked number 
among them. He comes, remember, early in the 
story. Girtin and Turner have the start of him by 
ten years, Varley by seven, Cox and Prout by 
only two. Wilson, of whose water-colours he 
owned several, was dead three years before Knight 
was born, and J. R. Cozens when he was four- 
teen. These names and dates roughly give his 
bearings, and I must leave it to students like Mr. 
C. F. Bell who are omniscient about the draughts- 
men of the period, to place him more exactly. 
What attracted me in his work was a fine skeleton 
in ink outline, washed over with monochrome 
or a couple of tints, including a scheme 
peculiar to him of grey greens, in a simple but 
subtle gradation of tone. The illustrations will 
give some idea of those qualities, short of the 

If John Baverstock Knight had not one of the 
first-rate single and single-minded lots, he had a 
very pretty mixed one. Bulking big and fine in 
the rich ordinary life of country-house England 
from breakfast-time to bed-time, he had those 
secret hours in another world ; and envious Time, 
busily stripping him of all his weightier produc- 
tions, overlooked the slight. It was probably 
only another piece of his great good luck that a 
wagon-load of his largest water-colours was 
drenched by a thunderstorm on the way to 
London. And now the little memorable part 
swims up, and for all time here and there a visitor 
going the round of the public galleries will, out 
of the tail of his eye, catch those drawings, 
pause a moment, say " Who the devil was Baver- 
stock Knight ?" forget again till next time, and 
next time stop and ask again. 


Axbridge Vale, near Cheddar 

Teelbullagh from Knocknacarry 

Water-colours by John Baverstock Knight National Gallery, British Art, Xos. 2733 and 2734) 

PORTER, A REVIEW (conclusion 

|S long as the church of Sant' Am- 
brogio at Milan was believed to be a 
| building of the 9th century the history 
of Lombard architecture was chaotic; 
^but when Cattaneo showed that the 
existing church, except the apse, was rebuilt in the 
nth century from east to west, and that the atrium 
was not finished until well into the 12th century, 
it became possible to consider the growth of the 
Lombard style as an orderly evolution. The re- 
action against the old erroneous ideas was pushed 
somewhat too far, and now it appears to me that 
the tendency is in the opposite direction, and 
that various details of Sant' Ambrogio are being 
ascribed to dates which are too late. The west 
portal is a case in point. That this was rebuilt in 
the form in which we now see it, in or about the 
year 1098, is not doubtful. It does not, however, 
follow that every stone in it is of that date. The 
habit of re-using old carved materials in new 
combinations was common in those days. One 
of the columns beside the door bears the name 
"Adam Magister", and archives of the time show 
that a certain Master Adam, son of Albert, pur- 
chased lands at Commabbio in the years 1087 and 
1094, and the parish of Commabbio belonged to the 
monastery of Sant' Ambrogio. Rivoira thinks 
that this Master Adam was the architect of the 
rebuilding of the church. Unfortunately his name 
is upside down on the stone, which seems to 
imply that there has been at least one more re- 
arrangement since his time. The portal of the 
original church which was pulled down when this 
one was erected must have been of a simpler 
character, for the existing portal is the earliest 
known of the developed Lombard type, which led 
on in due time to those portals flanked with lions 
carrying columns on their backs, which every 
traveller remembers in North Italy. Though, 
however, Adam's portal must have been new in 
design in its day, it does not follow that no old 
materials were worked up in it. A glance suffices 
to show the difference between the carved lintel, 
for example, and some of the flat bands of sculpture 
of the side posts. Consider that which is adorned 
with a number of decorative details framed in 
squares. Two of the squares contain comically 
primitive figures of Hercules and the Nemean Lion 
[Plate III, a]— a subject that was medievally 
held to be a talisman against colic ! It is a 
characteristically 9th-century decoration. We 
can follow back its origin to the 6th century, 
when square-framed panels, with birds or beasts 
within them, diversified the surface of three well- 
known ambos at Ravenna. There the frames are 



squarely-rectilinear, but at Sant' Ambrogio they 
are composed of various bands, formed of en- 
closed links of elaborate shape, which interlace 
with one another in the middle of each side of 
each square. Other examples are in Cividale 
Museum, the Baptistery at Spalato, San Pietro 
and Santa Maria Maggiore at Toscanella, over a 
portal at Arezzo, on an altar-frontal of local stone 
at Kloster Miinster in the Grisons, and on the 
ambo of S. Mary's at Castel S. Elia near Nepi ' — 
all of the 8th or 9th centuries. If this stone had 
been found by itself no one would have dreamt 
of ascribing it to any century later than the 9th. 
In style of cutting, as in style of design, it and the 
neighbouring stones of like facture find their 
place with perfect harmony beside their fellows 
of the early period and are discordant among 
works of the end of the nth century. The reader 
may compare the column with the circular inter- 
lacings with some columns from San Salvatore 
at Brescia ; alike in design and in cutting they are 
similar to one another and cannot be separated 
by 250 years, as some modern writers would 

A voussoir stone immediately above the lintel 
at Sant' Ambrogio bears the decoration of inter- 
laced 8's, and is different in character from the 
other voussoirs. This also I take to be old 
material re-used. It may serve to carry us on to 
another subject of discussion — the pulpit in the 
nave of the church [Plate III, b]. Worship at 
Sant' Ambrogio was in the hands of two rival 
bodies, the canons of the original foundation and 
the Benedictine monks introduced in the 9th cen- 
tury. They lived together with about as much 
harmony as a cat and a dog tied up in a sack. 
The archives of Milan are full of the records of their 
lawsuits. Fortunately these often throw light upon 
the history of the building, and Mr. Porter has 
studiously waded through them, and copied out 
extracts of interest to the historian of art. In the 
year 1196 the vault of the easternmost bay of the 
nave fell, and is assumed to have damaged, more 
or less severely, the pulpit and the ciborium. 
Both, in their present restored condition, contain, 
as I propose to show, some 9th-century elements. 
The whole history of the pulpit we shall never 
know. A witness in the year 1190 deposed that 
it was then upward of forty years old. There is 
a representation of it in the 12th-century mosaic 
in the apse, from which we learn that, then as 
now, the long side contained an arcade supported 
on four columns. A mosaic, of course, cannot 
depict many details, nor do we expect detailed 
1 Cabiol's Diet., lig. 316. 


accuracy in a 12th-century picture of any archi- 
tectural object. One thing, however, the artist 
does make clear, and that is that the arches were 
surrounded by a flat band, differing in character 
from the wall above them. The existing arcades 
are surrounded in that very position by bands of 
decoration of oth-century character, one consist- 
ing of interlocked 8's, like those on the voussoir 
stone above the lintel of the west portal. Evidence 
in an undated lawsuit of somewhere about the year 
1 200 refers to a wooden structure set up by the 
monks in the damaged pulpit. A witness says : 

Since the monks had presumed to erect a wooden struc- 
ture in the pulpit, I, and Jacopo of the Fabbrica, and 
certain servants of the canons destroyed it, and before the 
dawn of day the Superstans, whose business it was, 
rebuilt it. 

Guglielmo da Pomo was Superstans from some 
time in 1199 to 22. The existing structure 
bears an inscription which states how : 

Guglielmo da Pomo, Superstans of this church, had this 
and many other works made. 

That, however, must refer to a much more 
elaborate reconstruction than the hasty replace- 
ment of the monks' wooden contraption, set up 
in a single night. The pulpit, as we now see it, 
agrees well enough with an early 13th-century 
date. It is raised over a 5th-century sarcophagus, 
which is covered by a lid from another sarcoph- 
agus of about the same date, and the lunettes 
in the arches above it are filled in with pieces of 
sculpture, not all of them made for their present 
places. The sculptures in the spandrils were 
evidently designed and made at this time ; so was 
the richly carved cornice above them ; but the 
bands of ornament surrounding the arches are of 
a different character. It seems to me impossible 
to imagine that sculptors so imbued with the new 
style of their own day, and working at the very 
focus of Lombard innovation, should have harked 
back for an important member of their decoration 
to the out-of-date style of 350 years before. I 
imagine, on the contrary, that here they re-used 
the old materials, set up originally in the 9th 
century, and possibly already once rebuilt into a 
modified construction. The original arcading 
finds its best analogy in that of the 8th-century 
baptistery of Calixtus at Cividale, which may have 
preceded it by a few decades. 

That the ciborium was broken by the fall of 
of the vault in 1196 is an assumption. Its existing 
capitals are admittedly of the 9th century, and the 
columns beneath them are yet older [Plate IV, a]. 
The date of the superstructure must be determined 
from internal evidence alone. Mr. Porter would 
attribute it to the years immediately following the 
fall of the vault. The type of ciborium fashionable 
in the 12th century is well known. It consists of 
four columns supporting horizontal architraves, 
usually with a second set of architraves carried 
by a number of little columns above the first and 

a superstructure in the nature of a kind of poly- 
gonal dome. The ciborium at San Lorenzo, 
outside the walls of Rome, is a fairly typical 
example. If we go back to the nth and earlier 
centuries, we find that the four columns generally 
carry four arches, which support a pyramidal 
roof. There was, however, an early type of 
ciborium which had a gable on each face and 
supported a flat roof which was the platform for 
surrounding rows of sculptured figures. Such 
was the structure set up by Constantine in the 
Lateran Church at Rome. The ciborium of 
S. Mark's, Venice, reconstructed in the nth 
century, now, at any rate, lacks any gables, but 
still carries sculpture. There can, I think, be 
little doubt how the ciborium in Sant' Ambrogio 
was originally crowned. The roof must have 
risen steeply to a point from the four gables, 
with a ridge running up from each gable, the 
summit probably terminating in a cross. This 
is an intermediate type between the early Christian 
with its four pediments and flat roof and the 
early mediaeval with its conical dome supported 
on four arches. It is a type that in design, at 
any rate, can scarcely be later than the 9th 
century. Stones from the falling vault may easily 
have destroyed the pointed roof and the little 
vault beneath it — may likewise have damaged the 
stucco reliefs. The vault was evidently recon- 
structed, as it has supporting ribs (a feature whose 
history and development Mr. Porter has so care- 
fully and fruitfully studied), but I believe that the 
decorative parts of the stucco-work are substan- 
tially early both in design and execution. They 
seem to me altogether out of place in the neigh- 
bourhood of the year 1200. Mr. Porter himself 
would attribute the stucco decorations to the 
same hands that fashioned the stuccos of Cividale. 
I think I have shown that those were made in the 
8th century. The decorative stuccos on the Sant' 
Ambrogio ciborium seem to me somewhat more 
developed in type and slightly different in school. 
I hold that they preserve for us a 9th-century 
design, and, however much they may have been 
restored, belong substantially to that period. 

In the church of San Pietro in Civate, already 
discussed, there is another ciborium of closely 
similar type, likewise embellished with stucco 
decoration [Plate IV, B, c]. This also has lost its 
pointed roof, but is otherwise in good preservation. 
Its bands of ornament resemble the ornamental 
features of the eastern apse of the same church. 
The four faces of the superstructure are, as at Sant' 
Ambrogio, embellished with large figures in high 
relief ; but, both in design and in type of drapery, 
the Civate figures are earlier than those of Milan. 
It suffices to observe how the latter stand firmly 
on their feet, while the former float about in the 
air with no substantial understanding. The 
Civate draperies are akin in style to those of the 


IS. S. Ambrogio, Milan. Pulpit in the nave 

C. S. Pietro, Civate. Stucco, south 
side of entrance 

A. S. Ambrogio, Milan. 
Sculpture from west portal 

Plate III. Lombard architecture 














Cividale figures. At Sant' Ambrogio figures and 
forms are more solid and expressive. Limbs 
show through the folds, which have a more 
naturalistic fall. Hands and feet are far better 
drawn and modelled, so that it is difficult to 
resist the conclusion that the stucco figures at 
Milan are later in date than those at Civate. The 
enthroned Christ giving the keys to S. Peter 
resembles the Christs on Byzantine ivories of the 
nth and 12th centuries. Those, therefore, who 
claim them as the work of sculptors repairing the 
ciborium after its supposed damage in 1196 are 
supported by internal evidence. Much repair 
may also have been necessary to the decorative 
borders, but I conceive it to have been only a 
question in their case of repair. If, for example, 
we examine the western facade of the ciborium, 
the lowest circle of ornament is altogether in the 
style of the 9th century, corresponding to the 
band of ornament in a like situation on the 
ciborium at Civate. To this, however, the restorers 
have added a second and outer wreath of decora- 
tion, which appears to me to have been put there 
to afford a better foothold for the large figures. 
A similar difference can be observed on the other 
faces of the two ciboria in question. The deco- 
rative strips with the tendrils growing out of 
chalices that rise vertically above the capitals at 
Milan rather carry us back to Ravenna work of 
the 6th century than forward to Lombard of the 
13th. Indeed, I am at a loss to find anywhere 
around the year 1200 work analogous to these 
bands of ornament at Milan and Civate. The 
spiral stucco columns at the angles of the Milanese 
example we have already found paralleled among 
the fragments at Dissentis, which are beyond 
question of the 8th century. 

A number of other stuccos in the nave and 
crypt of San Pietro in Civate deserve a lengthier 
discussion than the only obtainable photographs 
enable us to render interesting by illustration. 
They consist of certain panels, two with chimeras 
[Plate III, c], one on either side of the central 
division of the eastern apse, a group of panels 
forming a breastwork round the head of the stair- 
way leading down to the crypt, and figure subjects 
against the walls of the apse of the crypt. It may be 
claimed for all these that they find a better home in 
the nth than in the 9th century. The beasts 
amongst foliage on the panels in the nave can be 
paralleled by certain designs inlaid with mastic 
among the late nth century decorations of 
S. Mark's, Venice, and other analogies might be 
quoted. Whether it is necessary to bring down the 
chimeras on the panels by the entrance to so late a 
date as the others seems to me doubtful. They are 
fashioned in a different technique from the rest 
and the chimera is a beast which appears early in 
Christian ornament. The stucco of the Death of the 
Virgin, in the crypt, covers a window, which was 

rendered useless when the door was cut in the apse 
overhead and a staircase built leading up to it. 
The stucco, therefore, was certainly made after the 
choir had been removed to the apse at the other 
end, and may be regarded as a part of the work 
of restoration and enrichment at that time under- 
taken. The pilasters and capitals in the crypt 
seem not to be of the nth century, but of the 
same date as the decorative architectural features 
in the church above. The spirit that animates all 
the later works is totally different from that of 
the 8th and 9th centuries. 

The style of sculptured decoration with which 
we have dealt in the foregoing pages may be seen 
in process of formation during the 7th century. 
It spread all over Western Europe from Spain to 
Dalmatia and into France and Switzerland in the 
8th and 9th centuries. In the latter part of the 
9th and in the 10th century we can watch its 
decay and dissolution. In the nth century a 
new style arose which replaced it. More than 
guesses are required on which to base the ascrip- 
tion of work of this character to an nth century 
date, or good work of the kind to any date after 
the middle of the 9th century. There is no solid 
evidence compelling us to date any stone thus 
embellished later than the first half of the 10th 
century. Rivoira, who has done so much to 
elucidate the origins of Lombard architecture, 
galls this style of decoration pre-Lombard ; but 
I think it is essentially Lombard — proto-Lombard, 
if you please. I believe it to be a style developed 
by Comasque sculptors, mingling Ravennate, 
Byzantine, and other oriental forms with barbarian 
traditions derived from decorative carving in wood. 
Almost every pattern used in proto-Lombard 
decoration can be found in embryo in Coptic 
work of the 5th and 6th centuries. The barbarians 
in their forest homes are known to have built in 
wood and elaborately adorned such wooden build- 
ings ; unfortunately none of their native work in 
this kind has survived. The wonderful Oseberg 
ship, with its carved stem, fittings and furniture, 
proves how fine and elaborate was the decoration 
cut by Scandinavian chisels in the 9th century. 
That was then no new art. It had been practised 
throughout unrecorded centuries by barbarian 
forest - dwellers. The barbarian invaders of 
Western Europe did not arrive with no traditions 
applicable to architecture, but their style of 
decoration devised to adorn woodwork had 
to be modified for execution in stone. The 
Cividale stones bear traces of this transmuta- 
tion. The sculptured decoration characteristic 
of the 8th and 9th centuries never freed itself 
from the woodwork tradition, nor was it com- 
plete without the addition of colour. All the 
works we have discussed were intended to be 
brightly painted and sometimes to be inlaid with 
pieces of coloured glass or stone. Like barbarian 


ewellery, proto-Lombard sculpture claimed atten- 

ion by gaiety and intricacy of pattern rather than 
by refinement of form. Such works as the Civi- 
dale wreath and the Brescia peacocks must have 
been rare ; perhaps they were unique. The general 
run of proto-Lombard achievement was, however, 
good enough of its kind. It aimed at decorating 
flat surfaces, and in the main it succeeded. Of how 
much modern decoration can the same be said ? 
Before taking leave of Mr. Porter's book, which 


has suggested the foregoing observations, let me 
again warn the reader that I have dealt only with 
a minor part of it. The major part surveys the 
architecture and sculpture of the ioth, nth and 
1 2th centuries, and is a mine of information and 
research connected with the arts of that period. 
It may be heartily commended to all students, 
and those who use it will be quick to acknow- 
ledge the value and thoroughness of Mr. Porter's 

HE Knibb long-case clock, which 
is illustrated in the accompanying 
Plate, was bought by Mr. Richard 
Arnold, some months ago, at a remote 
Oxfordshire auction. The walnut 
case, being somewhat dilapidated, required some 
rather nice restoration, in order to avoid that in- 
discriminate modern addition or " improvement " 
which has ruined so many fine examples of 
our early horology. In this instance, it was 
not a question so much of addition as sub- 
traction. Various country carpenters had each 
added their quota to the original case, and the 
resulting effect was rather remarkable. With 
careful work and examination of what was 
original to the case, the necessary restorations were 
successfully carried out, and the clock is now, at 
least in form and detail, as it left the hands of 
Joseph Knibb somewhere about 1690. 

Joseph Knibb was one of a family of clock- 
makers. Four of this name are known : Samuel, 
who was "free of his Company" in 1663, Joseph 
(C.C. 1670). Peter (1677), and John (about 1685- 
90). They were probably brothers. Edward 
Knibb, a younger member, was apprenticed to 
Joseph in 1693. 

Joseph was easily the most eminent of the 
family, and in point of excellence of workman- 
ship he may almost be bracketed with Thomas 
Tompion. Had he maintained an average 
standard of production equal to the clock illus- 
trated here, he would probably have been 
Tompion's superior. There is nothing to choose 
between the fine clocks by Tompion, Knibb or 
Quare, but Tompion never made a poor clock, 
whereas some of Knibb's are indifferent, and 


[a] Dial, 9| in. square, signed on bottom edge " Ioseph Knibb, 

Londini . Fecit ". 

[b] Back view of the clock, showing the pendulum hooked 

suspension, with adjusting " butterfly " nut at top, hanging 
outside the " crutch ". 

[c] Oak Case veneered with English walnut, burred and friezed, 

6 ft. 9 in. total height, 98 in. width of waist. The 
carved pediment and central ball are typical of the early 
cases of Tompion and Knibb. 

[d] Back view of clock movement, showing the pendulum — 

which is of second's length (39.1393 in.) — and its 


others of Quare decidedly second-rate. This is 
probably the result of renown bringing with it a 
large trade and the necessity of employing 
chamber masters, on whose clock dials the greater 
maker engraved his name. That Quare was 
guilty of this, especially towards the end of his 
long career, there is no doubt whatever. 

Joseph Knibb began business in Oxford, in all 
probability, considering the date, as a maker of 
brass lantern clocks. Many fine Knibb clocks 
have been found in Oxfordshire, although, 
curiously enough, these nearly all date from his 
London period. As early as 1677 he made the 
turret clock in the quadrangle of Windsor Castle, 
which remained until the present one, by 
Vulliamy, replaced it in 1829. One hundred 
and fifty-two years is not a bad lifetime for a 
turret clock continuously on active service. The 
late Mr. Britten inclined to the belief that Joseph 
Knibb was already established in London when 
the Windsor Castle clock was made, and he 
states that the clock was signed " Joseph Knibb, 
Londini, 1677 ". If this signature be accurate 
(we must bear in mind that the clock has dis- 
appeared for the past ninety years, so Mr. Britten 
must have relied upon the word of another, 
probably Captain Smyth), Knibb must have been 
in business simultaneously in Oxford and London, 
as I have seen a clock signed " Joseph Knibb, 
Oxon, Fecit" which is certainly later than 1677. 
In 1688 we know, from records, that Joseph 
Knibb was established at the Dial in Suffolk 
Street, Strand. He had probably been established 
there some years. Mr. Wetherfield has a long- 
case, ebony veneered month clock, signed 
"Joseph Knibb att Hanslop" (Hanslope is a 


" butterfly " nut on the rod, for extra regulation, in addi- 
tion to the nut over the suspension shown in Fig. b. 
The pendulum bob is " tapped " to receive the threaded 
rod, but has no adjusting nut underneath. The pendulum 
rod is in two pieces, hook jointed. 
[e] The case with the hood raised on its click-spring at the side 
of the back-board. The trigger which locks the hood 
when the lower door is closed can be seen, also the small 
turn-buckle under the centre-front of the hood. It 
obscures the upper part of the dial XII in the 


A long-case clock by Joseph Knibb 

small Buckinghamshire village). We can imagine 
Knibb retiring to the country after a long and 
prosperous London career, and the passion for 
clockmaking remaining a hobby of his declining 

The clock illustrated here is a fine example 
of Knibb's workmanship. Not the least of 
the charms of the dial and movement is the 
fact that, with the exception of the resilvering 
of the hour circle and the rewaxing of the 
numerals, everything is absolutely original. None 
of the arbor holes in the plates have been 
broached or bushed, as is so frequently the case 
when these clocks get into the hands of the 
usual clock jobber. 

The dial measures of in. square (o£ in. sight), 
with a single engraved line, set in a bare quarter 
of an inch from the outside edge. The hour 
ring is if in. broad, with minute divisions on 
the extreme outer edge, in the fashion of the 
time. The custom of placing these minute 
divisions farther in, with an outer margin for the 
Arabic numerals, probably originated with the 
device of separately numbering each minute, 
when the outer space for such numbering became 
a logical necessity. The hands, of carved steel — the 
hour hand with an unusually large central boss — 
are a very fine and original pair. The fat cherub- 
headed cornerpieces and the square-section bell 
are two details peculiar to Joseph Knibb. The 
bell is of exceptionally fine metal, remarkable for 
sweetness and resonance of tone. 

The two trains have been planted with the main 
wheels— and, in consequence, the winding holes 
and squares — unusually wide apart, which gives 
an elegant and refined appearance to the dial. 
There is the usual day-of-the-month aperture low 
down on the IA of the hour ring. There is no 
seconds' circle, the arbor of the escape-wheel not 
being carried through to the dial. The plates of 
the movement have six finely turned pillars, 
irregularly planted, three on the going side (one 
set in about an inch immediately over the main 
wheel), two only on the striking side, and the 
sixth central, i\ in. up from the bottom edge of 
the plates, almost between the teeth of the two 
main wheels. These pillars are secured to the 
plates by holes and lifting latches. The teeth of 
the escape wheel are small, with a shallow release 
to the anchor. At the back will be noticed the 
striking locking-plate. The pendulum is of a form 
peculiar to Joseph Knibb. The rod is in two 
sections, hooked together, and, in addition, is 
detachable from the suspension spring. This 
spring is attached to a square socket which rests 
in a hole in the suspension arm, and above is a 
fly nut working on a thread which allows of 
adjustment of the pendulum without stopping the 
clock, a considerable advantage when fine time- 
keepers, for comparison with the clock which 

was being adjusted, were not by any means as 
plentiful as at the present day. The pendulum 
disc also works on a threaded rod, which allows 
for initial coarse regulation. The movement has 
never been fitted with a maintaining power of 
any kind. The winding squares are flush with 
the face of the dial plate, consequently the holes 
have never been shuttered. 

The case is of oak, veneered with burred and 
figured walnut, without any stringing. The sides 
and base are friezed with cross-grained veneer. 
The hood has the carved cresting with central 
base so characteristic of Tompion's earlier clocks, 
a detail which Knibb probably appropriated, or 
possibly the same maker supplied cases to both. 

Inside the top rail of the trunk is pivoted a 
piece of iron, spoon-shaped at the one end, and 
with a right-angled tooth at the other. When 
the lower door is closed, the spoon-shaped end is 
forced backwards, which causes the tooth at the 
other end to engage in a hole in the hood. This 
being made to slide up, and held in position, when 
fully raised, by a pivoted catch high up on the 
backboard, is, in consequence, locked when the 
trunk door is closed. It is, therefore, impossible 
to wind the clock without opening the bottom 
door,and the careless practiceof vigorously turning 
the winding key until the weight crashes against 
the under side of the seat-board — very often 
resulting in the breaking of the gut line, and the 
fall of the weight itself — is rendered impracticable. 
A very unusual device is the small decorated pivot 
which will be noticed under the hood, in the centre 
of the front rail. This has a turning square on the 
small ledge above, in front of the dial frame — or 
what would be the door if there were one — and 
the pivot itself drops into a hole in a small metal 
plate below, when the hood is lowered. A 
quarter turn with a small winding key, therefore, 
locks the hood even when the trunk door is 
opened and the pivoted catch released. Evidently 
Knibb did not intend that this clock should be 
wound by unauthorised persons. 

The seat-board is attached to the top of the 
trunk sides, and not to the bottom pillars of the 
clock, in the usual fashion, and this has always 
been the case. To ensure rigidity of the movement 
when in position, the back plate has a pivoted 
catch (which can be seen in the illustration), 
which drops on to a pin projecting from a small 
plate fixed at right angles to the inside face of 
the back of the case. Other details of the clock 
and its case will be noticed in the illustrations, 
and demand no explanation here. It may be 
noted, however, that the width of the trunk waist 
is exactly that of the sight size of the dial. 

That this clock has, more or less, continuously 
fulfilled its function as a timekeeper for the two 
hundred and thirty years of its existence, there is 
no reason to doubt. Many clocks at the present 

N 185 

day have done as much. That this clock should 
have survived in its present condition, is, how- 
ever, truly remarkable, especially as far as its 
delicate and wearing parts are concerned. How 
many times the minute hand has been pushed 
round the dial by the finger, to set the hands to 
true time, we can only feebly conjecture. Perhaps 
not as frequently as one would imagine, however, if 
the clock were kept going and regularly wound. 
For its accurate timekeeping we have the warrant 
of its maker, who, next to Tompion, must be 
regarded as the greatest horologist of his time, 
approached only in isolated examples by Quare, 
Gould and Gretton, and rivalled in his earlier 
work only by East and the Fromanteels. The 
later c8th century worthily carried on the tra- 
ditions of fine clockmaking inaugurated bv 

Thomas Tompion and Joseph Knibb, as a long 
procession of clockmakers, from the Williamsons 
to Thomas Mudge, and from Arnold, Earnshaw 
and the Ellicotts to Benjamin Vulliamy bears 
eloquent witness. The charm and especially the 
refinement of these early clocks, however, the 
supreme suitability of each detail to the pur- 
pose which it has to serve (mark in this Knibb 
clock how the hour hand just reaches its circle, 
and its smaller fellow just covers the minute 
divisions on the outer edge of the ring, and 
how beautifully legible the whole dial is), make 
them unusually attractive. They possess points 
of interest which are distinct from mere quality 
of workmanship, and render them fascina- 
ting pieces for the collector and the connois- 


5JjT was not till the autumn of 1914, when 
(P^J (Jn)' ne chief treasures of the Czartoryski 
^?3> d^» Gallery were taken from Cracow to 

k| Dresden to protect them from the risk 
4:22 of destruction, that a keener interest 
was aroused, in Germany and Italy, in the portrait 
of the lady with an ermine. Since then the 
following authors (in chronological order) have 
dealt with the picture, some of them at con- 
siderable length : Mary Logan (8) >, E. Voigtlander 
(33), G. Gronau (16), W. von Bode (11), W. von 
i-eidlitz (29), E. Moller (20), F. Bock (9), and 
F. Malaguzzi-Valeri (19). 

It was, however, the Polish professor, Jan B. 
Antoniewicz (4), of Lemberg University, who 
made a close study, as early as 1900, of the lady 
represented in our picture [Plate I, a]. He 
does not doubt the picture having been painted 
by Leonardo's own hand. He proves, further, 
that the sitter is Cecilia Gallerani, mistress of 
Ludovico il Moro, one of the most gifted, amiable 
and beautiful women of the renaissance, a rival 
in talent and feeling for art of Isabella d'Este, 
Duchess of Mantua. Antoniewicz bases his 
assertion on the documentary statement that 
Leonardo carried out a much applauded portrait 
of Cecilia, now supposed to be lost. This is 
proved, first, by a sonnet of Bellincioni (6), the 
poet of Ludovico's court, who describes 3 a 
portrait of Cecilia Gallerani, by Leonardo's hand. 
The name of Ludovico is connected in this 

* Translated by Mr. Campbell Dodgson. 

1 The numbers in brackets refer to the literature, of which a 
list appears on p. 193. 

• In Sonnet xlv, " Sopra il ritratlo di Madonna Cecilia, qual 
fece Leonardo ", a dialogue between the poet and nature. 


sonnet with that of Cecilia Gallerani, and with 
our picture. Unfortunately the poet says nothing 
about the composition, and nothing about the 
little animal, which is of peculiar importance 
in an inquiry about the person represented. 
Antoniewicz recognises in the Lady with the 
Ermine the portrait of Cecilia Gallerani carried 
out by Leonardo and sung by Bellincioni. A 
letter from Isabella d'Este, of 26 April 1498, to 
Cecilia, and the answer to it dated 29 April, confirm 
the existence of such a portrait in the Palazzo del 
Broletto.the residence of Cecilia Gallerani at Milan. 8 
Antoniewicz (4) proves inductively in the 
following manner that the Czartoryski picture 
represents Cecilia Gallerani : — 

The biographers speak of three female portraits at most, 
that were painted at Milan by Leonardo. First the 
portrait of Beatrice d'Este, Ludovico Sforza's wife, then 
those of his two mistresses, Lucrezia Crivelli and Cecilia 
Gallerani. If Leonardo ever painted Ludovico's wife, 
which Uzielli (32) doubts, the date of the portrait cannot 
be before the year of their marriage (at Pavia, 17 Jan. 
1491). The style of the Cracow picture does not, however, 
agree with this late date. This work cannot be con- 
temporary with the Last Supper and the equestrian 
statue of Francesco. Not with the first, because of the 
almost exclusive preponderance of the realistic Florentine 
plastic feeling ; not with the second, on account of the 
compact composition and the great reduction in scale as 
compared with the size of life. As the antithesis to this 
we may cite the life-sized scale and the free play of 
the hands in the Virgin of the Rocks (Louvre), which 
was probably produced in the years 1490-94. The 
same evidence tells in a still higher degree against 
Lucrezia Crivelli as being the person represented in our 
picture, for her portrait, as Uzielli shows correctly (32) 
cannot have been painted before 1497-98. Thus Cecilia 
Gallerani remains ; it is her famous portrait that we see in 
Leonardo's picture in the Czartoryski Gallery. 
A year before this pronouncement by Anto- 
niewicz, Miintz (25) had refused to see any 
artistic value in the Gallerani portrait ; in his 
opinion it is not a Leonardo. Carotti (13) in 
1905 considered it a genuine work by Leonardo. 
3 Seidlitz (28) 1, 406, note 20. 

A The Lady with the ermine. Bv Leonardo da 
Ymci (Czartoryski Gallery, Cracow) 

/>' 1. 1 Belle Ferroniere ; engraved by Lacroix 
after (?) Boltraffio 

C La Belle Fei roniere. By : 1 1 >Iti affio I .ouvn 

Plate I. The Lady with the- ermine ; a composition by Leonardo da Vinci 


E Head of an Angel. By Leonardo da Vinci 

/) Head of the Virgin ; from 'I lie Adoration of 
the Magi, by Leonardo da Vinci (Uffizi) 






^.' M t; | 


4 , 

*REX^^- * 






G The Emperor Maximilian I. By 
Ambrogio de Predis (Vienna) 

F Portrait ; by Ambrogio de Predis 

Plate II. The Lady with the ermine ; a composition by Leonardo da Vinci 

He also calls the sitter Cecilia Gallerani, but 
supports his opinion by different arguments. At 
the Genolini sale he saw a tiny picture by an 
unknown hand 4 inscribed "Cecilia Gallerani". 
Carotti recognises in the lady of the Czartoryski 
Gallery the same features as in the Genolini 
miniature. This view is contested by Malaguzzi, 
who expresses a lower opinion of the artistic 
value of the Cracow picture. Opposed to this 
is the earlier opinion of Bode (10, n), who 
recognised the portrait as a creation of Leonardo. 
In England E. Hewett (17) and Herbert Cook 
(14) discussed the picture in 1906-7. Miiller- 
Walde (23) on p. 52 mentions the portrait, re- 
garding it as a Leonardo. Seidlitz (28), I. 272, 
declares for the authorship of Ambrogio de 
Predis ; he takes the portrait of Gallerani by 
Leonardo to be lost, and names the Cracow 
picture " Castitas", with other writers who have 
inclined to the opinion that it is not to be con- 
sidered as a portrait. A proof that it is one lies, 
however, in the personal expression of the face, 
which betrays no tendency to generalisation. In 
this respect I follow the opinion of Antoniewicz 
and Carotti. I am inclined to recognise in the 
pretty, youthful face the portrait of Cecilia 
Gallerani, but for different reasons from theirs. 
The animal which rests in the lady's arms is an 
ermine. Ludovico il Moro, who possessed several 
nicknames, for instance " Moro " — a Moor, and 
"Moro" — a mulberry tree 5 , was also called by 
these about him " Ermellino ". This is evident 
from a page in "Manuscript H" of Leonardo 6 
where the following words appear as a design in 
writing for a pictorial representation, and have 
been interpreted by E. Solmi (30) : 

" II Morocogli occhiali e la Invidia con la falsa. Infamia 

dipinta e Giustizia nera pel Moro. La Fatica con la vite 

in mano. L'Ermellino con fango. Galeazzo tra tempo 

tranquillo. Efhgia di Fortuna. . . . L'oro in verghe 

s'affinisce col foco ". (II Moro with the eye-glasses and 

Envy with Falsehood. Defamation painted and Justice 

black for II Moro. Labour with a vine in her hand- The 

Ermine with mud. Galeazzo in time of tranquillity. 

Effigy of Fortune. Gold in bars being refined by fire). 

The words " L'Ermellino con fango " (the 

ermine with mud) refer, like all the rest of the 

passage ", to Ludovico. From the equation, 

Ludovico=Ermellino, the conclusion may be 

drawn that the lady of the picture stood in some 

near relation to Ludovico. She is not his wife, 

Beatrice d'Este, whose features are well known 

from many portraits. The sitter must therefore 

be sought among the numerous mistresses of 

Ludovico. The style of the picture is too late for 

Lucia di Marliano, Duchess of Melzi. Lucia bore 

a son to Ludovico as early as 1476. Shortly 
after that he transferred his affections to Cecilia 
Gallerani, to whom he gave, in 1481, the estate of 
Saronno and the Palazzo dal Verme in Via Broletto 8 . 
This portrait exhibits the Milanese style of the 
middle of the eighties. The love affair with Cecilia 
probably lasted at least till Ludovico's marriage on 
17 January 1491, for she bore his son, Cesare, in 
May of that year. For Lucrezia Crivelli 9 the 
style of the picture is rather early, for Ludovico 
can only be shown to have been in love with her 
from 1495 till about the time of Beatrice's death 
(2 January 1497)- 

Thus Cecilia is, as a matter of fact, the only 
lady about the Milanese court who could be 
represented in this portrait, assuming its date to 
be about 1484. The ermine which she holds 
presents no difficulty, as Malaguzzi at one time 
asserted, supposing the animal to be a weasel. 
His opinion was repeated by Mrs. Berenson (8) : 
"Francesco Malaguzzi-Valeri already notes that 
it is improbable that this lady would let her 
portrait be painted with a weasel, emblem of sen- 
suality, in her arms ". It would, in fact, have been a 
gross breach of good manners if the artist had 
placed the emblem of sensuality in the arms of 
a lady whose portrait he was painting. As a matter 
of fact, the contrary is intended. The animal is not 
a weasel, nor a marten, but an ermine, the emblem 
of chastity. In " Fiore di Virtu ", an anonymous 
mediaeval authority for the attributes of beasts, we 
read the following under "armellino " : — 

" When it rains, it never leaves its burrow, to avoid fouling 
itself with mud, and this it does on account of its 
cleanliness. It never lives in a damp place, but always 
in a dry one. When the hunters want to catch one, 
they surround its burrow with mud, and when it comes out 
they close the mouth of the burrow to prevent its going 
back ; and when it sees the hunters, it bolts ; and when it 
comes to the mud, it lets itself be caught rather than soil 
itself, so pure a creature is it 10 . 
According to Calvi (12), Leonardo knew the 
description of the ermine's manners in " Fiore 
di Virtu ". This description was utilised in 
the drawing mentioned in our note, and so the 
interpretation of the ermine as an emblem of 
purity was well known to him and his circle. The 
interpretation extended also to chastity; it was gener- 
ally adopted and lasted on into the 17th century. 
This is enough to justify the ermine in the arms of 
a Cecilia Gallerani. 

But the portraits of Cecilia Gallerani were not 
confined to the only one by Leonardo's hand of 
which the documents tell, unfortunately, without 
giving any clear description of the composition. 

4 Reproduced by Carotti (13) and Malaguzzi (19). 

5 Seidlitz (28), 1, 405, note 25. 

' Quoted by Seidlitz (28), 1, 153, and Malaguzzi (19), I, 583. 

7 As Solmi also explains it, though he omits the sentence 
about the ermine. The words " 1' Ermellino con fango " find 
'.heir elucidation in a drawing in the collection of Mr. Holland- 
Hibbert (oee below, note 10). 

8 Malaguzzi (19) I, 501. According to Seidlitz (28). 1, 151, the 
palace is called the Broletto, and did not become till 1491 the 
property of Cecilia Gallerani. 

9 An alleged portrait of Lucrezia Crivelli is reproduced by 
E. Hewett (17). 

10 See Vasari Society, ix, 3. L. da Vinci. The ermine as an 
emblem of purity. Pen and bistre drawing in the collection of 
the Hon. A. Holland-Hibbert. Text by Sir Sidney Colvin. 

I 9 I 

Cecilia's portrait was painted at least as often by 
different masters as that of her patroness, Isabella 
d'Este, Duchess of Mantua ". Cecilia died in 
1536, "assai vecchia ". On 29 April, 1498, she 
writes about her own portrait by Leonardo: "e 
fatto esso ritratto in una eta cosi imperfetta ". 
She must, therefore, have been born about 1466, 
and have been about seventy when she died. 
Her portrait may have been painted in 1484. 
Morelli (22) says " about 1485 ", and Uzielli writes : 
" Leonardo was probably charged to paint her 
portrait when he had only just arrived in Milan 
(i.e., shortly after 1483) ". Moro's liaison with 
Cecilia began in 1481. "She was then at least 
fourteen years of age, and was seventeen when she 
was painted by Leonardo ", says Antoniewicz. 
His dates are correct. Our portrait must have been 
produced about 1484, soon after Leonardo's arrival 
in Milan. That is suggested also by reminiscences 
of the master's Florentine style ; compare the 
Madonna in the Adoration of the Magi in the 
Uffizi 12 [Plate II, d]. 

In my opinion it may be taken as certain that 
the person represented is Cecilia Gallerani, whose 
likeness, as we see it in the Cracow picture, is to 

"Seidlitz (28), p. 407, note 21, gives a list of the alleged 
portraits of Cecilia Gallerani. 1. The lady flaying a lute, by 
Bartolommeo Veneto, belonging to Count Cesare del Mayno, 
reproduced (18). 2. Formerly owned by the wine-merchant, 
Giuseppe Radici. 3. In Casa Pallavicini at S. Calocero, Milan. 
4. Collection of Prof. Kranchi (see also Cook [14]). Bock (9) 
cites the following pictures which he explains as portraits of 
Cecilia Gallerani : — I. The lady with the Ermine, at Cracow. 
2. Profile portrait of a lady, in the Newall collection, Rickmans- 
worth, reproduced (14), (19), iii, 47. 3. The so-called Princess 
in the Ambrosiana, Milan, in profile to left, reproduced (19), i, 
510 [Plate II, f]. 4. The same, replica in the Salting collection, 
reproduced Burlington Magazine, xvi, 117 and (19), iii> 32. 5- 
Profile 0] a lady in Lord Roden's collection at Tullymore Park, 
reproduced (14), (17), (19), i, 514. My own list of Cecilia's 
portraits is different : — I. J he lady with the Ermine, at Cracow, 
by Leonardo and Ambrogio de Predis. 2. La belle Ferronniere 
in the Louvre by Boltraffio. 3. Leonardo's "study for head 
of an angel " (for the Virgin of the Rocks), silver point in the 
Royal Library at Turin. Reproduced (19), (20), (26), (28). 
4. Profile portrait by Ambrogio de Predis at Tullymore Park. 
The portraits cited by Seidlitz and Bock are in part unknown 
to me, and I have no space to speak of them. 

12 The fate of the panel on which Cecilia Gallerani was 
painted is almost unknown. The portrait was certainly in the 
" Museo " of the castle of San Giovanni in Croce, near Cremona, 
where Cecilia resided till her death. What became of it 
afterwards ? Antoniewicz supposes it to have been the same 
portrait as belonged to the family of Marchese Bonesana at 
Milan in the 18th century. Amoretti (1) writes : " I find in the 
MS. notes of De Pagave (d. before 1790; that the portrait of 
Gallerani, married afterwards to Count Ludovico Pergamino, 
was still to be seen at Milan in the century now nearing its 
close in possession of the Marchesi Bonesana". It cannot, 
however, be established with certainty whether this actually 
refers to our picture, which was bought at the end of the 
18th century by Prince Adam Czartoryski, and given to the 
Gothic House, the museum of his wife, Princess Isabella 
Czartoryska, at Pula wy. The MS. catalogue of this collection (2) 
does not state where or when the picture was bought. 
Malaguzzi (19), 1. 509, says that the lady of the Bonesana 
family's picture had a lute. Bandelli speaks in one of his 
" Novelle " of the " Museo " of Cecilia Gallerani. It is not 
impossible, however, that several portraits of the fair owner were 
there, one of which later passed into the Bonesana collection. 

be connected as follows with the Belle Ferronniere 
in the Louvre, by Boltraffio [Plate I, c]. In 
the archives of the Czartoryski Museum is a MS. 
catalogue, undated, but probably of the early 19th 
century, of the works of art which were in the 
Gothic House at Pulawy (2). It deals with all the 
pictures which were in that country house of the 
Czartoryski family. These were removed to Paris 
after 1830, and were taken thence in 1870-76 to 
their present home at Cracow. The following 
account of our portrait is given — 

" A portrait of a woman, by Leonardo d'Avinci. This 
picture ... is said to represent the mistress of the King of 
France, Francis I . She was named ' La belle Ferronniere ', 
being the wife of a merchant who owned a hardware 
business. Others state that her husband was a ' patron '. 
The affection of the king and Leonardo's brush give this 
picture its advantages. The person represented seems to 
be youthful, thin and delicate. Her costume is simple ; 
she holds an animal resembling a marten. This picture 
was presented to the Gothic House by Prince Adam 
Czartoryski 1S . 

Facing this text is inserted an engraving, by 
Lacroix, of the Belle Ferronniere [Plate I, b]. 
This engraving may contribute to the identification 
of the person whom it represents with the portrait 
at Cracow. The nose, which in the Louvre 
picture appears rather broad, the effect in part of a 
later repainting, is in the engraving quite straight, 
narrow and long, exactly as in the portrait of 
Cecilia at Cracow. This is a wilful change made 
by the engraver, who also wilfully puts each iris 
in the middle of the eye, though in the original 
the eyes are clearly looking to the right. Not- 
withstanding, this chance lengthening by a trifle 
of the outline of the nose sufficed to cause the 
author of the Pulawy catalogue, a hundred years 
ago, to declare that the Lady with the Ermine 
represents the same person as La Belle Ferronniere. 
A comparison of our illustration [Plate I] 
confirms this supposition sufficiently. The en- 
graving alone could not be taken as a clinching 
proof, but as an aid it is of great value. A direct 
comparison between the portrait at Cracow and 
the Belle Ferronniere reveals many striking resem- 
blances : u the long oval of the face, the shape of 
the head, the eyes, the mouth with its rather 
projecting lower lip, the delicate chin. The way 
of treating the subject is different, and the 
technique no less, for here the individuality of 
the two artists comes to the forefront. I think, 
nevertheless, that I have pointed out a second 
portrait of Cecilia Gallerani, by the hand of 
Giovanni Boltraffio. 

A third portrait of the same lady may exist in 
Leonardo's drawing of a Head of an Angel in 
the Turin Library 15 [Plate II, e]. It is a slight 

13 Translated from the Polish. The faulty inscription, not an 
original part of the picture, la bele feroniere Leonard 
d'awinci, probably dates from the same time as the catalogue 
and betrays its Polish origin. 

14 Recognised by Rosenberg (26), p. 56. 

n Reproduced (19) ii, 3^6, (23) No. 64 and (28). 


sketch of a lady's portrait, whose head, looked at in 
reverse, strikingly resembles the picture of Cecilia 
at Cracow. The gown is the same, the coiffure 
differs but slightly 16 ; the upright attitude of the 
head is the same, and so are the outlines of the 
face, in spite of their being impaired, in the 
Cracow picture, by the overpainting of the back- 
ground. The nose is a trifle shorter, the mouth 
and eyelids are narrower, the sitter looks straight 
before her instead of to the side. In spite of 
that the nose has preserved the same character 
with its rather thick tip, the eyes are as large, 
the mouth has the same expression. I perceive in 
the Turin drawing a study from the same young 
woman who was subsequently painted in the 
Cracow portrait, and who served as model for the 
angel in the Vitgin of the Rocks (Louvre and 
National Gallery). According to the customary pro- 
cedure of portrait painters the preliminary drawing 
for a panel portrait was first enlarged, then trans- 
ferred by means of a tracing from the cartoon to 
the panel. That gives the readiest explanation of 
the stiffness of Cecilia's features in the Cracow 
portrait as compared with a free drawing like the 
study at Turin. Further, the share taken by 
another master in the actual painting, and finally 
the later re-painting, have certainly been dis- 
advantageous for preserving the likeness in the 

I consider the lady at Tullymore Park w as 
fourth portrait of Cecilia Gallerani, at a con- 
siderably more advanced age. I believe that many 
other portraits of this beautiful and famous lady 
have existed and may possibly still be extant. 

From Bellincioni's sonnet, and from the letters 
quoted above of Isabella d'Este and Cecilia 
Gallerani, it is quite evident that Leonardo painted 
a portrait of the latter. 1 have no doubt that this 
portrait is now in the Czartoryski Museum. But 
my study of the portrait has convinced me that 
there were two masters who worked in common 
on the picture. This result does not contradict 
Bode's way of looking at it (n), when he names, 
with full assurance, Leonardo as the master of 
the portrait, but continues as follows: "Close 
inspection proves that the picture, which was left 
unfinished by the master (Leonardo), was after- 
wards finished, or may be re-painted, in parts . . . 
The only part quite finished is probably the fore- 
part of the animal's body". It must have been 
another hand that completed the picture. In the 
master who finished the painting I recognise 
Ambrogio de Predis, the regular assistant of 
Leonardo since 1483. Especially in the " eighties " 
Ambrogio seems to have helped without interrup- 

16 When I speak of the coiffure, I mean without the late 
repainting which brings the hair down below the chin. 

17 Reproduced (14), (17). (19). 

tion in carrying out the pictures for which 
Leonardo had commissions. 

Leonardo produced the composition of the 
picture, Ambrogio took over the execution of it 
in colours. It is his brushwork, as we know it by 
his signed portrait of Maximilian at Vienna 
[Plate II, g], that I recognise here. 

In conclusion, it must be said that this article 
forms part of a lengthier essay which was ready 
for press in August 1916. On 16 November 1916, 
I read extracts from that essay to the Kunstverein 
at Zurich. Consequently the articles on The Lady 
with the Ermine published in ioi6and later could 
only be noticed inadequately in the form of addi- 
tions. Especially important are the articles of 
Moller (20) and Bock (9). Moller adopts from 
Antoniewicz the name of the lady represented, 
with his proofs, and the date that he gives to the 
picture, without stating the source from which he 
draws. Moller then adds other information of 
his own to that originally laid down by Antonie- 
wicz, and constructs a biography of Cecilia 


(The numbers in parentheses in the text refer to this list.) 

(t) Amoretti, Carlo. Memorie sloriche su la vita, gli studi e 
le opere di L. da Vinci (Collezione de classici italiani, Milano, 

(2) Anonymous M.S. Catalogue (Polish) of the Gothic House, 
at Pulawy, II. 187, No. 41S. No. 2917, in the archives of the 
Czartoryski Museum. 

(i) Anonymous Catalogue (Polish) of the Gothic House, at 
Pulawy, Warsaw, 1828. 

(4) Antoniewicz, Jan Boloz. Portret Cecylii Gallerani przez 
L. da Vinci (third congress of Polish Historians at Cracow, 
Section iv, 1900). 

(5) Antoniewicz, Jan Boloz. Swiatynia zagadkowa L. da 
Vinci. Lwow, 1900. 

(6) Bellincioni, Bernardo. Le Rimec, Bologna. 1876, I. 72. 

(7) Berenson, Bernhard. North Italian Painters of the 
Renaissance, 1907, p. 170. 

(8) Berenson, Mary Logan — Dipinti italiani a Cracovia, 
Rassegna d'Artc, I9'5, xv, 25. 

(9) Bock, Franz. Leonardofragen. Repert.f. Kunstw. 191&-7, 
xxxix, 153, 164, 218. 

(10) Bode, Wilhelm. Aus oesterrcichischen Gallerien. 
Repert f. Kunstw. 1886, ix, 309. 

(11) Bode, Wilhelm von. Leonardos Bildnis der jungen 
Dame mit dem Hermelin .... und die Jugendbilder der 
Kunstlers. Jahrb. d. K. preuss, Kunstsamml., Berlin, 1915, 
xxxvi, 189. 

(12) Calvi, Gerolamo. II manoscritto H. di L. da Vinci (il 
" Fiore di Virtu"), 1' "Acerba" di Cecco d'Ascoli. Milano, 

(13) Carotti, Giulio. Le opere di Leonardo, Bramantc e 
Raffaello. Milano, 1905. 

(14) Cook, Herbert. Notizie d'Inghilterra. L'Art, 1907, x, 


(15) Fatio, Victor. Faune des vertebres de la Suisse, vol. i, 
Geneve et Bale, 1869. 

(16) Gronau, Georg. Die Biklnisse von Raffael and Leonardo 
de Czartoryski-Sainmlung in Krakau. Zcitschr. f. bild. Kunst, 
N.F. Leipzig, 1915. x'xvi, M 8 - 

(17) Hewett, Edith. A newly discovered portrait 
Predis. Burlington Magazine, 19°°, x, 309. 

(18) Malaguzzi-Valeri, Francesco. II ritratto feminile del 
Boltraifio, Rassegna dArte, 191 2 , xii, 10/11. 

(19) Malaguzzi-Valeri, Francesco. La corte di Ludovico il 
Moro. Milano, 1913, ".5°° ft-, 5°8, 5*2 


(20) Moller, Emil. Leonardos Bildnis der Cecilia Gallerani 
in der Gallerie des Fiirsten Czartoryski in Krakau. Monats- 
heftefiir Runstwissenschaft, Leipzig, 1916, ix, 313. 

(21) Morelli, Giovanni. Die Gallerien Borghese und Doria 
Pamfili in Rom. 1890, p. 230, 231, 234. 

(22) Morelli, Giovanni. Die Gallerie zu Berlin, Leipzig, 

1893. P- 45- 

(23) Muller-Walde, Paul. L. da Vinci, Miinchen, 1889. p. 52. 

(24) Miiller-Walde, P. Beitriige zur Kenntnis des Leonardo. 
Jakrb. d. A', preuss, Kunslsamml., Berlin, 1899, xx, 69. 

(25) Miintz, Eugene, L. de Vinci, l'artiste, le penseur, le 
savant, Paris, 1899, p. 511. 

(26) Rosenberg, Adolf. L. da Vinci. Kunstlermono- 
graphien, xxxiii, Leipzig, 1898. 

(27) Seidlitz, \V. von. Ambr. de Predis und Leonardo. Jahrb 
d. Kuustsamml des Allrh, Kaiserhauses, Wien, 1906, xxvii, 10. 

(28) Seidlitz, W. von. L. da Vinci. Berlin, I9°9 (J- Bard), 
i, 151, 157, 2 ?2. 277. 

(29) Seidlitz, W. von. L. da Vinci und die Dame mit dem 
Hermelin. Preuss. Jahrbiicher, Berlin, 1916. 164, 501, 508. 

(30) Solmi, E. Leonardo. Firenze, 1900. p. 224. 

(31) Uzielli, Gustavo. Ricerche intorno L. da V. Firenze, 

(32) Uzielli, G. L. da V. e tre gentildonne. Milanesi, 

(33) Voigtlander, Emmy. Ein Beitrag zu dem Bildnis der 
Sammlung Czartoryski., Kunstchronik, N.F. 1914-15, xxvi. 
No. 39, p. 473- 



1 H AT Leonardo should have interested 
himself in anatomy, should have de- 
voted so much time to the study of 
l the subject, and should have dissected 
' so many human and animal bodies 
may be thought by some to set the crown on his 
reputation for versatility. It should be borne in 

mind, however, that his attraction to anatomy was 
a foregone conclusion by reason of his interests 
in art and mechanics, as well as by reason of that 
desire rerum cognoscere causas, which probably 
never burned so ardently in any other human 
breast. Further, it should be remembered that in 
consequence of the theory that the human body 
was a microcosm in which all the elements, actions 
and reactions of the outside world were represented 
anatomy made a very wide appeal : " at Bologna 
we are told, for instance, that every professor in 
the university had at some time or other to under- 
take the representation of this subject ; no one 
must refuse when asked by the students to dissect 
a dead body " l . H ad we not known that Leonardo 
was an anatomist it would have been necessary to 
invent it. 

While many of Leonardo's anatomical observa- 
tions and drawings are dispersed in various public 
and private collections, the most important are to 
be found in the Royal Library at Windsor 2 , and 
these have been recently published in facsimile 
with English and German translations of the text, 
under the editorship of Herren Vangensten, 
Fonahn and Hopstock of the University of 
Kristiania, and under the title, Quaderni 
d'Anatomia. The history of these manuscripts is 
not uninteresting and may be briefly told. 

Their existence was first recorded by Don 
Antonio Beati, the secretary of Cardinal Luigi of 
Aragon. In the course of the cardinal's travels 
they visited Amboise, 10 October 1517, and called 
upon Leonardo, who was at that time living there 
under the protection of Francis I, and were shown 
the paintings, sketches and manuscripts then in 

1 Haeser : Geschichte der Median. 

- A few are reproduced in this number bv permission of 
H.M. The King. 

his possession, being particularly impressed with 
the drawings of anatomy, in reference to which 
Leonardo informed them that he had dissected 
over fifty bodies — men and women of various 

At Leonardo's death all the manuscripts passed 
under the terms of his will, "dated the 23rd April 
1518, before Easter", into the possession of his 
devoted pupil and companion, Francesco da Melzi. 
We next hear of the anatomical drawings and 
manuscripts as forming the thirteenth volume of a 
collection belonging to Duke Galeazzo Arconato. 
In 1610 we learn that this volume was in the 
possession of Pompeio Leoni of Arezzo, who 
showed it to Peter Paul Rubens, on whom it 
made a very profound impressioi|. Shortly after 
this date the manuscripts passed into the collection 
of Charles I of England, probably about the time 
1629-32, when that monarch was purchasing the 
collection of the Gonzaga family, the hereditary 
dukes of Mantua. At the sequestration of the 
king's estate after his execution, Leonardo's 
drawings, for some reason or other, were among 
the things not sold. In a large calf-leather folio 
with the inscription " Disegni di Leonardo da 
Vinci restaurati da Pompeio Leoni", they, together 
with certain drawings by Hans Holbein, were 
preserved in a special case at Kensington Palace, 
apparently forgotten until brought to light by 
Dalton, librarian to George III. Dalton showed 
them to William Hunter, the brother of the more 
famous John, who made a public and extremely 
laudatory reference to them in the first of "Two 
Introductory Lectures " to his last course of 
anatomy. Hunter expressed the hope that he 
would be granted permission to engrave and pub- 
lish the principal drawings. His hope, however, 
was destined to be unfulfilled, for he died early 
in the following year, 1783. Between then and 
now various editions, incomplete and sometimes 
unauthorised, have been published ; finally, 
the years 1911-16 have seen the issue from the 
Kristiania Press of the elaborate edition in six 
folio volumes, upon which our knowledge of 
Leonardo as an anatomist must for all time rest. 
The work has entailed great and unusual labour, 


U Mr* ■•;■* 
> • 

-J Vol. v, 22 recto 

Plate I. Leonardo da Vinci : Ouaderni d'anatomia 

# Vol. v. 6 verso 

C Vol. iv, 9 recto 

.,., I.N'. V* , ,.,»»• 


Bra \ 

D Vol. vi, 13 recto 

Plate II. Leonardo da Vinci : Quaderni d'anatomia 

for, as is generally known, Leonardo affected a 
manner of writing in which, as Vasari tells us, 
" the words are of ugly form (di brutti caratteri), 
made with the left hand, backward, and no one, 
unless he lias had experience, can read them, for 
they are only to be read by the aid of a mirror ". 

As to the date when the Anatomy was written, 
it was begun before 1506, for in that year Marcan- 
tonio della Torre, professor of anatomy at Pavia, 
with whom it is known Leonardo was collaborating, 
died. A date on one of the manuscripts, q January 
1513, suggests that seven years later Leonardo 
was still at work on the subject. As he probably 
left Italy for the last time in 1516, after which 
date it is most unlikely that opportunities to con- 
tinue his studies were granted, we may, I think, 
safely conclude that by that year the curtain had 
finally fallen on his activities in this particular 

Before passing to a consideration of Leonardo's 
contribution to the science of anatomy, and to an 
estimate of its value, it is only proper that some 
reference, however short, should be made to the 
history of the subject and to the work of his 

Human anatomy by the 3rd century before our 
era had attained the rank of an exact and elaborate 
science, thanks particularly to the labours of two 
Alexandrians, Herophylos and Erasistratos, the 
latter, court physician to Seleucus Nicator. While 
the vast majority of the structures known to 
modern anatomists were at that early date noted 
and described, it was unfortunate that the know- 
ledge of chemistry and physics was such that 
these early workers at the subject were constrained 
to adopt two fundamental errors, viz., that the 
arteries contained, as their name implies, air ; and 
that blood passed through the septum of the 
ventricle from the right side to the left side. 
These errors barred the way to all progress for 
two thousand years, for not until the 17th 
century of our era were they finally eradicated 
and the theory of the circulation of the blood 
definitely established. From the 3rd century, B.C., 
until the date of Leonardo's work, early 16th 
century, the knowledge of anatomy declined. 
While this phenomenon was largely due to the 
fact that knowledge generally suffered an almost 
complete eclipse with the partition of the Roman 
empire and the destruction of its western part, 
it was also due to the fact that over a long period 
of time dissections of the human body were 
discountenanced if not actually forbidden. It 
is, however, only right to add that from the 
13th century onward, beginning with the decree 
of the Emperor Friedrich II, relative to the 
University of Salerno, dissections at stated inter- 
vals were compulsorily undertaken. Such was the 
enthusiasm of the physicians at Perugia that in 
1348 they did not even shrink from dissecting the 

bodies of those who had died from the Black 
death \ 

The first of the two errors mentioned above 
sprang from the fact that after death the arteries 
were found to be largely empty of blood and filled 
with what was indistinguishable from air, while 
during life the quick spirt accompanied by a 
hissing sound of the blood from an artery was 
in marked contrast with the slow flow of blood 
from a vein ; as life and sound were from a 
very early date associated with the presence of 
air it is not surprising that this particular error 
should have arisen and should have had so 
long a life. The second error is again in- 
telligible as on either side of the septum there are 
recesses or crypts which it is not easy to prove to 
demonstration do not communicate with each 
other. These two errors should be borne in 
mind, for like his predecessors Leonardo was 
misled by them and in consequence his con- 
tribution to the science of anatomy was relatively 
unimportant. It is due, however, to him to say 
that he had the instinct to know that it was in 
and around the heart that the central problems 
lay, while the attention which he paid to the cir- 
culation of the foetus in utero almost brought him 
to anticipate certain of the conclusions of Realdus 
Columbus, Servetus, Cesalpinus and Harvey. He 
described, for example, the anastomosis in the 
placenta as being like that in the liver and lungs. 
The fact, however, remains that Leonardo was 
baffled, a truth of which he himself was only 
too conscious. Nor since his contributions were 
unknown, can he be said to have paved the way 
for the discoveries of others. On the other hand 
had they been known, it is difficult to conceive 
that they would not have hastened discovery, for 
the drawings with which he illustrates the text 
were so far in advance of those of his contem- 
poraries that it is quite futile to compare them. 
Anatomy is a science which is based on accurate 
observation, and how large a part draughtsman- 
ship in consequence plays will be apparent to all. 
No words can adequately replace a sketch in the 
description of form ; this was recognised by the 
earlier anatomists who, unable to sketch, en- 
deavoured to supplement their words by com- 
paring anatomical structures to well known 
objects such as a calamus scriptorius, a sella 
turcica, an auricle, a -mitre, and a stirrup. It is 
interesting to find that Rabelais — one of the 
three geniuses of first rank who were serious 
students of anatomy, Leonardo and Goethe being 
the other two — adopted this method of conveying 
information for, as was pointed out some twenty 
years ago by Le Double, the anatomisation of 
Quaresprenant by Xenomanes in Book IV of 
Rabelais's great and immortal work is the apogee 
of thi s entertaining m ethod of teaching anatomy. 

3 Haeser, as above. 


Leonardo's sketches in addition to placing on 
record more precisely than had been done before 
certain established facts, permit us to credit him 
with the recognition of the sinuses at the be- 
ginning of the aorta and pulmonary artery, known 
as the sinuses of Valsalva (1666-1723), as well as 
with the recognition of the so-called moderator 
band in the right ventricle of the heart. It would 
be, however, a gross injustice to Leonardo to limit 
the contribution which with better fortune he 
might so well have made, to mere observation 
and draughtsmanship, for his most notable quality 
as an anatomist is the extraordinary modernity 
of his methods both in research and in teaching. 
It is not, I believe, too much to say that there is 
no method in use at the present time except 
those methods which are dependent on the use of 
the microscope, an instrument which although 
long foreseen only developed into an instrument 
of practical utility in the 18th century, which was 
not practised by Leonardo. He appreciated the 
important fact that the way to understand the 
structure of an organ was to observe how the 
organ worked ; he saw the importance of referring 
to embryology and comparative anatomy for 
evidence, in any attempt to solve problems in 
human anatomy ; he saw when few did the vital 
necessity of going to nature and freed himself a 
generation before Paracelsus from the all-powerful 
Galenical tradition. In smaller matters he insisted 
on the importance of studying the various tissues 
entering into a part, as for instance bones, 
muscles, tendons, vessels, first separately and then 
collectively, studying each part from all points of 
view and in all possible positions ; he availed 
himself of the use of sections as is shown in 
certain of the accompanying illustrations, in this 
respect being, however, anticipated by Henri de 
Mondeville (early 14th century) ; and made wax 
casts of the cavity of hollow organs. He also 
practised the experimental method as, for instance, 
in piercing with a needle the heart of a "stuck" 
pig and examining the action of the heart as 
disclosed by the movement of the needle. 

Leonardo's best work, I consider, was that on 
the action of the thoracic and abdominal muscles 
in respiration ; after this I should put his descrip- 
tions and drawings of the heart, which were far in 
advance of the knowledge of his time, as is 
shown by the fact that in Alessandro Beneditto's 
Anatomia, published at Paris in 15 14, there was 
still an explicit account of the fictitious middle 
or third ventricle of the heart. 

If now we turn to the sketches which are here 
reproduced from the Qttaderni, I would preface 
my remarks with the statement that they were 
selected as being likely to be of more general 
interest than would be those in which the internal 
parts are represented. 

Plate I is particularly remarkable, apart from 

the accurate anatomical knowledge displayed in 
the three large figures, for the interesting com- 
parative study in the three sketches at the right- 
hand bottom corner. The one farthest to the 
right is that of a human skeleton, the other two 
are, respectively from left to right, the left hind 
limb of an animal, probably a dog, and the left 
lower limb of a man, both drawn in the natural 
standing posture and both showing in the upper 
part strips of corresponding muscles. They serve 
to illustrate Leonardo's methods, referred to pre- 
viously, of analysing a region into its elements 
and of making use of comparative anatomy. 

On the left in PLATE II we have a median 
section through the head and neck of an in- 
dividual with a characteristic profile. Immediately 
below on the left is a section through an eye, 
while on the right is a horizontal section through 
the head at the level of the eyes, the section 
passing through the three cavities or ventricles in 
the brain. In front of the face of the main 
figure is a sketch of an onion to show the re- 
semblance which Leonardo apparently imagined 
he saw between it and the eye. There are so 
many anatomical defects in these drawings that it 
may I think be safely concluded that Leonardo 
had not in this instance made his drawings from 
nature but from a much less reliable model. The 
existence of three ventricles in the brain was a 
supposed fact upon which the whole of mediasval 
philosophy was built ; the most anterior of the 
three was dedicated to the reception of sensory 
impressions, the middle one to reflectior and 
judgment and the third to memory. So firmly 
based was this theory that it blinded anatomists 
to the fact that the first ventricle was double, 
for we find certain late anatomists persisting in 
representing the two lateral ventricles as one 
although Peyligk in Philosophiae naturalis com- 
pendium, published at Leipzig in 1489 4 correctly 
figured them as double. 

Prominence, it will be noticed, is given to the 
cavity in the forehead known as the frontal sinus, 
it being believed at that time that air passed from 
the nose through this sinus as well as through the 
sphenoidal sinus into the cranial cavity for the 
refreshment of the brain. The long lines in the 
main figure and in a small supplementary figure 
below point to the membranes lining the cranial 
cavity, the base of which cavity shows no indica- 
tion of a pituitary fossa. 

As to the eyes, the round object in the centre 
is the lens. Although, as we know, the lens is 
held in position by a delicate suspensory liga- 
ment, it was long before this was recognised, a 
fact no doubt attributable to the ease with which 
the lens escapes after section of the eye. 

On the right we have a median section of a 

4 Dr. Charles Singer : Studies in the History and Method of 
Science (Clarendon Press). 


E Vol. vi, r6 recto 

F Vol. v, rg recto 

G Y 

i»l. v, i ^ recto 

Plate III. Leonardo da Vinci : Quaderni d'anatomia 

male figure. The interior of the thorax shows 
the internal intercostal muscles correctly drawn, 
while the decussating lines manifest a further 
effort by Leonardo to reduce the form and pro- 
portion of the thorax to a mathematical formula. 
The bones which form the vertebral column are 
not sufficiently differentiated, a defect which is 
particularly noticeable in the middle line of the 
back and in the region of the neck. Certain of 
the nerves and vessels which are shewn passing 
down the inner side of the thigh should have 
been represented as passing backward into the 
buttock ; the contour lines of the figure have, 
however, all the customary accuracy and grace. 

Below we see Leonardo attempting to gain 
precision and simplify execution by enclosing the 
lower limb in a rectangular outline, a procedure 
which we see in part again adopted in the central 
figure, where we have a very good instance of 
the use to which the hand can be put in con- 
veying expression. The small group of a horse- 
man pursuing a fugitive leaves nothing to be 
desired in the way of life, movement and vigour. 

While the two limbs portrayed on the left in 
Plate III at first sight look identical, it will be 
noticed that in the one on the left the knee is too 
far back, a defect which is remedied in the other 
limb, in which it will be observed that a straight 
line joins the most prominent points of the 
buttock, calf, and heel, and lies well behind the 
knee. The general outline and appearance of 
the limb are on the whole accurate : while the 
muscles are perhaps a little too obvious, they 
undoubtedly convey an impression of strength 
which could not be obtained in any other way. 

On the right we have an instance of Leonardo's 
methods of supplementing the knowledge gained 
from dissection by that obtainable from the study 
of sections. 

Below we have one of the finest of Leonardo's 
anatomical drawings, the hind foot of a planti- 

grade carnivorous animal — probably a bear, a 
view supported by the fact that in one of the 
manuscripts a reference is made to a bear's foot. 
For accuracy and clearness combined with realism 
the sketch may be regarded as a model of what 
an anatomical drawing should be. In the left- 
hand upper corner of the same plate is another 
sketch unworthy of notice were it not for the 
fact that the association of finished drawings 
with the crudest sketches is far from infrequent 
in the manuscripts. The carelessness with which 
Leonardo would place drawings of such unequal 
merit on the same sheet of paper is not without 
significance to those whose interest in the man 
transcends even their interest in his work. 

Much more might be said if space allowed on 
Leonardo's work as an anatomist ; enough 
however, it is hoped, has been said to show that 
in this subject, as in so many others, he was a 
patient and serious investigator. If he cannot 
be said to have made any remarkable discovery 
after so great labour, the difficulties under which 
he worked furnish surely a sufficient explanation. 
What these difficulties were has never been stated 
better than by Leonardo himself, and how can 
we better leave him than with his own words, 
interpreted though they be, ringing in our ears ? 
" And if you have love for such matter (anatomy), you 
will perhaps be impeded by the stomach, and if that does 
not impede you, you will perhaps be impeded by the fear 
of living in the night hours in the company of such quartered 
and flayed corpses fearful to look at ; and if this does not 
impede you, you will perhaps lack the good draughtsman- 
ship which belongs to such demonstration, and if you have 
the draughtsmanship it will not be accompanied by the 
perspective ; and if it is accompanied you will lack the 
order of the geometrical demonstrations and the order of 
the calculation of the forces and power of the muscles ; 
and perhaps you will lack patience so that you will not be 

As to whether all these things have been in me or not, 
the hundred and 20 books composed by me will furnish 
sentence Yes or No, in which I have not been impeded by 
avarice or negligence, but only by time. 




Gentlemen, — Mr. Fry's two articles on modern 
drawing 1 , with their illustrations, provoke many 
questions and comments ; I will limit myself to a 
few. But before I proceed I must lay down the 
general assumption on which my criticism is based. 
1 do not wish to assume what I am not entitled 
to, and if I am wrong Mr. Fry will correct me. 
His exposition on the point has been casual and 
by implication rather than clear, but I think I am 
justified in saying that of the two elements which 
make up the art of the drawn or painted image, 
namely, significance and beauty, Mr. Fry regards 
the first as non-essential, as something which 
may have brought about the work of art, but 

'Burlington Magazine, Dec. 1918 ; Feb. 1919. 

which, once it is created, becomes irrelevant ; 
that "aesthetic" appreciation has to do only with 
the formal elements of design, and not at all 
with their content or meaning. Artistic judgment, 
therefore, does not concern itself with the ideas 
and sentiments of the artist, that is to say, with 
the interpretation of his designs as subjects, 
and not even with their interpretation as objects 
(representation). Thus Mr. Fry counts for nothing 
over against the superb draughtsmanship of Ingres 
the nauseous and tawdry element in his mind and 
pictures, and thinks it a derogation from Rossetti's 
powers and Gauguin's that one is inspired to paint 
by romantic, the other by exotic subjects'. On 
the other hand, the praise of "plasticity" is 
8 Burlington Magazine, xxix, p. 100 ; xxxn, p. 85. 


reserved for figures like that of Matisse, in which 
one gluteus major is more than double the size of 
the other in defiance of nature 3 ; and the ardent 
following of natural form by Ingres is surprisingly 
praised for its "distortions". In a word, pictorial 
art is all beauty and not at all meaning. Thus in 
an article on " The New Movement in Art in its 
relation to Life" * Mr. Fry writes : — 

In proportion as art becomes pure ... it cuts out 
all the romantic overtones of life, which are the usual 
bait by which the work of art induces men to accept it. 
It appeals only to the aesthetic sensibility. 
" Pure " art, then, in drawing must be judged 
solely by the degree of beauty the lines set up 
among themselves, with no reference to the objects 
they represent, or the ideas and emotions they 
convey. On this assumption I will examine what 
Mr. Fry has to say of drawing, and test its con- 

And first, I should like to repeat a question 
which I asked seven years ago without an answer 5 . 
It is this. — Since Mr. Fry's general theory of drawing 
pours contempt upon representation of the object, 
why does he so constantly make it a merit of 
drawings that they insist on solidity, on "mass", 
" volume ", " plasticity ", and so forth ? I am not by 
any means suggesting that this is not a virtue ; but 
since representation is not a virtue for Mr. Fry, 
and solidity is but one among the features of a 
natural object, why may not this feature be as 
freely discarded as the silhouette ? This respect 
for the third dimension, when the other two are 
so cavalierly treated, is puzzling ; indeed, we 
hear far more about it than about the beauty of 
lines as such : Mr. Fry makes almost as much of 
this feature of drawing as Professor Tonks 6 . He 
may, of course, say : " My 'solidity' has no rela- 
tion to actual solidities ; I treat the third dimension 
as freely as the other two". But that does not 
really touch my point, which is that the third 
dimension has nothing whatever to do with the 
beauty of lines as such, with their design, the 
pattern they make on the paper, which is all Mr. 
Fry has left himself a right to consider. I am 
aware that someone has launched the phrase, 
" designing in depth ", to describe and excuse 
some uncommonly poor designs in the flat among 
recent work ; and the parrots of the press fre- 
quently repeat this incantation, just as they repeat 
Mr. Clive Bell's "significant form". Mr. Clive 
Bell sets out to be absurd, or, in any case, succeeds 
in saying the precise opposite of what he may be 
presumed to have intended, namely, "insignificant" 
or "meaningless" form. We expect something 
better from Mr. Fry. When he deals with an old 
master we get brilliant analysis, like that of the 
drawing of Rembrandt in the article last referred 

3 Bnrlington Magazine fjxxi, p. 168. 
"Burlington Magazine, XXXI, p. 168. 

5 " A Year of Post-Impressionism " ; Nineteenth jCenlury, 
Feb. 191 2. 
* Burlington Magazine, XXXII, p. 52, 

to : but his eyes dazzle when he looks at contem- 
poraries, and his thought and language relax. 
Now solidity is not given in a line, but can only 
be inferred from it as its meaning. Solidity does 
not appeal to our sense of visual beauty, since we 
can never see, but only infer it ; though it appeals 
to many other feelings that Mr. Fry has ruled out. 
The draughtsman or painter who takes on the 
responsibilities of representation has a reason for 
using the means that suggest a third dimension : 
for Mr. Fry depth is an "association" of reality 
that has no claim on the artist. He has to do 
with the play of contours and enclosed shapes on 
the flat of the picture-plane : nothing more enters 
into the decorative design of a drawing : the 
rest is significance inferred from these. I invite, 
therefore, an explanation of this fondness for a 
realistic accident, attached by association to the 
contours of a design. 

So much for a general inconsistency. But still 
more striking is the gap between Mr. Fry's 
theories and the examples he puts forward to 
illustrate them. Of two idols of his school, 
Picasso and Matisse, Mr. Fry gave us specimens, 
and his reasons for admiring them. It is im- 
possible to prove a case against an admiration ; 
but it is possible to discuss reasons. Of Picasso, 
Mr. Fry says : — 

Picasso is essentially a realist. There is no willed 
imposition of a preconceived scheme of form upon the 
object. The form is arrived at inductively by the 
\ t successive elimination of all accidentals, until the pure 
substance is revealed. 
There is a preliminary objection to make 
against this statement. It employs the language of 
a philosophy according to which all the sensible 
qualities of an object are " accidents ", and among 
them all its visible qualities. " Pure substance " 
is arrived at when these have been stripped away ; 
it is something which cannot be touched or heard 
or smelt or seen. If Picasso were a realist in this 
sense he would be a follower of John Scotus 
Erigena. Such a theory had its merits for a 
schoolman ; for example, it explained trans-sub- 
stantiation ; that which had the accidents of 
bread in touch or taste might have the substance 
of flesh. But for a draughtsman it will not do : 
substance is invisible ; it cannot be drawn ; only 
" accidents " are visible. Plato, from whom the 
doctrine descended, accepted its consequences. 
The painter could only render the unreal, shifty 
appearance, not the true idea; therefore the 
painter had a low place in the Republic. Mr. Fry, 
then, cannot possibly mean what he says. The 
visible "accidents" have not been eliminated, 
nor has there even been abstraction of these up to 
the extreme limit or anything like the limit. If 
we are successively to eliminate visible accidents 
we must begin by stripping Mons. Massine of his 
clothes, the most superficial of all. In the second 
place we must strip him of the accidental position 


in which he appears, seated on a chair, with legs 
crossed, profile mixed up with three-quarter face, 
and so on. Then from the point of view of " pure 
substance " it is an accident that he is an individual, 
that he is of a particular height, age, sex or species, 
that he is an animal of any one class, or an animal 
at all. We arrive, in fact, at God, in whom all 
these differentiations are potential, or at nothing. 
We had better, then, drop these more than 
doubtful philosophical categories. In all line- 
drawing there is abstraction ; abstraction from 
colour, tone and texture ; and in all drawing there 
is necessarily simplification from the infinite 
variation of form in nature. All that Mr. Fry 
means is that in Picasso's drawing there is a great 
deal of simplification, and we are left with this 
fact and the statement that he is a realist who 
does not impose a preconceived scheme of 
form. But when we turn to the drawing we rub 
our eyes, for this is glaringly not the case. For 
one thing the sitter, like the angel in the story 
who was invited to sit down, " n'a pas de 
quoi ". If this was intended it is clearly the 
case of a preconceived scheme of form imposed : 
the object is not so clear ; but on this part of the 
frame the modern movement is apt to impose 
excess or defect. Again, the setting of the eye, 
not in its natural place nor even in the face, if it 
is not merelya bad shot, must be a matter of precon- 
ception and imposition. Altogether it is obvious 
that we are dealing not with a realist, but with a 
caricaturist. Now the essence of caricature is 
distortion, but distortion not for the sake of 
formal beauty but for an emphasis of the artist's 
ideas about the subject ; its root, in a word, is 
significance ; and for the second time Mr. Fry is 
tripped up by the element he despises. But so he 
would be if the drawing agreed with his hypo- 
thesis ; if it were not a caricature, but a realistic, 
though simplified, portrait. Whatever other 
draughtsmen may do the realistic portrait draughts- 
man sets out to represent his sitter and render a 
likeness ; he is not free to be a " pure artist " : he 
must accept the forms of his subject. 

And now let us turn to the examples of 
Matisse. We are told that he has two manners, 
the "calligraphic" and the "structural". The 
first we may pass as a fair description of the 
bunch of flowers in a glass. It is a pretty enough 
scribble, and that is all that need be said about it : 
nothing new emerges. The woman with the cat 
is of the other kind, "structural ". In Mr. Fry's 
use of this word there is an ambiguity. Structure 
of what ? For the artist who is concerned with 
representation (i.e., with the meaning of his 
forms) structure has two senses : there is the 
structure of the object to be represented (the 
despised " anatomy " is a part of this for animals) 
and there is the structure of his design, the 
pattern into which that other structure must be 

fitted ; or the pattern is discovered in the first and 
emphasised in the drawing. And the triumph of 
art is to combine these two as at a flash-point 
when two elements unite to make a third. But if, 
with Mr. Fry, we regard the object as base 
materia! with no rights of its own, like a sheet of 
paper to be cut into any shapes we please, the 
high ingenuity that so delights us when natural 
forms are humoured into a picture-pattern has no 
longer a resisting element to exercise itself upon, 
and the picture structure is left to work flaccidly 
in vacuo, attempting to create "pure" beauty. 
There are two structures, then, to be analysed in 
the making of a drawing, not one. What is their 
fate with Matisse ? When we look at the drawing 
we see that he fixed upon a particular series of 
curves and correspondences in the sitter as his 
picture-motive ; the oval of the head is echoed in 
the curves of the shoulders and thighs, the back 
of the pussy, the rail of the chair. But the 
accommodation of the sitter's structure to this 
pattern-structure is violent or flaccid. The lines 
of head and features are tentative and poor; the 
line of the chair stumbles unhappily round the 
shoulders ; the arms serve neither structural 
purpose ; the hand is not only meaningless but 
weak and ugly as form, and there is fiasco in the 
passage about the waist ; coherence here is com- 
pletely lost. When an artist accepts natural 
structure at all, but cannot play the game of the 
two structures at once, he spoils both ; his work 
has no interest, and if it has novelty it is the 
novelty of not solving the problem that all good 
artists have solved. If bald simplicity was the 
object, minimising nature so as to produce a 
symbolic diagram in geometrical shapes, then 
Matisse should have simplified more thoroughly ; 
as it is he falls between two stools ; his model has 
been too much for his geometry and his geometry 
too much for the model. 

It would be cruel to proceed with the other 
examples. The word " calligraphic " is applied to 
a drawing that proceeds from point to point with 
uneasy jerks ; " unself-conscious " is peculiarly 
inapplicable to those feeble but mannered 

But one inclusion is perplexing ; that of a not 
very good example of Mr. Walter Sickert. Mr. 
Sickert is an artist for much of whose work I 
have a keen admiration ; but if is based on 
principles the exact opposite of Mr. Fry's. Mr. 
Sickert believes in following the model as closely 
as did Ingres. Is it because he is so uncertain in 
carrying out his intention, finding it almost as 
difficult to place two eyes in the same head as did 
Cezanne, is it for that reason he comes within the 
Omega rubric ? However that may be, we have the 
pleasant comedy of Mr. Fry and Mr. Sickert con- 
demning one another's principles and applauding 
one another's practice. 


And now, in the light of these examples, what 
is the novel kind of drawing we are asked to 
recognise and admire ? Calligraphy, structure-of- 
design, simplification for either caricature, or 
more generally, expressive distortion, symbolic 
geometry, insistence on solidity, none of these is 
new : in all ages the artist claims these liberties with 
nature, and in the age of the camera and camera- 
painters has to press the claim. To what new 
prospect do Picasso and Matisse open the window? 
All I can find in Mr. Fry's articles is the reference 
to a " new quality of rhythm " and a treacherous 
analogy taken from literature 7 . "Quality" in 
this connection I do not follow : I take it what is 
meant is a new rhythm. And this, so far as it is 
expounded, depends on the use of "a larger unit". 
There is no merit in a large unit as such : nor is 
the rhythm necessarily altered, e.g. by writing in 
semibreves instead of quavers. The surface of a 
sheet of paper may be squared up into units 
measuring one inch by one and a half, or two by 
three, or in other ratios ; and happiness of scale 
depends on the proportion of this unit to the size 
of the sheet. But I doubt whether Mr. Fry 
means "unit " 8 . He is more probably thinking 
of "motive", the geometrical form, circle, oval, 
square, triangle, rectangle and so forth, which is 
echoed in different sizes throughout the design. 
The motive is not a metrical unit but a phrase, 
if we are to use a musical analogy. 

To such an analogy Mr. Fry has recourse : he 
says : — 

" The change in the general quality of rhythm in modern 
drawing might perhaps be compared to the change from 
regular verse to free verse or poetical prose". 
There are two things to say upon this. " Free 
verse or poetical prose " will not do. " Vers libre " 
is either verse, in which case it is not " free ", or 
it is "free", in which case it is not verse, but 
prose ; or, as very commonly, it is a mixture of 
the two, in which case it is a mongrel. We are 
left, therefore, with "poetical prose". Poetical 
prose, so-called, is frequently verse. But I conjec- 
ture that what Mr. Fry really means is that 

' Mr. Fry still uses " literary " to describe and depreciate the 
element of thought and feeling associated with the visible. The 
fallacy has been a score of times exposed. 

8 He says of Modigliani, "all relief has for him the same 
geometrical section, and his effect is got by the arrangement 
of a number of essentially similar units ". Now a unit must be 
the same as another unit, not similar to it. An inch is not 
ssentially similar to another inch, but identical with it. The 
system attributed to Modigliani would mean composing with a 
series of uniform sausages. He does not go quite so far. 

modern drawing does not, like the stricter forms 
of verse, take the shape of repeated pattern. That 
is true enough ; but it is not true only of modern 
drawing ; it is equally true of renaissance design. 
Repeated pattern belongs to things like wall-papers 
and textiles. These are the analogue of strict 
verse, in which metrical design takes the upper 
hand ; though the analogy is not complete, since 
the repeated units in verse take on, with words, a 
changing meaning. But painting and pictorial 
drawing have never had this strict constitution ; 
they have only approached it in frieze composition, 
or in closely symmetrical composition, which is 
one special case of the general law of rhythmical 
balance. The analogy throughout for drawing 
has been with the structure of prose, that is to say, 
a structure in which metrical rhythm is in the 
background and phrase rhythm 9 takes the lead. 
And this brings us up once more against the 
element that Mr. Fry and his friends exclude from 
the art of drawing. Prose rhythm is moulded 
upon meaning as strict verse rhythm is not. Its 
aim is the expression of ideas, of emotions, of 
" sentiment ", of " associations ". It takes on the 
object as its motive, and with the object what the 
object means, and it makes this sacrifice, that if the 
meaning is emptied out of the pattern, leaving only 
its geometrical skeleton, that pattern reveals itself 
as, independently, a very poor and uninteresting 
affair. If the secret must out, there is in drawings 
very little pure beauty : there is just enough to 
excite us hugely when it is combined with 
significance, what Mr. Fry contemns as " illustra- 
tion ", but finds constantly bobbing up to trouble 
him, as with his latest protege, Monsieur Larionow 10 . 
I invite Mr. Fry, therefore, to feel the joints of 
his argument and point out in his turn any 
fallacies in mine. By this process we shall arrive 
perhaps at closer quarters with one another and 
with the truth. But if the editors and readers of 
the Magazine will bear with me further, I should 
like to set out my own analysis of drawing and its 
bearings upon modern experiment. 

Yours faithfully, 

D. S. MacColl. 

(To be continued.) 

9 I use this expression, though no one has made out the laws 
of such a rhythm. What is clear is that balance of weight 
about a centre of gravity is involved, and the balance of forces 
(Mr. Fry's "balance of directions"). Once more, all this 
belongs to our interpretation of forms, to significance. 

"Burlington Magazine, xxxiv, p. 118. 




FIND it very difficult to give even a 
summary account of the very interest- 
ing exhibition of Florentine paintings 
^of the Trecento and the Quattrocento 
►^a which has been arranged at the 

Burlington Fine Arts Club. 

Mr. Roger Fry has written a brilliant intro- 
duction to the catalogue, and almost all the more 
important pictures exhibited have already been 
described and commented upon at length (a 
number of them by members of the hanging 
committee) in the pages of the magazine. To 
come in after this formidable body of students, 
whose opinion, arrived at, no doubt, after mature 
consideration, is duly recorded in the catalogue, 
is what Beckmesser in the " Mastersingers" would 
have described as ein satires And. However, this 
sour task, having been undertaken at the special 
request of one of the editors, must now be 
proceeded with, even though in the hurry and 
confusion of a more than usually overwhelming 
picture season, it cannot with any thoroughness 
be performed. This is perhaps as beautiful an 
exhibition as any of the long series which, for the 
instruction and delight of students and art lovers, 
have been brought together in the gallery of the 
club. At the same time it is not, indeed it does 
not profess to be, an illustration of Florentine 
painting— still less of Florentine art — during the 
great period which the title covers. You cannot 
in dealing with Florence treat the sculpture and 
the painting separately—the two are inextricably 
interwoven. Has any Florentine of the Quattro- 
cento painted pictures that equal in dramatic 
cohesion and intensity those which Donatello has 
carved in marble or fashioned in bronze ? Until 
we come to the climax of the Renaissance is there 
anything in Tuscan painting to equal his passionate 
Dance of Salome in S. Giovanni at Siena, or his 
marvellous Christ's Charge to Peter in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum ? Is anywhere such facility 
and variety in composition displayed as in Ghi- 
berti's later Portals to the Baptistery of Florence ? 
Is there anything of this early period that surpasses, 
or indeed equals, in intimacy, in exquisite subtlety 
of pathos, Brunelleschi's Sacrifice of Isaac — the 
bronze plaque wrought about 1402 in competition 
with Ghiberti and other Tuscan sculptors ? Do any 
painted Madonnas of the Florentine school — 
even of Fra Filippo Lippi or Botticelli — surpass 
those of that Florentine of Florentines, Luca della 
Robbia ? The three great names with which the 
era of the Quattrocento opens are Brunelleschi, 
Donatello and Masaccio. 

It would, indeed, be unsafe for the student of 
the 15th century to assume that he could derive 

The Btolisqiok Mioiznn, No. 19S. Vol. XXXIT— June 1»19. 

an adequate idea even of Florentine painting from 
a study of these beautiful examples, and these alone. 
Leaving the Trecento out of the question, the 
gaps in the illustration of the Quattrocento are so 
important that it is best to put away altogether the 
idea of closely following the evolution of painting 
during that period ; unless, indeed, we take in the 
National Gallery, and consider the delightful show 
of the club as rilling certain lacunae in the series 
of Florentine masterpieces which is one of its 
chief glories. Two currents run side by side, 
sometimes detached, sometimes merged, in this 
great school, which has exercised a predominance 
over all Italian art, even that of its rivals. On 
the one hand, we have the exalted realism, the 
overwhelming passion of Donatello ; the weighti- 
ness and majesty of Masaccio ; the rugged grandeur 
of Andrea del Castagno, whose art, unlike that 
of Donatello, excludes pity and sympathy; and 
the fierceness, the austerity of Antonio del 
Pollaiuolo. On the other hand, we have the 
suavity of Fra Angelico, of Fra Filippo Lippi, of 
Botticelli, of Filippino Lippi; and (turning to the 
sculptors) the decorative power and elegance of 
Ghiberti, the subtlety of Desiderio, the smiling 
optimism of Rossellino, of Mino da Fiesole, 
of Benedetto da Majano. In Andrea del 
Verrocchio we find the two currents meeting, 
and in a way coalescing, though the rugged 
element of his personality is on the whole 
the truer, and dominates the suave. The cold, 
glittering smile of his Madonnas and his Florentine 
ladies has no heart in it ; it recalls in some 
mysterious way the set smile of archaic Etruscan 
art. And his ruggedness, though it culminates in 
the world-famous equestrian statue of Colleoni, 
has nothing of the overwhelming pathos that 
vibrates throughout the life-work of Donatello. 
We are repelled by the cruel harshness of the 
Christ in the much-discussed Baptism of the 
Florentine Academy ; and not less by the 
want of true loftiness and beauty in the 
splendidly worked out group, The Incredulity of 
S. Thomas, placed in Donatello's niche on the 
front of Orsanmichele. Thus, if we judged 
Florentine painting of the Quattrocento by the 
exquisite pictures now hung upon the walls of the 
club, and by these alone, we should run the risk 
of entirely missing its true meaning. We have 
here no Andrea del Castagno, no Domenico 
Veneziano, no Baldovinetti ; only a second-rate 
and repulsive example of the school of Antonio 
del Pollaiuolo ; only an unimportant fragment 
of the school of Verrocchio ; only a pleasant 
echo of the true Botticelli. The triumph is for 
Paolo Uccello, for Fra Angelico, Fra Filippo, and 

P 20 9 

Pesellino ; for Leonardo da Vinci, above all, 
who is represented by the Cartoon of S. Anne 
and by twelve of his finest and most celebrated 
drawings, lent by H.M. the King from the Windsor 

The most important Trecento picture in the 
collection is the Salvator Mundi (Lady Jekyll) 
ascribed to Giotto. This noble work was intro- 
duced some years ago by Mr. Roger Fry, who in 
this magazine published an eloquent plaidoyer in 
support of his attribution. This is, indeed, entitled 
to the most serious consideration. The connec- 
tion of the panel, both in style and sentiment, 
with the great Stefaneschi altarpiece, said to have 
been painted by Giotto and his assistants for the 
high altar of S. Peter's, at Rome, is a real one, as 
a comparison with the Christ Enthroned, which 
constitutes the central panel on the obverse side 
of the now dismembered polyptych, tends to 
show. The resemblance between the two works 
is obvious, and if we accept the altarpiece as 
Giotto's own, we may also, I take it, accept as 
his the Christ now under discussion. But the 
most recent investigators of the master's art agree 
in the belief that Giotto's own brush is not to be 
traced in the altarpiece, though he may be 
held responsible for the work as a whole. To 
me this Christ, so admirable as a design, so 
superior, indeed, to the corresponding head in 
the Stefaneschi panel, is marked by a delicacy 
of draughtsmanship, by a hyper-sensitiveness of 
sentiment, which hardly agree with the heroic 
breadth and grandeur of Giotto in the best 
authenticated examples of his painting. A thing 
of beauty is the Giottesque Crucifixion by Ber- 
nardo Daddi (Mr. Henry Harris), which its owner 
has most wisely allowed to remain in its present 
condition, free from the more flagrant refurbish- 
ings which have been the rule in modern times. 
The predella-like panel The Marriage of the Virgin 
(Mr. R. H. Benson) appears to me too early in 
style, too Giottesque, for Agnolo Gaddi, to whom 
it is here ascribed. The real Agnolo can be 
studied in Mr. Herbert Cook's triptych, Christ, the 
Angel of the Annunciation, and the Virgin. I should 
be disposed to attribute Mr. Benson's picture to 
TaddeoGaddi. One starts back, incredulous at first 
at the very mention of a new Masaccio, so rare and 
precious are the works of the young master, who, 
although he did not live to complete his twenty- 
eighth year, changed the whole current of art, and 
even in his lifetime stood forth, a great and com- 
manding figure, the precursor of the earlier Renais- 
sance painters of Florence. This little circular 
panel, God the Father (Mr. C. Ricketts and Mr. C. 
Shannon) [Plate IV, bJ is indeed a true Masaccio, 
and perhaps, as the catalogue suggests, the apex of 
the great polyptych, of which we possess the centre 
— a magnificent Madonna and Child with Angels, 
now in the National Gallery. The remaining 

panelsare distributed between the Kaiser-Friedrich 
Museum of Berlin, the Municipal Gallery of Pisa, 
the collection of Count Lanckoronski of Vienna, 
and the Naples Museum. The Crucifixion in the 
last-named gallery, small as it is, must rank as 
one of the most dramatic compositions of 
its time. Superficially it agrees with, while in 
essentials it differs from, the great Trinity frescoed 
by Masaccio in the church of Santa Maria 
Novella. The National Gallery might well envy 
the National Gallery of Ireland the possession 
of the splendid panel Scene from the Legend 
of Saints Cosnias and Damian, by Fra Angelico 
[Plate II]. It is one of those making up the 
famous predella originally placed over the high altar 
of S. Marco at Florence, the remaining pieces being 
respectively in the Alte Pinakothek of Munich, the 
Accademia of Florence, and the Louvre. This 
must obviously have been the central panel of the 
predella, which consisted as we know of seven 
parts. Hardly in any other instance has Fra 
Angelico realised a composition so frankly, so 
powerfully dramatic, or so boldly ventured upon 
representation of the human figure in violent 
action. To the gentle Dominican is also ascribed, 
and not without some reason, the naive and 
charming Miracle of SS. Cosnias and Damian, a 
panel contributed by Capt. E. G. Spencer- 
Churchill. The dominant colour-chord is his, 
the sentiment is such as he loves to indulge 
in, but there are nevertheless to be noticed in 
the execution certain points calculated to give 
us pause. The heads are not altogether drawn 
and modelled as the Frate's are ; the folds of the 
draperies are somewhat more complicated than in 
his work. For Pesellino the panel is too early, 
but it might possibly belong to the earliest time 
of Fra Filippo. All the same, I do not venture 
deliberately to ascribe it to that master. An- 
other puzzle is provided by the fascinating little 
Madonna and Child under a Baldacchino with 
Attendant Angels (Sir Frederick Cook, Bart.), which 
has been given by Captain Langton Douglas to 
Giovanni Boccali of Camerino, but is here assigned 
to the school of Fra Angelico. The conception is 
less lofty than that of the Frate is wont to be in 
similar subjects ; the colour-scheme includes 
lovely and complicated variations on his favourite 
theme. A painting very closely related to this 
is the quaint Rape of Helen in the National 
Gallery, where it was once given to Fra 
Angelico. One might ascribe both pieces to 
the early time of Benozzo Gozzoli, or, in the 
alternative, to an Umbro-Florentine painter. I 
confess that my inclination is towards the latter 
hypothesis. What that is both new and true 
remains to be said of Fra Filippo Lippi's beautiful 
tondo The Adoration of the Magi (Sir Frederick 
Cook, Bart.), probably his earliest extant work, and 
certainly one of his finest ? I will not go so far as 









Plate III. The Hunt, by P 
(Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) 

.olo Uccello. 


6 7 1 " , reproduced in two portions 

to say that we have here a great conception that 
stamps itself for ever on the heart and brain ; 
Fra Filippo's work lacks a little the element 
of mystery that envelops Gentile da Fabriano's 
even more famous Adoration in the Accademia 
of Florence, and the finest of Botticelli's 
many renderings of the same subject. But it is 
an invention of exquisite beauty and charm 
carried out unfalteringly by a consummate execu- 
tant. Its influence on Florentine art was far- 
reaching ; we note it in the earlier renderings of 
this subject by Botticelli, and even in Domenico 
Ghirlandajo's much later Adoration of the Shepherds 
at the Accademia. We have heard much of the 
influence of Masaccio on Fra Filippo, and we 
recognise it in some instances, notably in the 
majestic Virgin Enthroned of the Louvre. But 
here he is undoubtedly the child of Fra Angelico 
and Gentile da Fabriano. The singularly decora- 
tive colour-scheme is in the main based on that 
of Angelico ; but while the latter in his clearness 
and his cleanness is for ever, as it were, in the 
key of C, Fra Filippo varies and subtilises his 
bright harmonies, enveloping them in a silver 
sheen that adds very greatly to the effect of his 
work as a whole. Later on he will incline to 
combinations of the muted order, with a prepon- 
derance of greys and his favourite wine-colour. 
To a much later period belong the two panels 
S. Joseph and S. Michael (Sir Frederick Cook, 
Bart.), which take a prominent place among 
Fra Filippo's finest works. These show the 
master in his fullest maturity. They are, as the 
catalogue points out with an abundance of inte- 
resting detail, the wings of a triptych painted for 
Giovanni de' Medici, and by him presented to 
Alfonso I of Aragon, King of Naples — the monarch 
immortalised by the three finest medals of Pisa- 
nello, and not less by the Triumphal Arch of the 
Castel Nuovo at Naples. These wings with saints 
are far more exquisite in execution than the less 
known Church Fathers of the Accademia Albertina 
at Turin, but do not equal these last in rugged 
grandeur of conception. Fra Filippo being thus 
represented with exceptional splendour, it was 
surely unnecessary to add to the exhibition the 
Virgin and Child from the collection of Lord 
Biownlow. This is but a poor diluted example of 
the master's art ; it is in his manner, and may 
possibly be by his hand, but in any case it does 
him no credit. A most precious little panel, well 
known to all connoisseurs, and requiring no 
fresh comment or description, is The Virgin and 
Child with Saints, by Francesco Pesellino (Sir 
George Holford) [Plate I]. The cast of the 
Virgin's robes, in broad, sharply-broken folds, 
recalls the similar treatment of draperies in 
the Trinity, by Pesellino, at the National Gallery, 
and affords proof that at any rate this, the central 
panel of the dislocated polyptych, is in the main 

from the young painter's own brush. Among 
Francesco Pesellino's most characteristic and 
most industriously elaborated works are the two 
great cassone panels The Story of David and Goliath 
and The Triumph of David, once in the Palazzo 
Torregiani at Florence, and now in the rich 
collection of Lady Wantage. If we are to take 
these extraordinarily overcrowded compositions as 
pictures we must hold them to be intolerably 
worrying to the eye, and in so far unsatisfactory. 
The best way is to deal with them as what they 
primarily are — narratives in paint, in which 
nothing of importance may be omitted. As 
such they will afford much delight to the beholder 
(we had almost said the reader). Many of the 
episodes, many of the figures, when detached from 
the rest will be seen to be not only dramatic but 
of a truly classic beauty. Take as instances the 
tender and charming David keeping his sheep, 
the truculent David the slinger, the deliciously 
naive David as conqueror. 

Nothing in the exhibition gives quite such a 
shock of delight as the Hunt by Moonlight, by 
Paolo Uccello (University of Oxford, Ashmolean 
Museum) [Plate III]. Here we have an Uccello 
no longer wholly preoccupied with the invention 
of monumental decorations or the working out 
of scientific problems, but moved by a great 
joy in life, and though he is at this period in 
his fullest maturity, triumphantly successful in 
vitalising his wonderful fantasia with a rush- 
ing wind of youth and rapture. Surprising is 
the audacious realism shown in the representa- 
tion of youthful cavaliers and huntsmen rushing 
forward open-mouthed and awaking the echoes of 
the forest with their shouts of delight. Owing 
perhaps to certain minor differences of technique, 
and above all to the unwonted buoyancy of mood 
expressed, that master of iconoclastic criticism, 
Signor Adolfo Venturi, has preferred to assign the 
Oxford panels to the school of Uccello. So far 
as I know, he is alone among competent critics of 
Italian art in taking this view. Whatever this Hunt 
by Moonlight is — and it cannot surely be a school- 
piece, or the work of a painter of the second 
order — it makes the heart of the spectator leap 
responsively in his breast, as hardly anything else 
does of this period and this school. The 
S. Jerome (Marquess of Bath) — " traditionally 
ascribed to Andrea del Castagno", as the cata- 
logue (obviously desiring to remain neutral) states 
— has no claim to be thus ennobled. The rugged- 
ness, the sacred furia are but skin-deep — there is 
something second-rate in the whole conception 
and realisation. Jacopo del Sellaio has painted 
more than one S. Jerome of this type. Yet it would 
be rash to put forward this panel as his. It is 
a pity that nothing more truly reminiscent of 
Antonio del Pollaiuolo should be in the show 
than this crude unattractive Christ at the Column, 


catalogued as of his school (Viscount Lascelles). 
There is something fine in the arrangement and 
sentiment of the central figure, but the execution is 
coarse in the extreme, the rendering of the nude 
being like that of gnarled wood ; while the hideous 
landscape is as unlike the beautiful, far-stretching 
prospects in which the Pollaiuoli enframed their 
subjects as anything that could well be imagined. 
Let those who would question this assertion 
remember the Martyrdom of S. Sebastian and the 
Apollo and Daphne in the National Gallery, the 
Nessns and Deianira of Yale in the United States, 
the Tobias and the Angel of the Turin Gallery. I 
can imagine this Christ at the Column being 
acclaimed as a marvel by enthusiasts of the modern 
post-impressionist schools. There is, alas, no un- 
doubted Botticelli in the collection. It had been 
hoped at one time that the two characteristic 
S. Zenobio panels in the Mond collection would be 
contributed by the present owner, but it has been 
found impossible to obtain these. The extraordi- 
narily decorative composition, The Marriage Feast 
o/Nastagio degli Onesti (Mr. Vernon Watney),(one 
of a set of four illustrating Boccaccio's famous tale 
in the Decameron, which a good many years ago 
adorned the Leyland collection), is Botticelli's as 
regards invention, but unquestionably not a work 
from his own brush. There are monstrous dispro- 
portions in the figures, and the wonder is that these 
do not detract more materially from the general 
effect. The beautiful arcades in pietra Serena which 
enclose the figures are closely based upon those 
which support the nave and transepts of Santo 
Spirito, the glorious church designed by Brunel- 
leschi, and carried out with important develop- 
ments and variations after his death. The ornate 
gilt capitals of the pilasters are somewhat later in 
style, and would appear to have been taken from the 
sacristy added to the church by Simone Cronaca 
towards the end of the 15th century. The charm- 
ingly composed Virgin and Child with S.JoIm (Mr. 
J. P. Heseltine) is in essentials a school-piece, the 
drawing of the Bambino being altogether unworthy 
of Botticelli. If I recollect rightly, Herbert Home 
has, in his great book on the master, pointed out 
that the bold classic frieze touched with gold is by 
Botticelli himself. The landscape also appears 
to me to reveal his touch. Nearer to this 
painter as a whole is the fascinating little Annun- 
ciation lent by the Corporation of Glasgow. 
There is, indeed, some ground for including this 
in the list of the master's own works. The wind- 
blown draperies of the Angel of the Annunciation 
recall those of the attendant angels in one of 
Botticelli's most exquisite works, the tondo of 
the Ambrosian Library in Milan. On the other 
hand, the head of the angel in the Glasgow picture is 
hardly of the true Botticellian type, and it is, more- 
over, framed in curious formal curls such as 
we find in Baldovinetti's Angel of the Annuncia- 


Hon — a fresco in Rossellino's chapel at S. Miniato 
above Florence. It is a surprise to find Mr. R. H. 
Benson's Tobias and the Angel, an attractive piece 
of clear blond tonality, assigned once more to 
Filippino Lippi. Unless we are to overturn 
altogether Mr. Berenson's carefully reconstructed 
figure, Amico di Sandro, we must leave to him this 
painting — and the History of Esther panels, at Chan- 
tilly and in the Liechtenstein Gallery, and the Three 
Archangels in the Turin Gallery. It must be owned 
that a good number of Amico's plumes have now 
been plucked out: but it remains abundantly clear 
that these paintings, and a number of others which 
cannot now be enumerated, are by the same 
hand — and that hand not Filippino Lippi's. Take 
for instance, in Mr. Benson's charming little 
picture, the absurd Tobias, who neither walks 
nor stands, but flops along the road as if his legs 
were stuffed. Filippino Lippi, the painter of the 
Vision of S. Bernard in the Badia, of the Brancacci 
frescoes, and of those in S. Maria sopra Minerva at 
Rome, never was guilty of such a figure as this. 
Here, however, is the veritable Filippino in a 
dramatic Pieta, which has evidently formed part of 
a predella (same collection). Even more charac- 
teristic of his art in its maturity is the puzzling 
renaissance caprice, A Mythological Scene (Christ 
Church, Oxford), showing a centaur, who has 
been wounded in the foot by an arrow, pensively 
looking down on the full quiver that he holds, not 
without a certain respect, in his hand. In the 
middle distanceCupid.content, as one may surmise, 
with his work, lies asleep under a rock. This may 
be the pictorial interpretation of a poem by one of 
the contemporary humanists. The pleasing though 
not first-rate fragment, The Virgin in Adoration 
(Mr. W. H. Woodward), is, as the catalogue states, 
of the school of Verrocchio. In point of execution 
it falls far below the Madonna and Child, with 
Angels of the National Gallery, lacking as it does 
the authority and the exquisite finish of that great 
panel. Still less, though the model for the head 
of the Virgin is the same, can it be paralleled with 
the splendid Virgin and Child formerly in the 
Charles Butler collection, and now in the Metro- 
politan Museum of New York. This last might 
without temerity be ascribed to Verrocchio 
himself. Better and better preserved examples 
of Domenico Ghirlandajo have been seen than 
the Portraits of Francesco Sassetti and his son 
Teodoro (Mr. R. H. Benson). Of rare beauty, 
and surprising as the work of a second- 
rate man, is the S. Catherine of Alexandria, by 
Bartolommeo di Giovanni (Mr. Berenson's Alunno 
di Domenico). The treatment of the figure as a 
whole recalls Domenico Ghirlandajo ; that of the 
hair and hands is reminiscent of Botticelli. There 
is no valid reason for assigning to Piero di Cosimo 
the tame and uninteresting Minerva and the 
Flute (Mrs. Henry Oppenheimer). A suggested 










ascription of this unpoetic poesia to Granacci is 
probably the right one. The real Piero di 
Cosimo, a painter swayed by every passion, 
by every impression, is seen in the tremendous 
Battle of the Centaurs and Lapithce (Mr. C. Ricketts 
and Mr. C. Shannon). The passion here is not 
that which marshals and controls its energies ; not 
the passion of a Pollaiuolo or a Mantegna. It is 
the passion that gives way — that yields itself 
utterly. The horror, the inextricable confusion 
of the scene, are wonderfully conveyed, but 
with nothing to raise the combat above the 
level of sheer murder. Even the horror of 
the classic frieze of Phigaleia (British Museum) 
is ordered and rhythmic in comparison. A 
strongly characterised Portrait of an Ecclesiastic 
(Viscount Lascelles), hitherto assigned to Ridolfo 
Ghirlandajo, is here, on the ground of certain 
resemblances to the Francesco Giamberti and 
Giuliano di S. Gallo portraits at The Hague, given 
to Piero di Cosimo. The highly finished Coronation 
of the Virgin (Lady Wantage) [Plate IV, A], which 
has hitherto passed unchallenged as the work of 
Lorenzo di Credi, I venture to ascribe to his pupil 
and assistant, Sogliani. The unpleasant flesh tones 
are his, rather than his master's, and some passages 
of hot colour, especially in the foreground, are very 
suggestive of his art in this transitional phase. 
The style is still Credi's, but the kneeling figures 
of S. Barbara and S. Christina are in the manner 
of Fra Bartolommeo and Albertinelli. Under 
their influence Sogliani fell when, after more than 
twenty years, he left the bottega of Lorenzo. 
Closely resembling this Coronation in style, but even 
more completely dominated by Credi, are two 
Madonnas, one in the Brussels, the other in the 
Turin Gallery. Both were until recently assigned 
to the more celebrated painter. With Sogliani's 
later development, culminating in the vast and 
dreary Immaculate Conception of the Uffizi, we are 
not here directly concerned. 

The climax of the exhibition is reached when 
we come to the groups of works by Leonardo da 
Vinci, comprising the famous cartoon, The Virgin 
and Child with S. Anne and the Infant S. John 
(Royal Academy of Arts), and the twelve super- 
latively fine drawings from Windsor to which 
reference has already been made. It is impossible 
to deal with this great theme in a few words thrown 
in at the end of a long article. 

I must frankly make the confession that I 
approach Leonardo da Vinci in this phase with 
uncritical awe ; for here, in these drawings, he is 
communing not with us, but with his own soul ; 
he is wrestling with the awful powers unrevealed, 
resolved to snatch from them the dread secrets of 
the universe. His power appears greater in these 
studies — above all in the sublime though un- 
finished Adoration of the Magi of the Uffizi — than 
in his most beautiful and famous works. He 
seems to cry out, as Faust does when he sees the 
Sign of the dread Macrocosm : "Wo fass ich 
dich, wiendliche Natur ?" It is not so much the 
comprehensiveness of his genius, his marvellous 
intuition in all matters relating to science and 
art, that quells and silences ; it is a thing im- 
measurably greater than this. With some simple 
delineation of man or woman — take as an instance 
the famous Study for the Angel in the Madonna of 
the Rocks now in the Turin Library — he sets the 
door ajar and gazes into the essential mystery 
of life, as no creative artist before or after 
his time has done. But does he himself step 
across the threshold into the regions of the 
Unknown ? Does he not rather start back with 
the cry: "Well! ich erlrag dich nicht!"? If we 
look upon his self-portrait in old age, the wonderful 
drawing in the Turin Library, we see that the man 
who in the prime of manhood had been an Apollo, 
serene and mysterious, appeared in his later years 
a forlorn Titan, all seared and ravaged. Was he 
at last worsted in the awful struggle ? Was he 
content to end with such a work as the strange, 
ambiguous S. John the Baptist of the Louvre ? 
Raphael, as I venture to suggest, has given to his 
august Plato in The School of. A thens something of 
the features and the mien of aged Leonardo, 
the master to whom in his Florentine days he 
owed so much. But here, if still solitary and 
introspective in his mental wrestling, he towers 
majestic and serene — a Prometheus free and 
master of his fate. Let us strive to think of him 
thus — slowly dying out of life, vanquished yet a 

Harmony is the keynote of this art, whether its 
subject be the unfathomable mystery of life and 
beauty, or the unquenchable rage of combat and 

Such harmony is in immortal souls ; 
But whilst this muddy vesture of decay 
Doth grossly close it in, we cannot hear it. 


T is not proposed here to describe 
the manufacture or discuss the history 
of the various kinds of drinking-glasses 
with white spiral stems produced in 
England in the second half of the 

18th century. This ground has been sufficiently 
traversed in Hartshorne's " Old English Glasses 
Illustrated", 1897, and the various later handbooks 
on the subject which owe so much to that monu- 
mental volume. Hartshorne, however, whilst 


describing a few of the more usual kinds of spiral 
ornament employed, did not attempt a complete 
classification showing their relationship and de- 
velopment, and distinguishing between the com- 
moner and rarer types ; nor has any later writer, 
so far as I am aware, dealt comprehensively with 
the subject, and to supply this omission is the 
object of the present article. 

Considerable study of glasses possessing this 
type of stem leads me to dispose the white spirals 
in three main groups : I, Double, II, Single, and 
III, Interlacing. In the double spirals there are 
two clearly distinct ornaments, an inner one down 
the centre of the stem, and an outer one sur- 
rounding it and placed close to, or actually 
forming part of, the surface of the stem. In the 
single spirals, as the name implies, there is only 
one ornament. In the interlacing spirals there 
are two or more ornaments interlacing each other 
in such a way as to form substantially one orna- 
ment. For all these ornaments it is convenient 
to use the term " spiral ", which is in common 
use and well understood. It is, moreover, exactly 
descriptive of all of them, with perhaps one 
apparent exception. A captious critic might say 
that a straight network tube down the centre of 
the stem is not a spiral ; but the answer is that 
every such tube is composed of very fine threads 
of glass woven spirally together, and though the 
product is straight in form, it is essentially of 
spiral manufacture, and the argument ex con- 
venieiiti—ihe necessity for one general term- 
clinches the matter. 

It may perhaps be useful to give some explana- 
tion (in addition to that which will be gathered 
from the illustrations) of the terms used in 
describing the various types of spiral in the 
classification which is given below. 

By "lines " are meant threads of fine or medium 
texture, appearing, for example, in the spiral 
bands which vary in width according to the 
number and fineness of the lines of which they 
are composed, and which figure as one of the 
kinds of outer spiral in all classes of the double 

By " cords " are meant lines of some consider- 
able thickness, such, for example, as the two 
interlacing cords commonly found as the inner 
spiral in class B of the double spirals. 

The term " tapes " explains itself, but it may be 
pointed out that tapes may be plain (i.e., the 
surface quite flat) or ribbed or split, and this both 
in the case of the single twisted tape resembling 
a miniature spiral staircase, such as the inner 
spiral in class E of the double spirals, and of the 
spiral tapes occurring, for example, as one of the 
kinds of outer spiral in most classes of the double 
spirals. This variety in tapes of course increases 
the number of possible " combinations " in all 
classes of spirals in which a tape forms an 

element, though it is highly improbable that all 
the combinations possible were ever actually 

The term "tubes" also explains itself, and it 
need only be added that tubes are found both in 
the straight form (already mentioned) forming the 
inner spiral in class A of the double spirals and 
in the spiral form found, for example, amongst the 
outer spirals in some classes of the double spirals. 

With so much preface, I proceed to set out the 
classification in detail. 


This group is placed first because it includes 
half the total number of distinct types in the 
classification, and two of them— A (i) and B (i) — 
are undoubtedly the commonest forms of spiral 
ornament, so that glasses having a double spiral 
are more numerous than those illustrating either 
of the other groups or, in fact, both of them put 

It seems proper to base the classification of 
double spirals on the inner rather than on the 
outer spiral, since the latter seems supplementary 
to the former, and not vice versa. The practical 
result in the number of distinct types would of 
course be the same on either basis. 

It will be seen that there are only four kinds of 
outer spiral (cords, bands, tapes and tubes), whilst 
there are six kinds of inner spiral, three of a 
"single" and three of an " interlacing" character. 
The number of possible types derived from com- 
binations of these inner and outer spirals is 
consequently 24, but the number actually noted 
in the classification is only 15. It seems probable 
that several of the 9 missing potential types were 
never actually made (c/. observations under class 
C), but some of them may turn up, and, if so, can 
readily be inserted in their appropriate place in 
the classification. I return to this point in the 
" General Observations" at the end of the article. 

The following are the classes suggested for this 
group :— 

A. A SINGLE STRAIGHT TUBE (inner) with the 
following varieties of outer spiral : — 

(1) Two or more spiral cords. 

Usually two (No. 1), sometimes four 
(No. 2), with occasional varieties 
such as two groups of three cords 
each (No. 3). 

(2) One or more spiral bands. 

Usually one fairly broad band(No. 4), 
sometimes two or more narrower 
bands (No. 5). 

(3) Two spiral tapes. 
See No. 6. 

(inner), with the following varieties of outer 
spiral : — 


Plate 1. Old English glasses with \vhite[spiral stems 

zl> 2.7 

Plate II. Old English glasses with white spiral stems 

(i) One or more spiral bands. 

Two cords with one band, usually 
fairly broad, appears to be the com- 
monest combination, but the other 
three possible combinations are also 
found in fair numbers. Illustrations 
are given of all four — two thick 
cords with one and two bands 
respectively (Nos. 7 and 8), and 
four finer cords with one and two 
bands respectively (Nos. 9 and 10). 

(2) Two spiral tapes. 

See No. 11. 

(3) Two spiral tubes. 

See No. 12 (a rare type of glass with 
a thickened bowl). 

[The cords forming the inner 
spiral in this class, especially where 
there are only two, and those extra 
thick, are sometimes flattened and 
given sharp edges, but their thick- 
ness distinguishes them from the 
thinner tapes forming the inner 
spiral in class D.] 

with the following varieties of outer 

spiral : — 
(1) One or more spiral bands. 
See No. 15. 

[No other varieties of outer spiral 
in this class have at present come 
under my notice. The reason very 
possibly is that two interlacing 
spiral tubes take up so much space 
that there is usually little room left 
in the stem for any outer spiral save 
for spiral bands on its surface.] 

with the following varieties of outer 
spiral : — 

(1) One or more spiral bands. 

See No. 13. 

(2) Two spiral tubes. 

See No. 14. 

E. A SINGLE TWISTED TAPE (inner), with the 
following varieties of outer spiral ; — 

(1) One or more spiral bands. 

See Nos. 16 (one band) and 17 (two 

(2) Two spiral tapes. 

See Nos. 18 and 19 (an example of 
gilt decoration not very common on 
glasses with white spiral stems). 

(3) Tivo spiral tubes. 

See No. 20. 

[Illustrations 16 to 20 give good 
examples of the various kinds of 
tape, plain ribbed and split.] 

with the following varieties of outer 
spiral : — 

(1) Two or more spiral cords. 

See No. 21. 

(2) One or move spiral bands. 

See Nos. 22 (one band, unusually 
broad and fine) and 23 (two bands). 

(3) Two spiral tapes. 

See No. 24. 


Owing to the absence of possible combinations, 
there are fewer varieties of single than of double 
or interlacing spirals, and of such varieties as 
there are the collector will find comparatively few 
examples amongst his glasses. It therefore 
appears appropriate and convenient to treat the 
different types of single spiral as subdivisions of 
one class (G) rather than as separate classes. 

G. Single spirals of the following varieties: — 

(1) A straight tube. 

Most commonly used for the inner 
spiral in class A of the double spirals 
(see Nos. 1 to 6), but occasionally 
found alone as a single spiral. 

(2) A spiral band. 

See No. 25. 

(3) A spiral tube. 

See No. 26. 

(4) A hoisted tape. 

See Nos. 27 and 
[This is also 
spiral in class 

(5) A heist of fine lines. 

See No. 29. 

[This is also used for the inner 
spiral in class F of the double 

(6) A network twist edged with spiral cords. 

See No. 30. 
Illustrations 27 to 30 show plainly a develop- 
ment resulting from the varieties of tapes already 
mentioned. First the plain tape becomes ribbed, 
then it is split at the ribs (when the splits are few 
and irregular probably by accident in manufac- 
ture, but in many cases evidently by design), then 
the number of splits increases and a twist of fine 
lines results ; finally this twist becomes a network 
by the interlacing of the lines, and is edged with 
two spiral cords attached to it. The last- 
mentioned spiral may be compared with the 
double spiral F (1) — see No. 21 — the distinction, 
of course, being that in the latter the cords are 
separated from the twist so as to produce a double 
instead of a single spiral. 

These fall naturally into two main classes, one 



used for the inner 

E of the double 

in which the interlacing spirals are of the same 
kind, the other in which they differ from each 
other. They exhibit more variety than the single 
and less than the double spirals. 

H. Like interlacing like, 
(i) Spiral lines or cords. 

Usually eight. See Nos. 31 (lines) 
and 32 (cords). 

[Two or four interlacing spiral 
cords are found as the inner spiral 
in class B of the double spirals.] 

(2) Spiral tubes. 

Usually two or four. There is 
probably not room in a stem of 
ordinary size for more than four. 
See Nos. 33 (two tubes) and 34 
(four tubes). 

[Two interlacing spiral tubes are 
also found as the inner spiral in 
class C of the double spirals.] 

(3) Spiral tapes. 

Usually four. For the same reason 
probably the greatest number pos- 
sible. See No. 35. 

[Two interlacing spiral tapes are 
found as the inner spiral in class D 
of the double spirals.] 

(4) Twists of fine lines. 

Not more than two would appear to 
be possible. See No. 36 (an extra- 
ordinarily delicate and graceful 
example which, in my opinion, 
represents about the high-water- 
mark of spiral workmanship). 

J. Different interlacing spirals. 

(1) Spiral cords and spiral tube. 

Usually two cords (No. 37, an 
example of the rare filmy enamel 
decoration with which may be com- 
pared the opaque enamel on No. 10), 
but occasionally three cords in the 
stems of the larger glasses (No. 38). 

(2) Spiral tube and spiral tape. 

See No. 39. 

(3) Spiral tape and hvisted tape. 

See No. 40 (two spiral tapes). 

(4) Tivisted tape and spiral cords. 

Usually two cords. See No. 41. 
This combination is perhaps more 
often seen in the case of coloured 
than of all-white spirals. In the 
coloured spirals of this type the tape 
is white, one or both of the cords 
being coloured, or else both the 
cords and the tape are white, the 
latter being edged with colour on 
one side or on either side with 
different colours. In these ways 
spirals of two or three colours are 


produced. See No. 42 (purple, green 
and white). 
(5) Spiral cords and twist of fine lines. 
See No. 43. Here the cords and 
the twist clearly interlace, whereas 
in the double spiral F (1) — see 
No. 21 — the cords surround the 
twist, thus constituting a double 
instead of an interlacing spiral. 


The above classification is the outcome of some 
twenty years of collecting and the examination 
of many hundreds of glasses with white spiral 
stems. It is, as already indicated, very possibly 
not quite exhaustive, and further experience may 
perhaps add one or two to the thirty distinct 
types at present included in it. For example, if 
a twisted tape and spiral cords (instead of inter- 
lacing as in class J (4) ) should be found with the 
cords clearly outside and surrounding the tape, 
this would constitute a further double spiral 
forming a fourth type in class E. Similarly, if a 
glass should be found with a straight tube (inner 
spiral) surrounded by two spiral tubes (outer spiral), 
this type would find an appropriate place for in- 
sertion in class A of the double spirals, and so on. 

It seems likely, however, that in most cases a 
spiral not appearing at first sight to fall exactly 
within the description of any of these thirty types 
will be found, whenjts elements are analysed, to 
be merely a variety of some one of them. For 
example, the straight fine network tube in 
class A (1) sometimes degenerates into a thick 
solid rod of coarse and clumsy workmanship. In 
such a case the surrounding cords also are usually 
ill-executed and irregular, and the product as a 
whole does not merit the distinction of being 
classified as a separate type. It is essentially 
only a poor variety of class A (1). 

It is at any rate clear that these spiral orna- 
ments are not, as the generalisations of some 
writers would suggest, of anything like " infinite 
variety ". Given some thirty types, these with all 
the varieties of them which may be found are not 
likely to approach, still less to exceed, a total of 
one hundred. 

After A (1) and B (1), which are to be obtained 
in equal abundance, the types of which examples 
will most frequently be found are probably A (2), 
E (2), F (2), H (2) and J (1). Amongst the single 
spirals G (4), (5) and (6) would appear to be the 
least uncommon. 

Analysis of some 200 glasses with white spiral 
stems in my own cabinet shows that in round 
figures 140 fall within the double spiral group, 20 
within the single and 40 within the interlacing 
group. Types A (1) and B (1) account between 
them for about 65 of the 140 double spirals — i.e., 
about a third of the total number of specimens. 



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Piute III. Old English glasses with white spiral stems 

Pie-Reformation English silver chalice and paten, c. 1530 (Mr. H. Newton Veitch) 

A common type of stem does not, however, 
necessarily make a common glass, and many rare 
pieces with bowls either of uncommon form or 
finely engraved or enamelled or inscribed possess 
stems of A (i) or B(i) type. 

6 I venture to think that very similar numerical 
proportions to those given above will appear if 
collectors or dealers possessing any considerable 
number of glasses with white spiral stems examine 
them on the basis of this classification. 


his possession an interesting speci- 
men of a pre-Reformation English 
I silver chalice and paten, parcel gilt, 
„of about the period 1530. The 

chalice has the sexfoil base, introduced on English 

chalices and other vessels at the beginning of the 

16th century, and is therefore of the last type of 

chalice made in this country before the excessive 

reforming zeal of the leaders of the Reformation 

caused the ruthless destruction of all vessels and 

ornaments associated with the service of the mass 

and everything ecclesiastical which they regarded 

as " idolatrous and superstitious ", and before the 

adoption of the larger sacramental cup for the 
administration of the communion to the laity as 
well as the clergy. The crucifixion engraved on 
the base of the chalice has retained its original 
gilding. An uncommon feature is the unusual 
depth of the upper part of the hexagonal stem 
between the bowl and the knop. The only mark 
on the chalice is that of the maker, namely, W P, 
with an unrecognisable device below the initials 
resembling a baluster pillar or ornament. The 
paten, which is engraved with the sacred mono- 
gram in glory, is unmarked. In height the chalice 
is 5! in., the diameter of the bowl being 2| in. ; 
the diameter of the paten is barely 33 in. 



'HE interval of four hundred years 
which separates the great dynasties 
of Han and T'ang is virtually blank 
in Chinese ceramic annals. It was a 
period of strife and divisions, the 
empire being split up into a number of warring 
states, ruled by a rapid succession of short 
dynasties. The Han was followed by the age 
known as the Three Kingdoms, which has fur- 
nished as many tales of martial prowess and 
romance as the times of King Arthur himself. 
After this came the Western Tsin and the Eastern 
Tsin ; and in the 5th and 6th centuries no less 
than ten dynasties and sub-dynasties covering the 
period of division between the north and south. 
For a great part of this time the Northern Wei 
ruled in the northern provinces of China. They 
were champions of Buddhism, and the religious 
monuments which they have left behind them are 
instinct with the spirit of Indian Buddhistic art, 
and reflect something of the Hellenic influence 
which pervaded the Graeco-Buddhist sculptures 
of Gandhara. In 589 the Chinese Empire was 
once more united under the Sui dynasty, which 
was in turn succeeded by the T'ang in 618. 

Though these centuries of war and change can 
hardly have been favourable to the arts of peace, 
it is certain that the potters continued to ply their 
craft, and that considerable progress was made. 
Scientific excavation would no doubt make clear 

the steps of this ceramic evolution, but until that 
is undertaken we have to content ourselves with 
conjectural statements based on very slight 
material. We know something of the Han 
pottery, and lately we have learnt much about 
the T'ang, and we may safely conclude that the 
remarkable advance displayed by the latter was 
no sudden development, but the outcome of a 
gradual progress spread over the long interval 
between the two dynasties. It was during this 
intervening period, for instance, that the secret of 
porcelain gradually dawned upon the potters, 
probably by a process of evolution from hard 
pottery or stoneware hastened by the discovery of 
the natural materials which are necessary for the 
composition of a porcelain body. 

The analysis 1 of a series of vases found by 
Dr. Laufer near Sianfu proves that the potters 
who made them were unconsciously employing a 
kaolinic material which in a more refined state 
might have produced a white porcelain. In 
actual fact the ware is reddish stoneware, the 
colour of the body being determined by the 
presence of iron or other impurities. The glaze 
of these vases is of a translucent greenish brown 
colour, also due to the presence of iron, but it 
appears to be formed of the same kaolinic material 
softened with powdered limestone. In this latter 

1 Made by Mr. Nicholls at the Field Museum, Chicago, and 
published by Dr. B. Laufer, The Beginnings of Porcelain in 
China, Field Museum, Publication 192, Chicago, 1917. 


aspect it clearly foreshadows the principles of the 
later porcelain glaze, and in its green coloration 
obtained from iron it is analogous to the green 
glaze of the later celadons. From the circum- 
stances of the find and from the accompanying 
objects Dr. Laufer judged that these vases belong 
to a period very little removed from the Han 
dynasty. This type of ware is not unknown in 
Europe. There are specimens in the British 
Museum, and a very good example in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. The form of the latter is 
not unlike that of the Han sepulchral wine-jars, 
and the slight incised patterns on the neck and 
belly recall the primitive ornament on some of 
the Corean dolmen pottery. The Eumorfopoulos 
collection contains examples of this so-called 
porcelain, but they are of more archaeological 
than artistic interest. 

For the rest we have no substantial information 

about the ceramic products of China from the 

3rd to the 7th century, though, as already said, we 

may assume that some at least of the T'ang types 

go back to this period. There must have been 

quantities of pottery deposited in the tombs, for 

without doubt the burial customs continued 

unaltered. One of the few tomb finds to which 

a date can be attached belonged to the 7th century, 

and the pottery discovered with it showed a fully 

developed technique, the figures being in the best 

style and richly coated with the typical mottled 

glazes. If the ware had reached this perfection 

in the early years of the T'ang dynasty, it can 

hardly be doubted that the manufacture of the 

white plaster-like T'ang figurines with pigmented 

surface or thin glazes must have extended back 

to the previous century. Indeed, the style of some 

of the more elaborate figures is nearer to that of 

the Northern Wei and Sui sculpture than to the 

more full-bodied T'ang statuary. It might be 

supposed that details of costume would enable 

us to date approximately some of these sepulchral 

figures, but unfortunately the conventional dress 

of the personages represented seems to have 

scarcely altered from Han to T'ang times. While, 

then, it is safer for the present to regard this class 

of grave figurines generally as early T'ang 2 , a 

period to which without doubt a great many of 

them belonged, we must always keep in view the 

probability that some of them belong to the 

preceding dynasties. 

A possible specimen of the pottery of the 
intermediate period is illustrated on PLATE I, A. 
It is a jar made of hard red stoneware with opaque 
chocolate-brown glaze, and it appears to have had 
a cover. The ornament is in relief applied in 
pie-crust fashion, and consists of a tiled-roof 
design on the shoulders which recalls the Han 
granary urns discussed in a previous article, with 

* It appears that about the middle of the T'ang dynasty wood 
largely superseded earthenware as a material for grave goods. 

two monster finials (one now missing) which 
served as handles, and two crinkled bands between 
which is a running scroll of similar crinkling with 
rosettes and floral sprays in the spaces. Similar 
rosettes and pie-crust ornament occur on some 
fragments of pottery, of early but uncertain date, 
found by Sir Aurel Stein in Chinese Turkestan. 
Those who saw the exhibition in Paris, at the 
Mus6e Cernuschi, in 1913, may remember a 
brown-glazed jar of very similar make with 
crinkled bands enclosing a series of Buddhistic 
figures roughly modelled in high relief. A piece 
of similar type (if, indeed, it is not actually the 
Cernuschi jar) appears in the " I shu ts'ung pien " 
for October 1918 under the title " pottery jar of 
the Six Dynasties" (420-589 A.D.). How authori- 
tative this opinion is I do not know, but it 
certainly coincides with the general impression 
about this type of vase, viz., that it precedes the 
T'ang dynasty. 

The figurines on Plates I and II belong to the 
wonderful series of T'ang "grave goods" for 
which Mr. Eumorfopoulos's collection is specially 
noted, and they have the characteristics of material 
and make which can be definitely assigned to the 
early T'ang period, though they were doubtless 
developing in the preceding dynasties. In general 
the body of ware is lightly fired, and will powder 
readily under the knife. Its colour varies from a 
pinkish white to reddish buff, and its texture 
from a plaster-like material to soft earthenware. 
It is not always glazed, and the reddish ware is 
usually coated with a wash of white clay. The 
glaze when used is a thin, translucent covering, 
liable to split up into a fine crackle and to peel or 
flake off. This glaze, which seems to contain 
lead, varies in colour from a pale straw-yellow to 
a greenish white ; but, like the later lead glaze, it 
is frequently tinged with colouring oxides, such 
as antimony, cobalt, copper and manganese, which 
produce shades of orange-yellow or amber, blue, 
green and purple. Sometimes these colours are 
in even monochrome, but more often they appear 
in bold splashes, patches or mottling. It will be 
noted that the fine coloured glazes are as a rule 
better prepared than the simple yellowish or 
greenish white, and show less tendency to break 
away from the body. The figures are either 
posed on flat rectangular bases or stand on their 
own extremities, and the animal figures generally 
have a rectangular opening under the belly. 
Both the glazed and unglazed objects are some- 
times touched up with unfired red and black 
pigments to emphasise features of the design. 

More will be said about the T'ang tomb pottery 
in a subsequent article, and further illustration 
will be given of the numerous types in the collec- 
tion. We have only space now to describe the 
immediate specimens shown on Plates I and II. 
In Plate I, B, are three formidable creatures, 


8" high 


1 3 i" high 

to" high 

i 2" high 

Plate 1. Pottery from the George Eumorfopoulos collection. A jar ^^''^^ 
glaze : probably pre-T'ang. B. ( three guardian figures-^ ama, the god ol death, and two 
" earth-spirits " from T'ang graves 



: 2" high 

1 1 1" high, 12" wide 

144 m « 

iij" high 

i 4 V'high 

Plate II. Pottery figures from the George. Euui jrfopoulos collection. Tang dynasty or earlier. C, 
female attendant and a horse, coloured glazes. D., a lady of rank, a girl on horseback, and an attendant 
figure, unglazed but touched up with pigments 

supernatural guardians of the tomb reinforcing 
the mail-clad human guards, and intended to 
ward off the powers of evil. On the left is a 
representation of Yama, god of death, whose 
cult, imported from Thibet, is known to have 
flourished in China under the T'ang. His body 
appears to be covered with scales s , and he has the 
feet of a bull, eagle's claws and a monster head 
developed from the bull-headed type of Yama, 
with ferocious open jaws ; and under his arm is a 
vase. With regard to this last attribute Dr. Laufer 1 
quotes a description by Siegenbalg of a South 
Indian Yama which carried a "wine-jug from 
which he gives wine to the dying to mitigate the 
bitterness of death ", a benevolent purpose strangely 
contrasting with the ferocious aspect of our Yama 
figure. Dr. Laufer at the same time shows a 
whole series of tomb figures in which the Yama 
type is traced from the purely animal form 
through the bull-faced human to an entirely 
human shape, albeit with ferocious expression, 
which is scarcely distinguishable from the repre- 
sentations of the Lokapalas, or guardians of the 
Four Quarters of the Universe. 

The human-headed sphinxes found in graves 
are known by the Chinese as t'u k'uai, or " earth- 
spirits". Of the two illustrated on Plate I, b, 
the central figure, with its bull body, twisted 
horn, flame-like ears, winged shoulders and 
features which suggest a development of the bull- 
face, combines some of the Yama characteristics 5 
with others derived from some Persian or Sas- 
sanian monster such as we see occasionally 
modelled in bronze. The third figure is an 
" earth-spirit " pure and simple, with the flame- 
like tufts on his fore-legs which are common in 
Chinese representations of supernatural creatures. 
As to the material of these three objects, the first 
two are of a reddish ware dressed with white slip 
which is omitted effectively in such parts as the 
open mouth of the Yama ; and the sphinx on the 
right is of white plaster-like ware with transparent 
yellowish glaze. 

The female figures from T'ang graves are grace- 
ful and attractive, though on the whole lacking 
in variety. They represent as a rule members 
of the dead man's retinue, standing in deferential 
attitudes [Plate II, left of upper row and 
right of lower]. Such figures as the two on the 
left of Plate II, d, are exceptions, and would 
doubtless be important members of the family. 
The tall, slim figure on the left, no doubt a lady 
of distinction, is remarkable for her high head- 
dress, necklace, pendants and belt, all carefully 

* Dr. Laufer (Chinese Pottery Figures, Part I, Field Museum 
of Natural History, Publication 177, Chicago, 1914) illustrates 
a Yama figure wearing a spotted leopard skin. 

4 Ibidem, p. 294, 

8 C/. the head of Yama illustrated by Dr. Laufer, ibidem, 
Plate 47. 

modelled, and high collar of almost Elizabethan 
cut. The slender proportions of this figure and 
the details of the dress and ornament clearly 
recall the Buddhistic marble statues of the 
Northern Wei dynasty, and it is not unreason- 
able to infer that this is one of the pre-T'ang 
pieces. The beautifully modelled equestrienne 
to the right of her is probably the wife or daughter 
of the deceased. It is in any case a charming, 
youthful figure, and it shows incidentally that the 
T'ang women wore trousers and rode astride. 
All the three figures in this row are of the white 
plastery ware, without glaze, but touched up with 
unfired pigments, while that on the left has traces 
of gilding. 

In Plate II, c, is a graceful woman standing 
with folded hands in deferential attitude, probably 
an attendant of some exalted personage. This 
figure is of the white material with face unglazed, 
but with green-glazed robe and long yellow scarf 
draping the shoulders and falling down the front. 
With her is a fine statuette of a saddled horse of 
reddish ware with dressing of white slip and a 
colourless glaze dappled with spreading patches 
of blue. The saddle and saddle cloth are sharply 
modelled, but there is as usual no girth shown. 
The mane is dressed in a shell-shaped fringe in 
front, below which is a palmette ornament, and 
the head is very finely modelled. A great variety 
of horses are seen among the tomb figures of this 
time ; they are represented bareback or saddled, 
standing still or prancing, and the head, which 
has generally received special attention from the 
modeller, is held back by imaginary reins, and is 
often, as in the present case, turned on one side. 
The saddles have a high bow in front and deep 
shelving support behind ; the stirrups are square, 
and a bell or tassel usually hangs below the 
mouth, all details which accord with the pictorial 
representations of the time. The men of T'ang 
were lovers of the horse, and their artists were 
famous for their skilful portrayal of the noble 
animal. Witness Han Kan's famous picture of 
the Hundred Colts, and the superb bas-reliefs in 
stone depicting the six horses of the T'ai Tsung, 
the second and perhaps the greatest of the T'ang 
emperors, carved by Yu King-shu on the walls of 
the imperial mausoleum at Chao-ling, near Li- 
chiianhsien, in Shensi 6 . Dr. Laufer formed the 
conclusion that the more graceful and spirited of 
the tomb figures of horses come from the province 
of Honan, while the plainer and more stolid type 
is characteristic of the Shensi finds. This 
generalisation may be true, but it was not for 
want of six spirited models that the Shensi horses 
have obtained this reputation. 

e E. Chavanncs, Mission Archcologique dans la Chine Septen- 
triouale, pi. 287-90. Two of these important sculptures have 
been acquired by the Pennsylvania University Museum. See 
Museum Journal, September 1918. 




r HE table, such as we have seen it for 
china display or tea-taking, was not 
the first or by any means the only use 
made of the tripod base. It appears 
to have come to us from France, 
where that form of foot was affected by such late 
designers as Berain and Marot for the tall stands 
called gueridons. They were part of the sump- 
tuous get-up of the reception rooms of the great, 
being of elaborate workmanship and made of 
silver or of wood gilt. For placing "flambeaux 
ou porcelaines" is Littr6's description of their use, 
and a design by Berain shows one with a covered 
vase on it. But their height, anywhere between 
4 and 5 feet, made them as a resting place for 
branched candlesticks exactly suitable, together 
with chandeliers and wall sconces, for lighting 
saloons where people assembled for conversation 
and mostly stood. Thus it is as candlestands only 
that Chippendale describes them, although in his 
time they were in more general use on a humbler 
scale. While he gives four examples on one 
plate, " which, if finely executed, and gilt with 
burnished gold, will have a very good effect "*, no 
gold is even suggested as an alternative for those 
on three other plates, mahogany having become 
the customary material. The Marot type, of 
course, found its way to Hampton Court, the 
tripod being a dwarf adaptation of the C scroll 
and stretcher form that we found him using 
(vol. xxxiil, p. 139) as an alternative to the baluster 
leg in chairs and tables. This form continued 
with modifications under Anne, and it is probably 
not till her successor was on the throne that the 
cabriole form, with acanthus knee and club or 
claw foot, makes its appearance, and that maho- 
gany begins to be the substance. Mr. Percival 
Griffiths has a pair answering to that description 
and dating from about 1725, the pillar being of 
baluster type massively treated out of stuff 5J in. 
in diameter. Later on, with the incoming of the 
Chinese taste, a more elaborate building up was 
introduced ; the pillar became only part of the 
design between tripod and top, or was entirely 
replaced by a storeyed scheme of scrolls, frets and 
carved devices. Such is the character of Chip- 
pendale's designs, one or two of which quite 
closely resemble another of Mr. Griffiths' speci- 
mens [Plate XV, e]. The scroll is now replacing 
the cabriole for the tripod, on which rests a 
triangular plinth supporting three scrolled up- 
rights of the same moulding as the tripod, but 
breaking out into crisp foliation when they meet 
and cluster. They open again to support a second 

1 Director, plate cxlv, ed. 1762. 

triangle, between which and the hexagon top 
with Chinese fret rail is a third three-membered 
storey. The date will be about 1755, and the 
height of 49 inches is normal for the period, 
Chippendale telling us of his examples that "they 
are from three Feet, six Inches, to Four Feet, 
six inches in Height ". 

Early in the Cabriole period it had been found 
convenient to have much lower stands on which 
candlesticks might be placed to light the seated 
reader or needleworker, and the same little bit of 
furniture, if the top had a rail, would hold balls 
of wool and other adjuncts without fear of their 
falling off. Two out of Mr. Grifnths's fairly 
numerous pieces of this kind are illustrated 
[Plate XIV, a and b]. The shorter one is 
20J inches high. Tripod and pillar are richly 
carved with acanthus and there is an acanthus 
valence to the top which is 11 inches across and 
hollowed out so as to give a raised edge. The 
10 inch candlestick on it is of wood with strings 
of inlay round its base. The other stand and 
candlestick are decidedly higher — nearly 4ft. 6ins. 
to the top of the latter, a good height to serve the 
reading desks and stands then in use. The shade 
affixed to the candle, now so largely used, had 
not then been thought of, but little independent 
screens were occasionally made. The example 
illustrated [Plate XIV, c] has a total height of 
15 inches, the whole, including the panel, being in 
mahogany. It is modelled on the plan of the then 
fashionable pole screens. In days when the only 
source of heat in a draughty room was an open 
fireplace, it was well to sit as close by it as possible, 
and the only preventive to being roasted on the 
one side while the other was chilled was the 
screen, of which mention is made for the purpose 
of warding off fire heat as early as the 15th 
century. Two hundred years later a meditative 
bishop likens the screen that stands between him 
and the fire to the good friend at Court, " which 
keepes me from the heate of the unjust displeasure 
of the great " 2 . I have not met with a survival of 
that date, but those of the end of the 17th century 
were of the frame type, the panel working up and 
down between two uprights. At Hampton Court 
there is one with exactly the same design of 
footing as the gueridons already mentioned and 
ascribed to Marot. Although this form continued 
it was not so fashionable under the Georges as the 
pole type, which was equally efficacious and 
lighter to move. Of these Mr. Griffiths has got 
together very excellent and representative ex- 
amples, of which two are now illustrated. The 
one [Plate XV, 0] has the interesting singularity 

2 Bishop Hall's Meditations, p. 282, ed. 1635. 


















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of feet carved in the semblance of the front half 
of a mastiff or bear, perhaps an allusion to the 
crest or supporters of the family for whom it was 
made. Shell, acanthus and husk are the motifs 
of the richly carved tripod and pillar. The panel 
with rounded top is filled with a needlework 
presentment of Elijah being fed by the ravens, 
framed in a floral border. Why, with stag, goat 
and rabbit at his feet, he needed this attention on 
the part of the birds is a question which did not 
occur to the fair needleworker. The other'screen 
[Plate XV, f] has dolphin-head feet to its 
lighter stand with shallower carving. The oblong 
needlework panel has a pastoral subject in its 
central oval, and is delicately edged with a half 
circular mahogany baguette, carved with ribbon 
and flowers out of stuff only Jth of an inch in 

Other tripod pieces, fashionable during the 
cabriole period are two and three tiered waiters, 
and the exiguous washing accommodation which 
Chippendale calls "Bason Stands" 8 . Though 

3 Director, plate lv, ed. 1762. 


|T the period when iconography 
, makes its first appearance in tapestry 
the development of portraiture, as an 
'independent branch of painting, was 
^complete. It is not before the 16th 
century that we may speak of tapestry portraits 
reproducing the features of the persons they are 
intended to represent. Inventories of the 15th 
century describe contempoi ary princes appearing 
on tapestries of the period ; but, the actual pieces 
not being extant, we are unable to judge whether 
they portray or only represent the subject. With 
the dawn of the 16th century all these doubts are 
set aside. The tenture of Our Lady of Sablon 
formerly in the Spitzer collection, and now partly 
in the Musee du Cinquantenaire in Brussels and 
partly in the Stieglitz Museum in Petrograd, is a 
precious document. Not only have we here an 
incontestable portrait representation of the King 
of Aragon with his brother and sister and Count 
Francis of Taxis, the donor, but the set is also a 
rare specimen of a dated tapestry, bearing, as it 
does, the year 1518 in a cartouch on the central 
piece. At this early period the textile portrait, as 
Dr. Bottiger observes, 1 did not form an indepen- 
dent branch of the art ; the persons whose features 
are faithfully portrayed being only actors in a 
composition illustrating an historic or otherwise 
noteworthy event. It is only towards the close of 
the century that we may find a weaving, the sole 

1 Dr. John Bottiger, k'onstliistoriska Uppsatser, Stockholm, 
1913. P. 108. 

very insufficient from a modern standpoint, their 
design and finish are as high as that of more 
important pieces, and bring home to us the 
excellence and originality of our 18th century 
cabinet makers. If, in ambitious grandeur, they 
fell short of the French, to whose invention and 
artistry they owed much, they, alone among other 
nations of the age, formed a school of their own 
and produced every sort of piece in the highest 
quality adapted to its purpose and to the scale of 
living of its purchasers. This is not an insular 
view, but is admitted by French authorities, who, 
although claiming France as the teacher, admit 
the English creative power, while ranking Ger- 
many as entirely under French tutelage and mere 
copyists so far as worthy output is concerned. 4 

4 "' L'Angleterre, si elle subit, elle aussi, l'influence francaise, 
si elle connut le mobilier dc l'epoque de Louis XIV, le style 
rocaille et le style antique, sut du moins, de bonne heure, donner 
une physionomie bien personelleaces divers emprunts et creer 
a son tour, a la fin du xvm e siecle, un mobilier qu'on peut ne 
pas admirer dans toutes ses parties, mais qui lui appartient en 
propre ". Emile Molinier, Histoire des arts Appliques ii 
I' Industrie, Vol. m, p. 238. 


object of which is the recording of the features of 
the sitter. The gradual transition may be clearly 
traced through a succession of specimens that 
have survived. In the suite of Our Lady of 
Sablon, referred to above, the king and those 
accompanying him are prominent figures, indeed, 
but there is no intention of separating them 
from the multitude. In subsequent tapestries 
the portrayed persons gain predominance until 
they ultimately become the subject matter of 
the picture. The Battle of Pavia in the museum 
at Naples is conceived in conformity with the 
earlier principle, but in the Conquest of Tunis a 
departure from that principle is manifest. Jan 
Vermejen, the author of the cartoons, has repre- 
sented himself in the opening scene ; but there is 
no connection between him and " The Chart " 
forming the subject of the panel : he stands alone, 
leaning against a column at the edge of the border, 
deliberately facing and, as it were, addressing the 
spectator. In the Henri III pageants of the 
Galleria degli Arrazzi the transition is almost 
complete, as here the king and the members of 
the royal family form the real subject of the 
tapestry, while the incident they are associated 
with in the picture is only a background. In the 
17th century the tapestry portrait in its pure form 
is quite common, and in the succeeding age we 
find few establishments of any importance which 
did not manufacture woven portraits. Among 
the factors responsible for the development of this 
kind of tapestry in the latter period, pecuniary 

2 43 

considerations occupy an important place. The 
weaving of tapestries of the elaborate pictorial 
and verdure group was an expensive undertaking. 
It involved much skilful work, both on the part 
of the cartoon designer and of the weaver ; the 
execution was long and costly, and when finished 
it was by no means an easily negotiable article. 
Consequently, as we know, the manufactories 
engaged on this class of work were hardly ever 
a success from a financial point of view, and 
could exist only when substantially subsidized. 
Financial difficulties of this nature prompted the 
weavers to resort to the reproduction of portraits 
and pictures of moderate size. Such tapestry 
being only subsidiary to the principal business of 
the establishment, the records regarding portrait 
reproductions are very incomplete, and the diffi- 
culties of identifying the looms proportionately 
increased. Occasionally they are signed, but this 
is not common, and in the absence of marks 
nothing but considerations of a general nature 
and the technical test are left for our guidance. 
The technical criterion is in many crafts a reliable 
guide, but when dealing with tapestries its value 
is less appreciable, the materials employed and the 
technical methods adopted in various manufac- 
tories being practically uniform, or, when varying, 
the distinction is often too slight to afford a clue. 
The Princess Dashkoff is sufficiently known in 
this country for a general introduction to be 
unnecessary, and we have no space for details 
of her career, remarkable as it was under the 
circumstances of the time ; nor does this form 
the subject of our article. For the present our 
attention is restricted to a portrait in tapestry of 
that lady in the collection of Sir Hercules Read. 
This portrait, apart from its very uncommon 
individual merits as an artistic production, is of 
particular interest as being the earliest representa- 
tion of the princess so far brought to light, and 
one recording her features, as there is good 
ground to believe, more faithfully than any of 
her other portraits do. The actual location of 
the original is unknown, nor have we been able 
to find an allusion to it in any of those sources 
of information, necessarily limited, which it has 
been possible to find access to here. The portrait 
is not signed, but it possesses in so marked a 
degree the principal characteristics inseparable 
from Rotari's 2 paintings, with the faults and merits 
common to all his works, that no hesitation is 
entertained in attributing it to that artist. The 
prolific pupil of Balestra and Trevisani, little 
known in Western Europe, enjoyed an exceptional 
popularity at the court of the Empress Elizabeth, 
where, during the five years he passed in Russia, 
he succeeded in producingalmost a record quantity 
of work. This will be realised if we consider that 

2 Born in Verona, 1707 ; came to Russia, 1757 ; d. in S. 
Petersburg, T762. 

the Empress Catherine bought several hundred 
studies of heads and portraits, which were left after 
the artist's death. To this must be added the 
numerous paintings which had been acquired by 
the Empress Elizabeth during his lifetime, and a 
large number of portraits of courtiers and fashion- 
able ladies, which he had painted in the meantime, 
and which had passed into private possession. 
In the treatment of his subject he was affected 
and not free from mannerism, but this was 
balanced by the graceful ease and dignity which 
he imparted to his work. His colours, conven- 
tional and sombre, with a predominance of silvery 
grey and various gradations of blue, are blended 
with an unerring sense of harmony. His portraits, 
conventional as they undoubtedly are, appear to 
be reliable iconographic documents. Rovinski, 
quoting Stellin, Rotari's contemporary, says that 
the artist's portrait of Elizabeth (now in the 
Romanoff Portrait Gallery) was the most faithful 
picture of the empress he had seen. 

The date of the portrait under our consideration 
may be established with a fair degree of precision. 
The princess is here represented wearing the 
insignia of the Order of S. Catherine, conferred 
upon her on June 28, 1762, the day following the 
coup d'etat which brought Catherine to the throne 
of Russia, and in which the princess claimed 
to have played a leading part ; but she is not 
wearing the plaque-portrait, which she received 
on September 22 of the same year. Before pass- 
ing to the review of the list of her portraits, it 
may be of interest to recollect the few lines, 
delineating her appearance, which Diderot devoted 
to her, after their first interview in 1770 : " La 
princesse Dashkoff n'est aucunement belle ; elle 
est petite ; elle a le front grand et haut ; de 
grosses joues gonflees, des yeux ni grands ni 
petits, un peu renfonces dans leurs orbites, les 
sourcils et les cheveux noirs, le nez epate, la 
bouche grande, le cou rond et droit d'une forme 
nationale ; la poitrine convexe, point de taille " 3 . 

Diderot's pen-portrait is in perfect agreement 
with the picture we have before us in every detail 
except one — the colour of her hair. It is difficult 
to reconcile his statement on this point with the 
testimony of existing portraits. All these represent 
the princess with light hair, and on the miniature 
in the collection of the late Grand Duke Nicolay 
Mikhailovitch an actual lock of hair, claimed to 
be that of the princess, is attached, and this is 
light blond. Yet in the Tonci pictures, painted 
when she was in banishment, twenty years after 
the meeting with Diderot, her hair is certainly 

The portraits of the Princess Dashkoff are 
numerous, as the following tentative list will 
show. The earliest on this list is the one in 
Sir Hercules Read's collection by Rotari. The 

3 Diderot, (Euvres Completes, Paris, 1S76, vol. xvn, p. 490. 


location of the original, as we have said, is 
unknown, but its probable hiding place would be 
the collection of family portraits in Andreievskoe 
(Govt, of Nijni-Novgorod), belonging to Countess 
Vorontsoff-Dashkoff. The house contains about 
four hundred portraits (a catalogue of which is 
not extant), including many by Rotari. Next in 
point of date is the one by the court portrait 
painter, Levitzki [c. 1735-1822]. The fate of the 
original is likewise unknown, but it has been 
engraved by Mayer, Knight, Chapman, Ossipoff 
and Engleheart. In this picture the princess is 
frankly and intentionally idealised, the resemblance 
is doubtful, and as an iconographic document it 
is of little value. Levitzki's authority, the pleasing 
effect of the picture and the spirit of the concep- 
tion appealing to the taste of the period, led 
others to adopt this type, as we see in the portrait 
belonging to Prince N. N. Obolenski in Moscow 
and in another belonging to Prince Ouroussoff ; a 
late copy of the latter by Kramskoy is in the Dash- 
koff Ethnographic Collection in the Roumiantzoff 
Museum in Moscow. The half-length portrait in 
the Academy of Science is a copy after the same 
type. The first dated piece is that drawn and 
engraved by Skorodoomoff [c. 1755—1792] in 
1777. The plate was prepared by the artist at 
the time when he was completing his studies in 
England, coinciding with the period of Princess 
Dashkoff's visit to Scotland. Rovinski regards 
this portrait as the most faithful of all. This 
portrait is repeated in another engraving by the 
same author representing the princess surrounded 
by her children. Next we have Houdon's bust, 
executed during Princess Dashkoff's second visit 
to Paris in February-March, 1780. Referring to 
this work in her memoirs she says : " Houdon, 
the sculptor, occupied a good deal of my time, to 
whom, at my daughter's desire, I sat for my bust 
in bronze as large as life. When it was finished 
I could not help observing that the artist had too 
much taste to make a likeness ; for instead of the 
simple Ninette that I was, he had shaped me into 
a flaunting French duchess, with a laced cap and 
an uncovered neck" 4 . The model was exhibited 
at the Salon of 1781 and a bronze cast in 1783. 
Following in chronologic order we have the year 
1796. That is the date we find on Ossipoff 's 
engraving of the princess in exile. The inscription 
states that the original was painted in that year 
by Tonsh. This name does not appear in any of 
the books of reference, and is obviously meant 
for Tonci. The original is in the collection of 
G. W. Olssoufieff in Petrograd. A replica of this, 
in the possession of W. P. Polivanoff, Petrograd, 
is attributed to Klaudi, quite an unfamiliar name, 
of which no traces appear to exist, unless it is 
meant for Klauber, the engraver. Another version 
of this we find in Warren's engraving for the 
* Memoirs of Princess Dashkoff, vol. I, p. 225. 

Dashkoff memoirs. Essentially it is the same as 
the Olssoufieff and Polivanoff portraits, and differs 
only in the pose of the head and the expression 
of the face. This terminates the chronologic 
sequence, but does not exhaust the list. M. Ben- 
kendorff, of Petrograd, owns a portrait attributed 
to Lampi. An engraving by Denon, representing 
the princess in profile, is in the Cabinet des 
Estamps, and may, perhaps, be identical with 
that to which Rovinski attaches the date of 1797. 
A new type is revealed in the half-length portrait 
belonging to Mrs. Walker in Oxford, and engraved 
by Warren as a frontispiece for the Dashkoff 
memoirs. The subject is treated in an official 
manner ; attributes of learning are introduced to 
express Princess Dashkoff's connection with 
science. The resemblance would appear to be 
trustworthy, especially if the portrait is examined 
together with the miniature in the collection of 
the late Grand Duke Nicolay Mikhailovitch, to 
which we have already alluded. This miniature 
represents the central portion of the Walker por- 
trait, and came into the possession of the grand 
duke from a descendant of the princess. Two 
portraits by unknown authors were exhibited by 
Count Vorontzoff-Dashkoff in Moscow in 1870. 
A miniature belonging to G. W. Polivanoff appears 
in the catalogue of that exhibition, and may, 
perhaps, be identical with that in the collection 
of the late Grand Duke Nicolay Mikhailovitch. 
Motarski is said to have engraved a portrait of 
the princess from the original by Kalatinkoff, but 
we find no traces of either of these two names. 
One portrait, the author of which is unidentified, 
is in the palace of Gatchina. A late copy after 
an unknown original is in the possession of 
M. P. Poutiloff in Petrograd. 

We will now pass to the tapestry in Sir 
Hercules Read's collection. The weaving is 
complete, and though in some places the edge is 
fringed there are no signs of any portion of it 
having been cut off. There is no selvedge and it 
bears no weaver's mark or other indication of 
origin. The standard of workmanship, from a 
purely technical point of view, is of an order that 
would not only justify its attribution to the 
Gobelins, but would even urge that attribution as 
a primary impulse. The blending of the colours 
proves the author to be in perfect command of 
his medium ; but still more important as a test of 
skill is the almost flawless delineation throughout 
the work. In this respect the weaving will stand 
comparison with the best productions of the 
Gobelins manufactory and is, indeed, superior to 
many. It is true we find no mention of this 
particular piece in the Etat General of the manu- 
factory, but we know that the greater part of the 
work of this class was not recorded in the official 
lists, having been done privately by the weavers. 
Thus Cozette appears to have specialised on 

2 45 

portraits, and is stated to have reproduced a large 
number of them after Drouais, of which only two 
are recorded in the Etat General. That tapestry 
portraits were worked at the Gobelins for Russia is 
testified by Cozette's signed picture of Catherine II 
in Tsarskoie Selo. And yet the purely tapestry 
problem has been solved in a manner which we 
do not find, nor, considering the traditions of the 
manufactory, would expect to find, in the Gobelins 
of the period. Rejoicing in their skill and their 
unrivalled ability to overcome technical difficulties, 
the virtuosi on the Bievre concentrated their 
energies on this side of their task, to the oblivion 
of the limitation and the peculiarities of their 
medium. Priding themselves on their ability to 
facsimile in weft the actual material of the model, 
and encouraged in that respect by those who con- 
trolled the activities of the manufactory at the 
end of the 18th century, they carried the practice 
to an extreme, so far, indeed, that in 1806 
Napoleon I found it necessary to arrest their 
progress in that direction by an order : " De- 
fendre aux Gobelins de faire des tableaux avec 
lesquels ils ne peuvent jamais rivalizer, mais de 
faire des tentures et des meubles " 5 . The tapestry 
under our consideration is entirely free from 
these defects and would seem to have been woven 
under conditions where these influences were not 
exercised. In this piece the limitations and the 
potentialities of the medium are understood and 
appreciated to their full value; no intention of 
imitating the effects of oils is traceable, and this 
not for want of dexterity or ability to do so, as 
the modulation of the flesh tints conclusively 
shows. It is not a copy, but a translation of the 
original into the language of the medium em- 
ployed. Technical peculiarities, which the photo- 
graph fails to express but which are unmistakable 
on the actual weaving, would lead to the attri- 
bution of this piece to the Imperial Tapestry 
Manufactory of St. Petersburg. It is true the 
workmanship is of an order which we do not 
often see in the unquestionably Russian tapestries. 
The quality of these ranges from productions of 
amateur crudeness in the first half of the 18th 
century to performances of thorough professional 
training in the reign of Catherine II and later, but 
seldom approaches the perfect execution reached 
at the Gobelins. Documents, both in French and 
Russian archives, prove that at the period at 

6 E. Gerspach, Repertoire dctaillc des Tupisscries de Gobelins 
executees de lbt)2 a 1S92. Paris, 1892, p. 27. 

which there is reason to suppose the tapestry we 
are considering would have been woven, there 
were at least four master weavers of the Gobelins 
active in St. Petersburg, yet we are unaware of a 
single piece that could with safety be attributed to 
anyone of them. If and when sufficient evidence 
is brought to light to permit of such an attribu- 
tion, we may redeem for the Russian looms pieces 
which are now either unidentified or assigned to 
manufactories not responsible for their produc- 
tion. The Russian apprentices, who during the 
reign of Catherine II gradually superseded their 
French instructors, proved able pupils, well 
capable of maintaining the standard reached by 
their masters. 

There is no direct evidence that Princess 
Dashkoff patronised or took any personal interest 
in the work of the St. Petersburg looms, yet some 
connection with the establishment would appear 
to have existed. The archives of the Academy 
of Arts contain a dossier dealing, among other 
things, with the claims of the court portrait 
painter, Levitzki, in respect of payments due to 
him for a copy of a portrait of the Empress, the 
original of which he had painted for Princess 
Dashkoff and which was at the time of the claim 
(1775) in the Tapestry Manufactory". 

A technical detail may be mentioned without 
attaching to it any undue importance : whereas 
the warp on our portrait is horizontal, that on the 
Gobelins pieces of this group appears to be in- 
variably vertical. It may be added that on all 
the Russian woven portraits the warp, so far as it 
has been possible to ascertain, is horizontal. The 
general tone of the background, a yellowish grey, 
corresponds exactly to that of several portraits in 
tapestry of the late 18th century known to have 
been woven in St. Petersburg, such as the portraits 
of Paul I in the palaces of Pavlovsk and Gatchina 
and that of Prince G. Orloff in the last named 
collection ; those portraits have the same transi- 
tion in wavy lines between the different hues of 
the background which seems to have been a dis- 
tinctive feature of the St. Petersburg works. Two 
portraits (Henri IV and Sully) woven at the 
Gobelins and presented by Louis XVI to Paul I 
in 1782, now in the palace of Gatchina, have 
equally yellowish backgrounds, but of an entirely 
different colour and texture, with none of those 
half- loose seams which are usual in the Russian 

6 S. P. Diaghileff, Ritsskoya zjivopis v xvm vylkie, vol. I— 


Tapestry portrait of Princess DashkoEE (Sir C. Hercules 

'HE development of the painter's art 
in the Muhammadan world has been 
much restricted by the hostile attitude 
of the theologians to any representa- 
tion of the human figure or animal 
forms. The prohibition in the Qur'an (V, 92) 
makes no mention of pictures, but condemns 
making of images, along with gambling, 
drinking of wine and the use of arrows 



figure in art ; and in whatever else they may 
disagree, they are at one in their hostility to a 
practice that savoured of idolatry. The HanafI 
school of law, which prevails over the larger part 
of the Sunni world, declares categorically : 
" Images and figures whether of men or animals 
are forbidden to the faithful ". In the Shafl'I and 
Maliki law books, the prohibition of pictures is 
discussed in connection with the conditions under 
which an invitation to a wedding-feast may be 
accepted, eg., there must be no figures of animals 
on the ceiling, the walls, the cushions ranged along 
the walls, on the curtains, or on the robes worn 
by the guests ; but there is not the same objection 
to animal forms on carpets that are trampled 
under foot, they may even be painted on the 
ceiling and on the walls, provided that they have 
no heads. Drawings of trees and plants and other 
inanimate objects, such as a mosque or a minaret, 
were exempt from this condemnation. 

It was not merely the Sunni schools of law, but 
the Shiah jurists also who fulminated against this 
figured art. Because the Persians are Shiahs, 
many European writers have assumed that the 
Shiah sect had not the same objection to repre- 
sentations of living beings as the rival sect of the 
Sunnis, and that consequently it became possible 
for the art of painting to attain so rich a develop- 
ment among the Persians ; but such an opinion 
ignores the fact that Shiism did not become the 
state church in Persia until the rise of the Safavid 
dynasty at the beginning of the 16th century, and 
that Shiah theology is in many respects more 
intolerant than Sunni doctrine. According to 
Shiah law, painting and sculpture representing 
living beings are reckoned among the unlawful 
means of livelihood, and it is even unlawful to 
sell wood for the making of a statue. Their 
regulations for the performance of prayer reveal 
the same hostility to the painter's art, e.g., no 
representations of men or animals are to be 
painted in a mosque, and the pious Muslim must 
not say his prayers before any painted or carved 
likeness of an animate being ; he must not wear 
at the time of prayer a robe or even a ring with a 
representation of a living thing on it. 

But just as Islam never succeeded in extirpating 
the ideals and sentiments of the Arab heathenism 
that preceded it, so that two separate currents of 
cultural influence run through the greater part of 
Arabic literature ; in the same manner, the teach- 
ings of Muhammadan theologians and legists 
failed to crush entirely the artistic impulses that 
found expression in sculpture and figure painting. 
Every student of Muhammadan art is familiar 
with a long series of paintings of men and animals 

purposes of divination. " O believers, wine, and 
games of chance, and images (ansab) and arrows 
are an abomination from the work of the devil ; 
then turn aside from it ". The ansab, here 
mentioned, were the sacred stones on which the 
heathen Arabs offered sacrifices ; sometimes they 
were mere rough blocks of stone, at other times 
carved representations of divinities, male or 
female. The prohibition has thus, primarily, no 
reference to works of art, but only to the practices 
of idolatry. 

But Muslim dogma is derived not merely from 
the Qur'an but from another source also, the 
HadlM, the traditionary utterances of the Prophet, 
to which theologians ascribed an authority as 
binding as that of the Qur'an itself. While the 
words of the Qur'an were believed to be eternal 
and to have been uttered by Muhammad under 
direct inspiration from God, in the Traditions 
there was likewise embodied a divine inspiration, 
though the actual form might not be that of the 
Word of God. These Traditions are very rigid in 
their condemnation of all representation of 
figures, whether human or animal. It is declared 
that the painter of any living figure will on the 
Day of Judgment be called upon by God to put 
life into it, and on his confessing his inability he 
will be sent down into hell. The conception 
underlying this doctrine would appear to be, that 
the painter usurps the function of the Creator, 
even in his imitative representation of living 
forms. The Prophet is said to have refused, on 
one occasion, to enter the room of his favourite 
wife 'A'ishah, because there was a curtain in it on 
which figures were represented, and he told his 
followers that the angels would not enter a house 
in which there was any picture or sculpture. 

From such Traditions as these proceeds the 
iconoclastic zeal which runs through the whole of 
Muslim theology and history, and from the 
Traditions this hostile attitude towards the art of 
figure painting passed into the common thinking 
of the Muhammadan world. Above all, the legists 
of Islam, who take the Qur'an and the Traditions 
as the main basis of their systematic expositions 
of Muslim law, are uncompromising in their 
condemnation of all representations of the living 


in various parts of the Muhammadan world from 
Spain in the west to the borders of China in the 
east, and even sculptures in stone and animals of 
metal are to be found. It is true that these are 
few in number from the Arabic-speaking countries, 
but scattered notices of works of art in Arabic 
literature show that there were many more which 
have not come down to us. Despite the fulmina- 
tions of the theologians the painter went on 
drawing the figures of men and of animals ; and 
in a similar spirit of defiance his royal patron 
encouraged him, for there were many Muham- 
madan rulers who would not brook the inter- 
ference of the theologians in their favourite tastes 
and pursuits, however much these might be 
condemned by the religious law and might shock 
the devout feelings of the orthodox. This was 
still more the case in Persian than in Arab art, in 
the courts of the Seljuqs, Turks and Persians than 
under the more scrupulous Arab caliphs ; and the 
student of Persian art soon comes to recognise 
that he is dealing almost entirely with a courtly 
art, and that he must not expect to find in 
Muhammadan courts the most rigid observance 
of religious precepts or of the teachings of 
theologians, just as the historian does not search 
the annals of royal courts in Christendom for 
patterns of saintly Christian virtue. The drinking 
of wine was more sternly and unequivocally 
forbidden in the Qur'an than was the painting of 
pictures, but there is no ordinance of their 
religion that has been so little regarded by 
Muhammadan monarchs, and drunkenness has 
been a common feature of their courts from the 
days of the Umayyads in the first century of the 
Muslim era down to modern times. 

What is true of Muhammadan courts in Persia 
is still more true of those in India, where the 
painter's art received liberal patronage from 
generations of Muhammadan princes and nobles, 
and notably under the Mughal dynasty blossomed 
out into a refined and attractive school of por- 
traiture. But however much Muhammadan 
painters might defy the theologian and the senti- 
ment of the main body of their co-religionists, 
there was one outrage they would rarely dare to 
commit, viz., attempt to portray the features of 
Muhammad himself, the Prophet of God. The 
figure of Muhammad seldom occurs in a picture 
painted by a Muslim artist, and where it is found 
the face is generally veiled or the Prophet is 
symbolically represented by a flame of golden 
light. This very rarity of the subject-matter 
lends interest to the picture here reproduced l , 
though in itself it is not a work of particular 
artistic merit. No similar picture of Muhammad 
and his companions has hitherto been recorded, 
and it is strange that it should have escaped the 
destructive fanaticism that has consigned so 
1 By the kind permission of Messrs. Carfax and Co. 

many Muhammadan pictures to the flames or has 
at least savagely mutilated the faces, after the 
fashion familiar to students of Persian MSS. It 
appears to belong to the early part of the 17th 
century, and from the treatment of the subject- 
matter is clearly either the work of a Shiah artist 
or was painted for a Shiah patron. One feels 
tempted to suggest that it may have been painted 
in one of the Shiah kingdoms of the Deccan that 
were absorbed by the growing Mughal empire 
and were finally swept away by Aurangzeb, but 
we have not materials enough for any definite 
characterisation of the painter's art in Bijapur and 
Golkondafor a positive opinion to be pronounced 
on this matter. 

The scene represents a mosque ; in the centre 
of the background is the prayer-niche, with two 
tall lighted candles in front of it ; on the right is 
a pulpit, and on the left of the niche is seated 
Muhammad, on a raised throne, with his grand- 
sons, Hasan and Husain, one on each side of 
him. In an archway, in the extreme left-hand 
corner, stands Bi'al, the first muezzin, or caller to 
prayer, appointed by Muhammad ; he had been 
an Abyssinian slave, and was one of the first 
converts to Islam, for his constancy to which he 
suffered cruel persecution. Below him are seated 
the first three caliphs, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 
'Uthman, and opposite them (just in front of the 
prayer-niche) the fourth caliph, 'All. The promi- 
nent place thus given to 'All clearly marks the 
Shiah proclivities of this picture. According to 
the Shiahs, the Legitimists of Islam, the caliphate 
belonged to 'All, the son-in-law of the Prophet, 
by divine right, and they maintain that Muham- 
mad expressly named him as his successor. To 
this day they curse 'Umar for his opposition to 
the claims of 'All ; and the Shiah painter has here 
represented the second caliph as looking across 
at 'All with a sardonic expression on his face, 
while Abu Bakr turns to him with a look of mild 

In a recess on the right hand of the background 
is 'Abbas, an uncle of the Prophet and the ancestor 
of the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad, and his son 
'Abdullah. In the centre of the picture stands 
Qanbar, a freedman of 'Ali, holding his master's 
famous sword Dhu' 1-Faqar, around which many 
legends collected, and which was believed to 
have had two points. By the side of Qanbar 
stands 'Ammar ibn Yasir, holding a copy of the 
Qur'an in his hands ; he was one of the earliest 
converts to Islam, and suffered persecution for 
the faith in Mecca. He distinguished himself by 
his bravery in the battle of Badr, when Muham- 
mad gained his first victory over his fellow- 
tribesmen, and took part in several subsequent 

Kneeling on the prayer-mat, on which lies his 
rosary, is Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, another of the 


Muhammad and his Companions, Indian miniature, probably early 17th c. (Carfax, Ltd. 

first converts, who was highly honoured on 
account of his piety, and was famous for his 
beautiful pronunciation of Arabic. Among the 
Shiahs he is held in special reverence for his 
ascetic virtues. On his right hand stands Salman 
the Persian, a Christian slave in Medina, who 
embraced the new faith in the first year of the 

Inside the marble balustrade on the left are 
seated six of the most famous companions of the 
Prophet — Usamah ibn Zayd, Miis'ab ibn 'Umayr, 
Zayd ibn Harithah, Abu 'Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah, 
Sa'Id ibn Zayd, and 'Abd al- Rahman ibn 'Awf; 
these are great names in the early history of Islam, 
but the present is hardly a suitable occasion for 
writing an account of them. In the foreground 
are seated four of the greatest warriors of the 


The Royal Collections at Buckingham 
Palace. — Advantage has been taken of the oppor- 
tunity provided by the war to make several 
changes in the arrangement and exhibition of the 
pictures at Buckingham Palace. The gallery there 
is so high that it used to seem impossible that its 
contents should be properly shown. But this 
defect has been very ably overcome by some 
happy adjustment of the roof lights, and the 
Dutch masterpieces collected by George IV can 
now be seen as never before. It is a magnificent 
collection, and the examples of Rembrandt, of De 
Hoogh, of Steen and of Terborch, are unsurpassed 
even in the National Gallery. These, and indeed 
all the pictures in the Palace, are in uniformly fine 
condition, and they are so arranged and the walls 
so decorated that they all look their admirable 
best. The paintings in the smaller room of the 
Italian and other schools, acquired for the most 
part by the Prince Consort, if less impressive as a 
whole, are hardly less interesting in detail. 

Many of the pictures in both rooms have been 
cleaned in recent years — among them the famous 
landscape attributed to Titian, which has thereby 
gained greatly in vigour. The daring handling of 
the sky has now been recovered, and critics who 
questioned Titian's share in the work must 
reconsider their doubts. New photographs of 
this picture, and — in view of the exhibition at the 
Burlington Club — of the best of the Florentines 
in the collection, would be welcome. G. 

Exhibition of Sculpture by Mestrovic at 
the Twenty-one Gallery. — Since we have left 
behind us the special circumstances which coin- 
cided with Mestrovic's exhibition at South Ken- 
sington in 1915, when enthusiasm for him may 
have arisen from other than aesthetic grounds, it 
is worth while to reconsider his position as a 
sculptor. His works now collected at Durham 

apostolic age of Islam— Sa'd ibn Abl Waqqas, 
Zubayr, Talhah, and Hamzah. 

As portraits these representations of the heroes 
of the 1st century of the Muslim era are of no 
historical value whatsoever, for no authentic 
likeness of any one of them has ever existed, 
nor would the orthodox condemnation of figure 
painting, referred to above, have allowed of the 
possibility of a portrait being taken of any of these 
saintly personages. This picture possesses as little 
verisimilitude as any group of the Apostles painted 
by an artist of the quattrocento, and (just as in 
the case of the Christian picture) it derives its 
interest from its place in the history of art and 
from its significance as a religious document ; in 
the latter aspect it is a phenomenon of exceptional 
rarity in Muhammadan art. 

House Street supply enough material for judgment 
of his extraordinary gifts as carver and modeller 
in various materials. It is fortunate that such an 
exceptional artist should have helped to arouse 
interest in an art which is carried on with dignity 
by very few among us, but in the face of his 
energy and accomplishment there is a danger, 
perhaps, of exaggerating his purely artistic value. 
It may be as well to say bluntly that in true plastic 
quality I think him inferior to Maillol. One hears 
Mestrovic spoken of as a kinsman of Michelangelo; 
with justice, since he has the same kind of qualities 
and the same kind of defects. If one believes 
that Michelangelo was a less supreme artist than 
Donatello, the situation is clear. Sir John Lavery 
prefers the great equestrian Marko Kraljevic to 
the Colleoni statue. I prefer the Gattamelata to 
either. And the genius of Mestrovic is not so 
isolated among moderns as is sometimes thought 
in England. He owes a debt to Minne and to 
Metzner. The torso 1 Strahinic Ban, in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, is very like a 
Wrestler by Metzner. However, it is a young 
man's work, and differs both in inspiration and 
in the uninteresting character of its surfaces from 
Mestrovic's more mature creations. The gain in 
onciseness, from early works (.e.g., Am Br win en 
des Lcbens, shown at the Vienna Secession Exhi- 
bition in 1906) to the later manner, has been 
considerable ; and in other ways M. Armand 
Dayot's wish is being fulfilled — that Mestrovic 
may escape from the influence of the Lederers, 
Metzners and others, "les sculpteurs boches les 
plus notoires ' clans le genre colossal ' ". The 
wish may be shared without prejudice. The 
sculptures of the Rheingold building and of the 
Volkerschlachtdenkmal arouse some disapproval 

1 It is to be hoped that the torso may soon be supplemented 
by the relief of The Descent from the Cross which is now being 
acquired by subscription. 


which is independent of nationality, and what is 
admirable in Mestrovie should be purified from 
the minor matters which give opportunities to 
hostile criticism. In the present exhibition there 
is much that calls for admiration — the bronze 
Shepherd Boy, the Angels' Heads, the portrait of 
his wife, and several very fine reliefs, to select 
almost at random. Our enjoyment of these need 
not diminish because the chorus of praise may 
seem to have got a little out of hand — a natural 
thing to happen in England, where Mestrovifi's 
few equals and occasional superiors are so little 
known and understood. R. S. 

COMMENDATORE G. T. Rivoira.— The study 
of architectural origins has lost a profound and 
original investigator by the death at Rome, on 
3 March, of Commendatore Rivoira — a victim of 
the influenza plague. Giacomo Teresio Rivoira 
came of an old Piedmontese family, and he was 
a characteristic example of the energy, master- 
fulness, and patriotism of the race. He was 
educated at the University of Turin, but after 
Rome had become the capital of Italy he settled 
there, and, being independent of a profession, 
determined to devote himself to the study of 
some unsolved historical problem. After tentative 
efforts in other directions, he lighted upon what 
was to be the subject of his life's work — the origin 
and development of the architectural styles which 
grew up in the lands which had once formed part 
of, or had come within the influence of the Roman 
empire. His equipment for this task was singularly 
complete, but hardly less remarkable was the 
patience and self-control which allowed some 
thirty years to pass in unremitting research at 
home and abroad before any of his results appeared 
in print. Where he surpassed most, if not all, of 
his competitors in the same field was in the range 
and completeness of his information. Others 
might write on the architecture of a particular 
country or school : he, with his unifying theory 
of Roman origins, felt himself obliged to know 
and to compare the material in every land that 
came within the scope of his design. And, where- 
ever possible, he was satisfied with nothing less 
than personal inspection and local study, so 
that from Spain to Syria, and from Aberdeen to 
Kairawan, he knew by personal contact nearly 
every building that he described. On the techni- 
cal side he had made himself familiar with the 

methods of the stone-cutter and the mason. The 
historical texts relating to his subject he knew at 
first hand, except in the case of the Oriental 
sources ; and he was careful to bring to bear on 
his subject the light that could be thrown by 
coins, contemporary illuminated manuscripts, and 
other archaeological evidence. " Le Origini dell' 
Architettura Lombarda " appeared in two volumes 
in 1901 and 1907, followed by a second edition in 
1908, and by an English translation (" Lombardic 
Architecture") in 1910, which, amplified and in 
parts rewritten, formed a third edition. " Archi- 
tettura Musulmana", published in 191 4, developed 
the theme that, like the great Romanesque churches 
of Christian Europe, the mosque in the lands 
conquered by Islam owed most of its essential 
features to the same Roman tradition, though 
combined with certain elements of Oriental origin. 
A translation of this book is about to be published 
by the Clarendon Press. Rivoira's last years were 
devoted to a history of what had formed the back- 
ground of his previous books — vault and dome 
construction in Roman architecture. Happily the 
work was finished at the end of last year, and 
there is every reason to hope that it will be 
published before long. 

The great idea which permeated all Rivoira's 
writings was that Roman imperial architecture 
had its roots in Italy, and that the great buildings 
erected under the emperors from the and century 
onwards, reaching their climax in the grandiose 
structures of the age of Constantine, provided the 
models and the starting point for Byzantine archi- 
tecture on the one hand, and Romanesque, and 
ultimately Gothic, on the other. The baths of 
Diocletian and the basilica of Constantine contain 
the essential constructive principles which made 
possible Santa Sophia, Sant' Ambrogio at Milan, 
and Durham Cathedral. Rivoira's views were 
stated with the force of uncompromising convic- 
tion ; but even when they did not win universal 
acceptance, they demanded respect from the width 
and depth of his knowledge, and the care with 
which the evidence was marshalled. He was a 
member of the Royal Academy of the Lincei, of the 
Pontifical Academy of Archaeology, and of many 
foreign learned bodies. He had many friends 
in England, where he had found his wife ; and 
he gave generous space in his writings to the 
buildings in our country which illustrated his 
subject. G. McN. Rushforth. 



Gentlemen, — If we ask, What is drawing? we 
shall find that in its full development it is not a 
simple act, but that several drawings, so to speak, 
are combined in the final stage. 

Give a child a pencil and piece of paper to play 

with. Its first impulse is not to make a picture, to 
represent anything, but simply to make a mark. 
These marks are at first vague, accidental, timid 
or violent : but through them runs the effort to 
arrive at freedom and precision of gesture. This 
first process repeats that of the early movements 


of the limbs, the child is learning to move or 
gesticulate on paper — to make gestures of which 
the record is a trace. To do this it must learn to 
exert a steady pressure, to move regularly in a 
given direction, to turn at a given point. An 
exacter parallel than my old analogy of dancing, 
which Mr. Fry adopts, is skating. The first move- 
ments in skating are awkward, stumbling dashes 
and scrambles. Gradually the learner becomes 
able to strike a clear, continuous line with the 
blade, and finds that the natural balance of the 
body, if yielded to, allowed to act freely on a given 
impulse in a given direction, produces curves of a 
regular and beautiful character. From helpless, 
floundering gesture the advance has been made 
to controlled gesture, and the trace of these 
gestures on the ice has the metrical constitution 
of rhythm. The goal, then, of this stage of drawing 
is rhythmical gesture. It has no purpose outside 
of itself: it represents nothing; it is merely the 
graphic trace of a point moving under the laws 
of balance. The child does not often arrive, 
undisciplined, at perfect freehand gesture ; but 
this is the aim of its vague scribbles. Here is 
one of the fundamentals of drawing ; when the 
others have been added it persists, and what in 
fine drawing we call " swing ", " freedom ", " go " 
is the sense of a natural gesture of hand and arm. 
It is called "calligraphy" in so far as it attains 
beauty ; " the handwriting of the artist " in so far 
as it retains personal tricks and habits. 

But before this element is perfected another 
purpose comes in to complicate the business. 
Accidental crossings of the lines have produced 
shapes, and the "infinite" curves have approxi- 
mated here and there to stricter geometry, 
to the straight line and circle. Just as speech 
must have begun with gestures of the lips 
and throat and tongue that incidentally pro- 
duced sounds, and these sounds were seized 
upon as means of communication and became 
speech, the "pa", "ma", "ba", "na" of the 
sucking infant being distributed as words for 
father, mother, itself, and the nurse ; so the marks 
on paper are presently turned to the purpose of 
conveying ideas. The connection with ideas or 
things is direct in drawing, instead of arbitrary, as 
in the case of speech, because the graphic form 
represents. At this stage the representation may 
be called symbolic. A man is represented by a 
circle for his head, another circle or a rectangle 
for his body. There is no close following of 
structure in the lines : there is a hurry to express 
in the most summary way, to make a sign, with a 
minimum of copying, that will communicate 
the idea. Drawing has passed from gesture to 
language ; its purpose is to convey a meaning. I 
noticed the transition in the case of one young 
draughtsman who made marks and shapes, and 
came to me to ask what they meant. 

Here, again, are elements that persist. We have 
arrived at what remains to the end in complete 
drawing, namely, the convention by which a line 
represents the boundaries of the toned and 
coloured patches that make up objects. Further, 
the element of simplification, extreme in those rude 
symbols, persists, since no drawing can follow out 
the infinite flexions of a boundary in nature; and 
the geometrical element, so marked at this stage 
and so often lost in the next, is another fundamental 
of fine drawing. At this stage there might con- 
ceivably have been an arrest : a use of drawing 
merely to give a general reference to ideas, without 
closer imitation of objects ; and for special purposes 
the art may return to this phase, or something like 

But now supervenes what is usually called 
" learning to draw", the climax of which is reached 
in the schools of art, the effort to get closer to the 
natural forms, to make the drawing less of a 
symbol and more of an image. 

At this stage every other motive of drawing is 
apt to be forgotten in the effort after realistic 
copying, and if the pupil is not well guided, his 
exertions are spent upon imitation of lesser 
detail, and the painter-elements of tone, local 
colour as tone, and texture. On this I need not 
delay. But he is also apt to lose, in piece-work, 
the general " movement " of a figure. That word 
covers the re-entrance of rhythm. We have 
already met with it as the draughtsman's rhythm, 
the gesture of his hand ; this is now complicated. 
We have to draw not only in accordance with our 
oivn rhythm but with that of the objects we 
represent ; for each of these is a system of rhythm, 
whether the stem of a flower or disposition and 
shape of its petals, the build of land and 
mountains and course of rivers, the forms of 
waves and clouds, the limbs and bodies of man 
and animals ; and the better we grasp them the 
richer is our drawing, because in these rhythms is 
the root and flower of life. Yet the personal rhythm 
persists and asserts itself in the quality of our line, 
a line not only obedient to the form imitated, but 
drawn with a suave continuity, a nervous decision, 
a sweeping or rigid movement. Among draughts- 
men a distinction may be made between those 
who show more humility and tentative research in 
the rhythm of the object, and those who sweep 
the object up in the wind of their own movement. 
A problem of fine drawing is the adjustment and 
fusion of the two. 

But we have not yet exhausted the elements of 
drawing. We have included the impulse that 
comes from the draughtsman, the impulses and 
checks that come from the object, and we have 
assumed those come from the pencil and 
paper, the affair of the tools, what is properly 
called technique, a word commonly abused to 
include much else. The grain of the paper, the 


breadth of the point, the texture of the marks 
affect the result, and add a beauty of "quality " to 
those already enumerated. But this is not all ; 
rhythm makes a third entrance, in what we call 
more specially design. If rhythmical gesture is 
fundamental in order of time, the rhythm of 
objects fundamental for intimate significance, that 
of design or composition is fundamental because it 
controls all the rhythms. You have no sooner put 
a single mark on a sheet of paper than you raise 
this question. It divides up the paper in a certain 
ratio, and all the succeeding marks will either 
make a comfortable proportion and pattern with 
the first and with the whole space, or an 
uncomfortable and annoying pattern. Well placed 
on the paper, neither too high, too low, nor too 
much to one side, and balancing with the 
blanks, the figure takes its place as a cat settles on 
a rug. But that is only the beginning of designing. 
If you are drawing within the bounds of a 
rectangle its lines as well as its space may affect 
the image ; the boundaries are not asleep, they 
call actively for an answer from the lines of the 
drawing. If these do not respond by parallels or 
effective contradictions, the figure is still some- 
thing of an outsider. Take another example. 
Let the boundary be a circle, the circle of a medal 
or coin, into which a head has to be designed. A 
good designer, instead of looking out for small 
prominences, will emphasise the concentric out- 
line of the skull, will lean on the curves of the 
features and the hair, so that these play the rhythm 
of the circle as well as their own. Insensibly he 
picks out these concordant lines, so that the head 
becomes more forcibly a head because the frame 
is implicit in it; the circle more forcibly a circle 
because of the echoes in the head. Designing, 
therefore, is not only a source of beauty, but of 
emphasis and expression. 

This principle of design ramifies in all 
directions. It affects, for example, the character 
and distribution of the touches in a drawing; 
the groups of these should pattern harmoniously 
among themselves, and the quantity be pleasantly 
related to the whole space. The reason why 
retouching usually spoils a drawing is that the 
additions do not flow from the original rhythmical 

In this compound rhythm of design three 
elements have already been implied. There is 
first the geometrical and architectural motive of 
the frame. Crossing this there is another motive 
or motives of the picture, also of a geometrical 
character, frequently, in rectangular spaces, a 
triangle, symmetrical or non-symmetrical. And, 
lending themselves in part of their course to one 
or the other of these, mediating between them 
and enriching the skeleton with life, is the series 
of "infinite" curves that belong to the rhythms 
of living objects, or to dead matter under the 


play of forces. The artist who presents us with a 
geometrical scaffolding, stripped of all this subtle 
curvature which plays across it, partly affirming, 
partly disguising the framework, leaves out more 
than half of drawing. Even in architecture, 
when it is refined, this element appears, in the 
" entasis " of columns and towers, and other 
features, and rhythmical gesture comes to its own 
again in following these curves. 

To this I shall return ; but to sum up what 
precedes, drawing begins as an exercise in rhyth- 
mical gesture ; proceeds to represent objects in a 
rude symbolic way, then applies itself to learning 
and reproducing their rhythms. The reason for 
this close study is not only the beauty of these 
rhythms, but the significance that lies in them, 
and hence the power of expression gained when 
we have not a mere symbol of a man, but can 
render his attitudes and looks. Finally, these 
rhythms must concord with one another, with 
the spaces and boundaries in which they are 
drawn, and with the main motive of the design. 
All this involves much insensible adjustment of 
natural forms, and the extent of the liberties taken 
has a very elastic limit, according to the purpose 
of the artist. 

I have left out, what would require a long 
analysis, the means by which solidity and depth 
may be suggested; the perspective of lines and 
planes, the development of interior curves as they 
sweep into the boundary lines of a figure or 
object, the amplification of those boundary lines 
beyond photographic measurement : all these 
lines, beside their interpreting function, must fall 
to be judged as design in the flat network of the 
picture plane. My object has been to point out 
that between Mr. Fry's "calligraphy" and 
"structure ", the flourish of the hind and what 
element of geometric motive the artist may 
supply, he and his school tend to leave out or 
minimise the immense middle field from which 
spring all richness and subtlety of inven- 
tion and discovery in design itself, let alone the 
matter of signi Seance. To substitute for the 
research of natural rhythms a violent or arbitrary 
"distortion " as the general principle of drawing 
is to caricature without the caricaturist's motive, 
and threatens sterility in design. 

Yours faithfully, 

D. S. MacColl. 
(To be continued.) 

P.S.— In a note (p. 206) hastily added to ray former letter I 
expressed myself badly. The balance of weights and forces 
as between objects represented is a matter of interpretation. 
But the balance of the shapes produced in the picture-plane, 
those groupings or " phrasings " of metrical units, introduces 
problems of rhythm that are baffling to analysis. An interesting 
essay by Mr. D. W. Ross, deals with the laws of balance in 
" Pure Design", From this source, I think, comes Mr. Fry's 
"balance of direction". But the conception of "direction" 
belongs, not to "pure design ", but to representation. If lines 
meet in a point, we do not know whether their direction is 

towards the point or away from it unless we know whether the 
force acting at the point is one of attraction or repulsion ; a 
magnet, say, or an explosion. A comma should follow the 
word "either" in line 4, col. 1, of page 206. 


Gentlemen, — The repetition of what has 
already been repeated is tedious, I know ; but 
your readers will remember, I hope, what the Bible 
says about answering the directors of public 
galleries, and will blame not me but Mr. MacColl. 
" The parrots of the press ", says he, " frequently 
repeat this incantation (' designing in depth ') just 
as they repeat Mr. Clive Bell's 'significant form'. 
Mr. Clive Bell sets out to be absurd, or, in any 
case, succeeds in saying the precise opposite of 
what he may be presumed to have intended, 
namely, 'insignificant' or 'meaningless' form." 
In my book " Art " I explained precisely why I 
called works of art not " beautiful forms " but 
" significant forms " : for the benefit of a certain 
Mr. Davies I repeated this explanation in " The 
New Statesman " ; this explanation 1 reprinted 
in a collection of essays, called " Pot-Boilers." 
If Mr. MacColl has criticised my theory without 
reading my writings he has done something 
foolish. If, having read them, he still cannot 
understand why I call works of art "significant 
forms ", I fear he must be dull. I leave it to him 
to impale himself on whichever horn of the 
dilemma may appear to him the more appropriate. 

I would inform anyone who has read Mr. 
MacColl's letter and has not read my writings 
that I use, and always have used, the term 

" significant form " in contradistinction to " in- 
significant beauty ", e.g., the beauty of gems and 
flowers and butterflies' wings. The forms created 
by artists — by painters, potters, sculptors, archi- 
tects, textile-makers, etc. — are, I maintain, different 
in kind from flowers and butterflies, and provoke 
emotions different from the emotions provoked 
by these. They have a peculiar significance. 
Whence this significance comes no one can say for 
certain. But I put forward as a hypothesis — " the 
metaphysical hypothesis" I called it — the sug- 
gestion that in a work of art an artist expresses an 
emotion, whereas the flower and the gem express 
nothing and are, in that sense, insignificant. Be 
that as it may, what is certain is that I made it 
perfectly clear to those men and women — and 
apparently there are thousands of them — who 
have been more fortunately endowed than Mr. 
MacColl that when I spoke of "significant form " 
I did not mean "insignificant form". 

Yours faithfully, 
May 12th, 1919. Clive Bell. 

Errata. — By an accident of printing the date 
of the naval standard described by Sig. Serra in 
our April issue was given as 1141. It should 
have read 141 1. [Trans.] 

Our readers will have observed that on Plate I 
of The Lady with the Ermine in our last issue 
(May, p. 187) the two lower plates were trans- 
posed in error. That on the left hand is from the 
painting in the Louvre ; that on the right from the 
engraving by Lacroix. 


Christie, Manson & Woods will sell, at 8 King Street, St. 
James, W., on 26 and 27 June, the collection of pictures formed by 
the late Sir George Drummond, of Montreal. This noteworthy 
collection includes among its old masters of the British and 
foreign schools the famous portrait by Hals of Joseph Coymans, 
lord of Bruchem and Nieuwaal, dated 1643 ; Velazquez's 
portrait of the queen of Philip IV of Spain ; Turner's Port 
Ruysdael (1827), a Pieter de Hooch interior, and fine examples 
of Constable and Goya. The modern part of the collection is 
rich in Barbizon pictures, including the famous Daubigny Rcntre'e 
des Moutons (1877) ; a Whistler, three Corots, and examples of 
Troyon, Millet and Diaz ; while the brothers Maris, Israels, 
Mauve and other Modern Dutch painters are well repre- 

Christie, Manson & Woods will sell on Wednesday, 
25 June, important etchings by old masters, removed from 
Althorp, the property of Earl Spencer, including fine impressions 
by Rembrandt, Diirer, Marcantonio and other artists of the 
17th century. It can be said with certainty that these etchings 
were in the possession of the Hon. John Spencer (1 708-1 746), 
father of John, first Earl Spencer ; he may have inherited them 
either from his father, Charles, third earl of Sunderland, or 
possibly from the famous Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough 
(1660-1744). Many of the etchings bear the signature of Pierre 
Marietti, the well-known print-seller in Paris in the second 
half of the 17th century. 

Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge will sell, at 34 and 35 
New Bond Street, on 3 June, 28 illuminated MSS. and two 
illuminated printed books, the property of Mr. H. Yates 
Thompson. We need hardly call attention to the importance 

of this sale. In the autumn of last year Mr. Yates Thompson, 
in the seventh volume of his "Illustrations of 100 Manu- 
scripts ", announced his intention of selling his collection by 
auction, and the 30 items in the sale of 3 June form the first 
portion of the three which will be submitted. Of the MSS., 
99 are included in the first three volumes of the book referred 
to. The exception is a Psalter of Premy, near Cambrai 
(3rd quarter, 13th century), which Mr. Thompson has sub- 
stituted for the Psalter of Isabelle of France, acquired by 
friends for the Fitzwilliam Museum, to which Mr. Thompson 
has also presented the Metz Pontifical shown in Vol. in of the 
"Illustrations". The two printed books are "Theocriti, 
Hesiodi, etc., Opera", in vellum, folio, at Venice, 1495, by 
Aldus Manucius Romanus, with a frontispiece possibly painted 
by Diirer, and "the most magnificent book in the world " (see 
The Burlington Magazine, IX, 16), " Aristotelis cum commentis 
Averrois ", vellum, two vols., printed at Venice, 1483, by 
Andreas de Asola, with full-page illuminations to each volume 
and 30 historiated initials. An illustrated (also an unillustrated) 
catalogue of the sale is now published. 

Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge will sell at 34 and 35 
New Bond Street, on 18, 19 and 20 June, the early English 
pottery of Mr. A. E. Clarke, of Misfail, Hills Road, Cambridge. 
A prominent feature of the collection is the salt-glaze, which 
includes a cylindrical tankard, white, 5J in. high, showing 
Portobello harbour with ships of war and two figures of 
Admiral Vernon, dated "Nov. ye -2, 1739", formerly in the 
Edkins collection ; an enamelled salt-glaze pear-shaped jug, 
with landscape, ruins of castle and a figure of a man (exh. 
B.K.A.C, 1913) ; and a pear-shaped jug, black glaze in blue 

2 57 

and oil" gilding, &i in. high, showing a half-length portrait of 
Prince Charles Edward, supported by Highlanders (B.F.A.C, 
1913). The collection includes also 37 very important blue 
dash chargers (see Burl. Mag., xxxiv, 36) ; a barrel-shaped 
Lambeth delft jug, dated 1633, and examples of Bristol delft, 
Elers, Astbury, Whieldon and other wares. 

Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge will sell, at 34 and 35 
New Bond Street, on 23 June, the W. H. B, Leslie collection 
of glass. The sweetmeat glasses include many fine specimens 
in pressed glass with baluster stems on domed and folded feet, 
stands for sweetmeats with baskets, etc. The lightholders, 
candlesticks, etc., include some very remarkable early mortars 
or lightholders for holding wax or oil, into which a wick was 
inserted, a lightholder designed on a Roman model with 
holders for a wick on either side on a moulded stem on very 
wide folded foot, a William and Mary moulded candlestick, 
period 1680-1690, and a remarkable 18th-century candlestick 
in barley-sugar glass with domed base of moulded or hammered 
glass, probably made at Lambeth. 

Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge will sell, at 34 and 35 
New Bond Street, on 2 June, autograph letters and historical 
documents. The lots include interesting papers in Scottish and 
American history, and Sir George Henschel's collection of 
letters and autographs, most of which are by famous musicians. 
Sir George's autographed fan, bearing many signatures of 
eminent musicians, artists, writers, etc., is a notable item. 
Among the artists whose autographs and letters will come up 
in the various sections of the sale are Burne-Jones, Whistler, 
Morland and Blake. To the important letters from Shelley to 
Keats on the subject of " Endymion " attention has already been 
called in the daily press, and sportsmen will be interested in 
the MS. of "John Peel". 

Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge will sell, at 34 and 35 New 

Bond Street, on 24, 25, 26, and 27 June, further portions of the 
Phillipps collection of MSS., chiefly Americana, including 7 
very early large 16th-century maps, illustrated, drawn after the 
discovery of America ; a very important collection of 14 charts 
in gold and colour, 16th century, in the original red morocco ; 
and the unique copy of the earliest known wood-cut relating 
to America (? Augsburg, c. 1500, 13I in, x 8£ in.). 

Lair-Dubreuil (experts, MM. Georges Petit, Jules Feral and 
M. Paulme) will sell at the Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, on 16, 
17, 18 and 19 June, the L. de M . . . collection of ancient and 
modern paintings, water-colours and drawings, and enamels, 
miniatures and objets d'art. The sale is a very large one and 
the collection is rich in paintings and drawings by Corot, 
Bonington, Daubigny, Daumier, Decamp3, Delacroix, Diaz, 
Dupre. Harpignies (by whom there are many water-colours), 
Ingres, Millet, Rousseau, Troyon, Ziem and others. The ancient 
pictures and drawings include works by Diirer (drawing, 
Descent from the Cross), Luini (drawing, Head of the Virgin), 
Guardi and the artists of the Netherlands. Gravelot's complete 
series of designs for the illustration of Marmontel's Contes 
Moraux are also included, and there are drawings and bronzes 
by Barye. 

Lair-Dubreuil (expert M. Feral) will sell at the Hotel 
Drouot, Paris, on 12 June, a collection of 42 pictures, chiefly of 
the Dutch school, including works by Berchem, Breughel, 
Van Goyen, Hobbema, Ostade, Ruisdael, Teniers and 

Dubourg and Lair-Dubreuil (expert M. Caillot) will sell at 
the Hotel Drouot on 3, 4 and 5 June, the third portion of the 
Papillon collection of ancient French and foreign porcelain, 
coloured engravings and furniture. Cyffle, Delft, Gies, Marseille, 
Sceaux, Strasbourg, Chantilly, Mennecy and Saint-Cloud are 
prominent among the 26 lots of faience. 


Publications cannot be included here unless they have been delivered before the 16//1 of the previous month. Prices must 
be staled. Publications not coming within the scope of this Magazine will not be acknowledged here unless the prices are stated. 

Serial Publications will for the present be arranged here according to the ordinary pei wds of their publication, and only the 
latest number of foreign serials actually received will be entered, in order that foreign editors and publishers may learn which 
numbers of their publications have failed to arrive. 

Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Paris. 
Clement-Janin. Les Estampes, images et affiches de la 
guerre ; xil+92 pp., 6 plates and 44 reproductions in text ; 
12 fr. 
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, U S.A. (London : 
H. Milford). 
Beazley (J. D.). Attic red-figured vases in American 
museums ; x + 236 pp., illust., 30s. n. 

Hodge, Wm, and Co., Edinburgh and London. 
Mann (L. M.). War Memorials and the Barochan Cross, 
Renfrewshire ; 44 pp., illust., 1 plate. 

John Lane, Vigo Street, W.I, and New York. 

Simpson (Thomas). Modern Etchings and their Collectors ; 
x +88 pp., 25 reproductions in photogravure, 63s. n. ; 
special edition, 147s. n. 

Raemakers' Cartoon History of the War ; compiled by 
J. Murray Allison ; Vol. 1; xv + 210 pp., including 104 full- 
page plates, 12s. 6d. n. 

Macmillan and Co., St. Martin's Street. 

Tagore (Sir Rabindranath). Gitanjali and Fruit-Gathering, 
with introduction by W. B. Yeats; xxii-l-222 pp. and 
8 plates in colour and 23 in black and white ; 10s. n. 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Publications of 
the Egyptian Expedition — 1). 
Mace (A. C.) and Winlock (H. K.). The Tomb of Senebtisi 
at Lisht ; xxn+132 pp., illust., and frontispiece and 35 pp. 
of plates. 
John Murray, 50A Albemarle Street, W.i. 
Fedden, Ro.milly. Modern Water Cohur, including some 
chapters on Current-day Art; cheaper edition for students ; 
vm + 116 pp., 2s. 6d. n. 
University Press, Yale, U.S.A. 
Bradley (W. A.). Dutch Landscape Etchers of the 17th 
Century; xvi + 128 pp., 50 plates, 8s. 6d. n. 

Williams and Norgate, 14 Henrietta Street, W.C.2. 

The Akathist Hymn and Little Compline. Arrangement : the 
Greek text with a rendering in English ; v+71 (=142) pp., 
2s. 6d. n. 
Ivan Mestrovie : a monograph ; 96 pp., illust., and 6S pp. of 
plates, 42s. n. 

Periodicals— Weekly.— Architect, 2,631 — Canadian Gazette, 

Fortnightly. — Bulletin of the Alliance Francaise, 91 — La 
Revista (Barcelona), v, 85-7— Veil i Nou, v, 89. 

Monthly.— Colour — Kokka, 346— NationalmuseJ Unstallnings, 
Stockholm, No. 7; Italienska Renassans Malningar— New 
York, Metropolitan Museum, xiv, 4 — Onze Kunst, xvm, 4 — 
Rassegna, 4. 

Bi-monthly. — L'Arte, xxn, 1 and 2— Art in America, vn, 3 — 
Boston, Mass., Museum of Fine Arts, Bulletin, xvii, 100 — 
Chronique des Arts, March-April — Cleveland Museum of 
Art, Bulletin, vi, 1. 

Other Monthly Periodicals. — Cleveland, Ohio, Museum of 
Art, Bulletin, VI, 2— Minneapolis, Institute of Fine Arts, Bul- 
letin, vm, 4. 

Quarterly. — Archivo de Arte Valenciano, iv, 1 — Boletin de 
la Sociedad Espanola de Excursiones (Madrid), xxvii, 1 — 
Bulletin of the Worcester Art Museum, x, 1— Gazette des 
Beaux-Arts, 698— Oud-Holland, xxxvii, 1 and 2— Quarterly 
Review, 459 — Town Planning Review, vm, 1. 

Annually. — New York, Metropolitan Museum, 49th Annual 

Trade Lists, etc.— The Fine Arts Trade Journal, xv, 1&7— 
MaggsBros., Catalogue No. 375. Engraved portraits, decora- 
tive subjects, original drawings, Napoleonic caricatures, naval 
and military prints, 96 pp., illust. ; No. 377. The Drama and 
Music from the time of Shakespeare to the 19th century, 
116 pp— Mr. Murray's Quarterly List, April 1919— 
Norstedts (Stockholm), Nyheter, 4— R. W. P. De Vries 
(Amsterdam), Bulletin des Livres anciens et modernes, xxiv. 


TO No. 195, JUNE 1919 

EXPLANATORY NOTE. — Cross references are given under the following headings : Architecture — Artists and Craftsmen- 
Authors (of writings included in this volume) — Ceramics and Enamels — Drawings — Engravings — Furniture — Locality 
(of objects referred to, owned (1) Collectively, by Nations, Public Corporations and Private Associations, (2) Individually, 
by Private Owners and Dealers) — 'Metalwork — Miniatures — Portraits — Sculpture and Carving — Sections of Numbers 
(the titles of the articles, etc., are interspersed in alphabetical order with the titles of the following sections, Auctions, Letters, 
Monthly Chronicle [= M-C], Publications Received and Reviews) — Textiles (including Embroidery and Costume). 
The definite and indefinite article in all languages is printed throughout but ignored in the alphabetical series. 

BELL(CIive). " Significant form " 257 [Lett.] 

Borenius (Tancred). An unpublished Flemish Primitive 3 
Rembrandt's Monk reading of 1661 125 ; PI., 124 

Cescinsky (Herbert). A long-case clock by Joseph Knibb 
182; PI., 183 

Conway (Sir Martin). " Lombard Architecture " by Arthur 
Kingsley Porter, a review— I 131 ; PI., 134, 138 — II 
175 ; PI., 177, 180 

Coomaraswamy (Ananda). Religion and Art 41 [Lett.] 

Cooper (R. J.). Recent additions to the Dublin Gallery 81 

Dalton (O. M.). The tessellated pavement of Umm J erar 3; 
PI., 6, 7 

D. S. M. The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 157 [M-C] 

Fry (Roger). Recent acquisitions for the public collections 
15 ; PI., 17, 20, 21. Line as a means of expression in 
modern art 62 ; PI., 63, 66, 67. The National Gallery 
78 [M-C]. M. Larionow and the Russian Ballet 112 ; 
PI., 113, 116 

G. The royal collections at Buckingham Palace 253 [M-C] 

Gill (Eric). War Graves 158 [Lett.] 

Hobson (R. L.). The Eumorfopoulos collection — n 69; 
PI., 71— in 100 ; PI., 101, 104— iv 231 ; PL. 233, 236 

Holmes(C J.). An oil painting by J. R. Cozens (?) 81[Lett.] 

Jones (E. Alfred). A pre-Reformation English chalice and 
paten 231; PI.; 230 

Kelly (F. M.). The Aniine notes 23 ; PI., 28 

MacColl (D. S.). Mr. Fairfax Murray 122 [Lett.] John 
Baverstock Knight 171 ; PI., 173. Mr. Fry and draw- 
ing— I 203 — ii 254 [Lett.] 

Mitchell (H. P.). Some enamels of the school of Gode- 
froid de Claire— I 85 ; PI., 84, 88, 89, 93— n 165 ; 
PI., 168, 169 

Muller (G. Frank). Jan Lys 42 [Lett.] 

Ochenkowski (H.). The Lady with the Ermine. A com- 
position by Leonardo da Vinci 186 ; PI., 187, 190 

Phillips (Sir Claude). Florentine painting before 1500 
209 ; PI. 208, 211, 214, 217 

Polovtsoff (A.). Salvage of works of art in Russia 160 

Polovtsoff (A. A.) and Chambers (V. E.). A tapestry 
portrait of Princess Dashkoff 243 ; PI., 247 

Rackham (Bernard). Italian Maiolica in provincial museums 
125 ; PL, 127, 130. An unpublished Flemish primitive 
121 [Lett.] 

Read (Sir C. Hercules). The Eumorfopoulos collection 10 ; 
PL, 12, 13 

Risley (J S.). Old English glasses with white spiral stems 
219 ; PL 221, 224, 227 

R.S. The Canadian war memorial exhibition 79 [M-C]. 
Pictures by Walter Sickert at the Eldar Gallery 
80 [M-C]. Paintings and drawings by J. Marchand ; 
Carfax and Co. 158 [M-C]. Exhibition of sculpture by 
Mestrovic at the Twenty-one Gallery 253 [M-C] 

Rubhforth (G. Me N.). Commendatore G. T. Rivoira 254 

Serra (Luigi). A Byzantine naval standard {circa 1411) 152 ; 
PL, 153 

Sexton (Major J. J. O'Brien). Illustrated books of Japan 
92 ; PL, 97 

Smith (A. D. Howell). Recent acquisitions for public col- 
lections — vin, Eastern embroideries for the Western 
market 56 ; PL, 57 

Tattersall(C. E. C). Recent acquisitions for public col- 
lections — IX, A Morris carpet and drawing 121 ; PL, 



Deir Dakleh, an early Christian mosaic at 145 ; PL, 144 
" Lombard Architecture ", by Arthur Kingsley, a review. 

1—131 ; PL, 134, 138 ; 11— 175'; PL, 177, 180 
Ummjerar, tessellated pavement at 3 ; PL, 6, 7 
War graves. [Lett.] 158 


Blake (William). Satan Smiting Job with sore boils (Nat. 

Gall.) 165; PL, 164 
Boltaffio. La Belle Ferroniere (Louvre) 192 ; PL, 187 [b] 
Claire (Godefroid de). Enamels 85, 165 ; PI., 84, 88, 89, 

93, 168, 169 
Cozens (J. R.). An oil fainting, (C. J. Holmes) 81 [Lett.] 
Credi (Lorenzo di). The coronation of the Virgin (Lady 

Wantage) 219 ; PL, 217 
Delacroix (Eugene). Portrait (Nat. Gall.) 23 ; PL, 21 
Flemish Primitive. Annunciation 3; PL, 2 
Fra Angelico. Scene from the Legend of SS. Cosmas and 

Damian (Nat. Gall. Ireland) 210 ; PL, 211 
Gaudier-Brzeska (Henri), Nude woman 69 ; PI., 66 
Hamnet (Nina). Pen and ink drawing 62 ; PL, 67 
Ingres. Roger et AngMque (Nat Gall.) 16; PL. 17. Por- 

trait of Monsieur Norvins (Nat. Gall.) 16 ; PL, 20 
Knibb (Joseph). A long-case clock 182 ; PL, 183 
Knight (John Baverstock). Water colours (Nat. Gall., Brit. 

Art) 172 ; PL, 173 
Lacroix. La Belle Ferroniere 192 ; PL, 187 [c] 
Larionow. " M . Larionow and the Russian ballet" 112; 

PL, 113, 116 
Leonardo da Vinci. The lady with the ermine (Czartoryski 

Gall., Cracow) 186; PL, 187 [a] Head of an Angel 

(Turin) 192 ; PL, 190 [e] Head of the Virgin (Uffizi) 

192; PL, 190 [d] Anatomical drawings 194; PL, 195, 

198, 201 
Lys (Jan). G. Frank Muller 42 [Lett.] 
Marchand (J.). Paintings and drawings by 158 ; [M-C] 
Masaccio. God the Father (Mr. Ch. Ricketts and Mr. C. H. 

^Shannon) 210 ; PL, 217 [B] 
Mestrovi<5. Exhibition of Sculpture 253 [M-C] 
Modigliani. Drawings 69 ; PL 63, 66 
Morris (William). Carpet (V.-A. Mus.). 121 ; PL, 120 
Pesellino. Virgin and Child with Saints (Sir George 

Holford) 215 ; PL, 208 
Predis (Ambrogio de). Portrait (Ambrosiana) The Em- 
peror Maximilian I (Vienna) 193 ; PL 190 [f,g] 
Ranvoize (Francois). Silver sacramental flagon 74 ; PL, 75 
Rembrandt. Monk reading of 16bl (M. Hjalmar Linder) 

125 ; PL, 124 
Sickert (Walter) Pictures by 80 ; [M-C] 
Sogliani. The Coronation of the Virgin (Lady Wantage) 

219 ; PL, 217 
Ucello (Paolo) The Hunt (Ashmolean Museum) 215 ; PL, 

Utamaro. Book of shells, colour print (Major J. J. O'Brien 

Sexton) 92 ; PL, 97 
Wolfe (Edward) Pencil drawing 62 ; PL, 67 

AUTHORS contributing to Volume xxxiv— 

Adey (More). An icon illustrating a Greek hymn 45 ; 

PL, 44, 47, 50. Records in occupied countries 79 [M-C] 

The Felton Bequest Committee 79 [M-C] 
Aitken (Charles). Recent acquisitions for public collections 

—xi 165 ; PL, 164 
Arnold (T.W.). An Indian picture of Muhammad and his 

companions 249 ; PL, 251 


v. 34 

The Burlington magazine